Surveillance Tools and Monitoring Strategies for Native and Exotic Forest Insects (Closed)

A topical collection in Insects (ISSN 2075-4450). This collection belongs to the section "Insect Pest and Vector Management".

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Editors


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
DAFNAE-Entomology, University of Padova, viale dell'Università 16, 35020 Legnaro, PD, Italy
Interests: invasive species; surveillance; wood-boring beetles; trapping

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Natural Resources Canada – Canadian Forest Service, Atlantic Forestry Centre,1350 Regent Street, Fredericton, NB E3C 2G6, Canada
Interests: invasive species; surveillance; bark- and wood boring beetles; pest management

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Otis Laboratory, USDA APHIS PPQ S&T, Buzzards Bay, MA 02542, USA
Interests: wood-boring beetles; trapping; behavioral ecology; visual ecology; invasive species

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

Management of native and non-native forest insect pests is one of the most demanding challenges faced by forest health practitioners. Traps baited with attractants are commonly used for monitoring native species populations as well as for early detection of exotic species introduced through international trade or other means of human movement. Nonetheless, several other tools and approaches have been developed in recent years, including sentinel trees, bio-surveillance with sniffer dogs or predatory wasps, electronic noses, acoustic detection, laser vibrometry, citizen science, genetic identification tools, and remote sensing. This Special Issue welcomes original research articles and reviews focused on the latest developments in surveillance tools and monitoring strategies for native and exotic forest pests.

Dr. Davide Rassati
Dr. Jon Sweeney
Dr. Joseph Francese
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • trapping
  • forest insect pests
  • surveillance
  • monitoring
  • early detection
  • invasive species

Published Papers (11 papers)

2024

Jump to: 2022, 2021, 2020

14 pages, 3442 KiB  
Article
Global Potential Distribution of Invasive Species Pseudococcus viburni (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) under Climate Change
by Jiufeng Wei, Minmin Niu, Hanxi Zhang, Bo Cai and Wei Ji
Insects 2024, 15(3), 195; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects15030195 - 14 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1317
Abstract
The potential distribution range and management strategies for P. viburni are poorly understood. Based on historical distribution data and environmental factors, the present study predicted the potentially suitable areas for P. viburni spread under different climate change scenarios using MaxEnt (maximum entropy). The [...] Read more.
The potential distribution range and management strategies for P. viburni are poorly understood. Based on historical distribution data and environmental factors, the present study predicted the potentially suitable areas for P. viburni spread under different climate change scenarios using MaxEnt (maximum entropy). The results showed that precipitation of the coldest quarter (Bio19), precipitation seasonality (Bio15), and mean temperature of the wettest quarter (Bio8) were the most important environmental factors determining the distribution of P. viburni. Under the current climate conditions, its potential suitable areas are southern China, the whole of Japan, North America (especially the eastern part of the United States), the southwestern part of South America, the Mediterranean coast and most of Europe, the central part of Africa, i.e., the south of the Sahara Desert, and most of the southern coast of Australia. The total area of habitats suitable for this insect pest is predicted to be increased in the future. In order to prevent P. viburni transmission and spread, there is a need to strengthen the monitoring and quarantine measures against this pest at the Southern ports. Full article
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2022

Jump to: 2024, 2021, 2020

9 pages, 967 KiB  
Article
When the Beetles Hit the Fan: The Fan-Trap, an Inexpensive, Light and Scalable Insect Trap under a Creative Commons License, for Monitoring and Experimental Use
by Jean-Claude Grégoire, Emilio Caiti, Séverine Hasbroucq, Jean-Marc Molenberg and Sylvain Willenz
Insects 2022, 13(12), 1122; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects13121122 - 5 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1632
Abstract
Monitoring is an important component in pest management, to prevent or mitigate outbreaks of native pests and to check for quarantine organisms. Surveys often rely on trapping, especially when the target species respond to semiochemicals. Many traps are available for this purpose, but [...] Read more.
Monitoring is an important component in pest management, to prevent or mitigate outbreaks of native pests and to check for quarantine organisms. Surveys often rely on trapping, especially when the target species respond to semiochemicals. Many traps are available for this purpose, but they are bulky in most cases, which raises transportation and deployment issues, and they are expensive, which limits the size and accuracy of any network. To overcome these difficulties, entomologists have used recycled material, such as modified plastic bottles, producing cheap and reliable traps but at the cost of recurrent handywork, not necessarily possible for all end-users (e.g., for national plant-protection organizations). These bottle-traps have allowed very large surveys to be conducted, which would have been impossible with standard commercial traps, and we illustrate this approach with a few examples. Here, we present, under a Creative Commons BY-SA License, the blueprint for a fan-trap, a foldable model, laser cut from a sheet of polypropylene, which can rapidly be produced in large numbers in a Fab lab or by a commercial company and could be transported and deployed in the field with very little effort. Our first field comparisons show that fan-traps are as efficient as bottle-traps for some Scolytinae species and we describe two cases where they are being used for monitoring. Full article
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15 pages, 2498 KiB  
Article
Community of Bark and Ambrosia Beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae and Platypodinae) in Agricultural and Forest Ecosystems with Laurel Wilt
by Kevin R. Cloonan, Wayne S. Montgomery, Teresa I. Narvaez, Daniel Carrillo and Paul E. Kendra
Insects 2022, 13(11), 971; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects13110971 - 22 Oct 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2445
Abstract
Redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, is an invasive wood-boring pest first detected in the USA in 2002 in Georgia. The beetle’s dominant fungal symbiont, Harringtonialauricola, causes laurel wilt, a lethal disease of trees in the Lauraceae. Over the past 20 [...] Read more.
Redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, is an invasive wood-boring pest first detected in the USA in 2002 in Georgia. The beetle’s dominant fungal symbiont, Harringtonialauricola, causes laurel wilt, a lethal disease of trees in the Lauraceae. Over the past 20 years, X. glabratus and laurel wilt have spread to twelve southeastern states, resulting in high mortality of native Persea species, including redbay (P. borbonia), swampbay (P. palustris), and silkbay (P. humilis). Laurel wilt also threatens avocado (P. americana) in south Florida, but in contrast to the situation in forests, X. glabratus is detected at very low levels in affected groves. Moreover, other species of ambrosia beetle have acquired H. lauricola and now function as secondary vectors. To better understand the beetle communities in different ecosystems exhibiting laurel wilt, parallel field tests were conducted in an avocado grove in Miami-Dade County and a swampbay forest in Highlands County, FL. Sampling utilized ethanol lures (the best general attractant for ambrosia beetles) and essential oil lures (the best attractants for X. glabratus), alone and in combination, resulting in detection of 20 species. This study documents host-related differences in beetle diversity and population levels, and species-specific differences in chemical ecology, as reflected in efficacy of lures and lure combinations. Full article
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17 pages, 337 KiB  
Article
New Canadian and Provincial Records of Coleoptera Resulting from Annual Canadian Food Inspection Agency Surveillance for Detection of Non-Native, Potentially Invasive Forest Insects
by Graham S. Thurston, Alison Slater, Inna Nei, Josie Roberts, Karen McLachlan Hamilton, Jon D. Sweeney and Troy Kimoto
Insects 2022, 13(8), 708; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects13080708 - 6 Aug 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2139
Abstract
The arrival and establishment of adventive, invasive forest insects are a threat to the health, diversity, and productivity of forests in Canada and the world at large, and their early detection is essential for successful eradication and management. For that reason, the Canadian [...] Read more.
The arrival and establishment of adventive, invasive forest insects are a threat to the health, diversity, and productivity of forests in Canada and the world at large, and their early detection is essential for successful eradication and management. For that reason, the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) conducts annual surveys at high risk sites such as international ports and freight terminals, industrial zones, and disposal sites for solid wood packaging material using two methods: (1) semiochemical-baited traps deployed in a total of about 63–80 sites per year in British Columbia (BC), Ontario (ON), Quebec (QC), New Brunswick (NB), Nova Scotia (NS), and Newfoundland and Labrador (NL); and (2) rearing of insects from bolts collected from stressed trees and incubated in modified shipping containers in four cities (Vancouver, Toronto, Montreal, and Halifax). We report 31 new Canadian provincial records of Coleoptera from surveys conducted in 2011–2021, including 13 new records for Canada and 9 species adventive to North America (indicated by †). Nine of the new Canadian records were native North American species previously detected only south of the border. All but three species belong to the Curculionidae family and most of these were in the subfamily Scolytinae. The records include: Xenomelanophila miranda (LeConte) (Canada, BC) (Buprestidae: Buprestinae); Neoclytus mucronatus mucronatus (Fabricius) (BC) (Cerambycidae: Cerambycinae); Amphicerus cornutus (Pallas) (Canada, BC) (Bostrichidae: Bostrichinae); Mecinus janthinus (Germar)† (ON) (Curculionidae: Curculioninae); Aulacobaris lepidii (Germar)† (Canada, ON); Buchananius striatus (LeConte) (ON) (Curculionidae: Baridinae); Cylindrocopturus binotatus LeConte (Canada, ON) (Curculionidae: Conoderinae); Himatium errans LeConte (ON); Phloeophagus canadensis Van Dyke (ON); Rhyncolus spretus Casey (Canada, BC); Stenomimus pallidus (Boheman) (Canada, ON); Tomolips quercicola (Boheman) (Canada, ON) (Curculionidae: Cossoninae); Strophosoma melanogrammum (Forster)† (NB) (Curculionidae: Entiminae); Conotrachelus aratus (Germar) (ON) (Curculionidae: Molytinae); Anisandrus maiche Stark† (Canada, ON, QC); Cnesinus strigicollis LeConte (Canada, ON); Cyclorhipidion pelliculosum (Eichhoff)† (Canada, ON, QC); Hylesinus fasciatus LeConte (QC); Hylesinus pruinosus Eichhoff (QC); Hypothenemus interstitialis (Hopkins) (Canada, ON); Lymantor alaskanus Wood (BC); Pityogenes bidentatus (Herbst)† (Canada, ON); Scolytus mali (Bechstein)† (BC); Scolytus schevyrewi Semenov† (QC); Trypodendron scabricollis (LeConte) (Canada, ON); Trypophloeus populi Hopkins (QC); Xylechinus americanus Blackman (NFLB); and Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motschulsky)† (BC, QC) (Curculionidae: Scolytinae). We also provide additional data confirming the presence of the adventive Hylastes opacus Erichson† in NS. Rearing of insects from bolts accounted for two new records (H. pruinosus, R. spretus) and trapping accounted for the remainder. These surveys not only assist our efforts to manage forest insects by documenting new species introductions and apparent range expansions but also increase our knowledge of biodiversity. Full article

2021

Jump to: 2024, 2022, 2020

15 pages, 2651 KiB  
Communication
Monitoring Exotic Beetles with Inexpensive Attractants: A Case Study
by Enrico Ruzzier, Andrea Galli and Luciano Bani
Insects 2021, 12(5), 462; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12050462 - 17 May 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2887
Abstract
Detecting and monitoring exotic and invasive Coleoptera is a complex activity to implement, and citizen science projects can provide significant contributions to such plans. Bottle traps are successfully used in wildlife surveys and can also be adapted for monitoring alien species; however, a [...] Read more.
Detecting and monitoring exotic and invasive Coleoptera is a complex activity to implement, and citizen science projects can provide significant contributions to such plans. Bottle traps are successfully used in wildlife surveys and can also be adapted for monitoring alien species; however, a sustainable, large scale trapping plan must take into account the collateral catches of native species and thus minimize its impact on local fauna. In the present paper, we tested the use of bottles baited with standard food products that can be purchased in every supermarket and immediately used (apple cider vinegar, red wine, and 80% ethyl alcohol) in capturing exotic and invasive beetles in the area surrounding Malpensa Airport (Italy). In particular, we reduced the exposition type of the traps in each sampling round to three days in order to minimize native species collecting. We found a significant effect of the environmental covariates (trap placement, temperature, humidity, and forest type) in affecting the efficiency in catching target beetles. Nearly all invasive Nitidulidae and Scarabaeidae known to be present in the area were captured in the traps, with apple cider vinegar usually being the most effective attractant, especially for the invasive Popillia japonica. Full article
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16 pages, 7296 KiB  
Article
Automatic Pest Counting from Pheromone Trap Images Using Deep Learning Object Detectors for Matsucoccus thunbergianae Monitoring
by Suk-Ju Hong, Il Nam, Sang-Yeon Kim, Eungchan Kim, Chang-Hyup Lee, Sebeom Ahn, Il-Kwon Park and Ghiseok Kim
Insects 2021, 12(4), 342; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12040342 - 12 Apr 2021
Cited by 39 | Viewed by 4776
Abstract
The black pine bast scale, M. thunbergianae, is a major insect pest of black pine and causes serious environmental and economic losses in forests. Therefore, it is essential to monitor the occurrence and population of M. thunbergianae, and a monitoring method [...] Read more.
The black pine bast scale, M. thunbergianae, is a major insect pest of black pine and causes serious environmental and economic losses in forests. Therefore, it is essential to monitor the occurrence and population of M. thunbergianae, and a monitoring method using a pheromone trap is commonly employed. Because the counting of insects performed by humans in these pheromone traps is labor intensive and time consuming, this study proposes automated deep learning counting algorithms using pheromone trap images. The pheromone traps collected in the field were photographed in the laboratory, and the images were used for training, validation, and testing of the detection models. In addition, the image cropping method was applied for the successful detection of small objects in the image, considering the small size of M. thunbergianae in trap images. The detection and counting performance were evaluated and compared for a total of 16 models under eight model conditions and two cropping conditions, and a counting accuracy of 95% or more was shown in most models. This result shows that the artificial intelligence-based pest counting method proposed in this study is suitable for constant and accurate monitoring of insect pests. Full article
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17 pages, 1856 KiB  
Article
Rapid Assessment of Cerambycid Beetle Biodiversity in a Tropical Rainforest in Yunnan Province, China, Using a Multicomponent Pheromone Lure
by Jacob D. Wickham, Rhett D. Harrison, Wen Lu, Yi Chen, Lawrence M. Hanks and Jocelyn G. Millar
Insects 2021, 12(4), 277; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12040277 - 24 Mar 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2747
Abstract
The Cerambycidae comprise a large and ecologically important family of wood-boring beetles. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a generic lure as a potential monitoring tool. Working in a subtropical forest in southwest China, we set traps baited [...] Read more.
The Cerambycidae comprise a large and ecologically important family of wood-boring beetles. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a generic lure as a potential monitoring tool. Working in a subtropical forest in southwest China, we set traps baited with generic lures at ground level (1 m) and canopy height (~18 m) across 22 randomly located forest plots (12 regenerating forest, 10 mature forest). Three stations were established per plot and each plot was trapped for 7 days in May–June 2013. In total, 4541 beetles of 71 species were caught, including 26 species with 10 or more individuals. We used Hierarchical Modeling of Species Communities (HMSC) to analyze the data and produced informative models for 18 species, showing that trap height, slope, elevation, and leaf-area index were important determinants of cerambycid distribution. Our results demonstrate the potential for using generic lures to detect and monitor cerambycid populations, both for regulatory purposes and for the study of cerambycid beetle ecology. Further research should focus on refining lure blends, and on repeated sampling to determine temporal and spatial dynamics of cerambycid communities. Full article
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1 pages, 143 KiB  
Correction
Correction: Dodds, K.J.; DiGirolomo, M.F. Effect of Cleaning Multiple-Funnel Traps on Captures of Bark and Woodboring Beetles in Northeastern United States. Insects 2020, 11, 702
by Kevin J. Dodds and Marc F. DiGirolomo
Insects 2021, 12(2), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12020103 - 25 Jan 2021
Viewed by 1218
Abstract
The authors wish to make the following corrections to this paper [...] Full article

2020

Jump to: 2024, 2022, 2021

14 pages, 1268 KiB  
Article
Effect of Trap Color on Captures of Bark- and Wood-Boring Beetles (Coleoptera; Buprestidae and Scolytinae) and Associated Predators
by Giacomo Cavaletto, Massimo Faccoli, Lorenzo Marini, Johannes Spaethe, Gianluca Magnani and Davide Rassati
Insects 2020, 11(11), 749; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11110749 - 30 Oct 2020
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 4710
Abstract
Traps baited with attractive lures are increasingly used at entry-points and surrounding natural areas to intercept exotic wood-boring beetles accidentally introduced via international trade. Several trapping variables can affect the efficacy of this activity, including trap color. In this study, we tested whether [...] Read more.
Traps baited with attractive lures are increasingly used at entry-points and surrounding natural areas to intercept exotic wood-boring beetles accidentally introduced via international trade. Several trapping variables can affect the efficacy of this activity, including trap color. In this study, we tested whether species richness and abundance of jewel beetles (Buprestidae), bark and ambrosia beetles (Scolytinae), and their common predators (i.e., checkered beetles, Cleridae) can be modified using trap colors different to those currently used for surveillance of jewel beetles and bark and ambrosia beetles (i.e., green or black). We show that green and black traps are generally efficient, but also that many flower-visiting or dark-metallic colored jewel beetles and certain bark beetles are more attracted by other colors. In addition, we show that checkered beetles have color preferences similar to those of their Scolytinae preys, which limits using trap color to minimize their inadvertent removal. Overall, this study confirmed that understanding the color perception mechanisms in wood-boring beetles can lead to important improvements in trapping techniques and thereby increase the efficacy of surveillance programs. Full article
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11 pages, 1846 KiB  
Article
Effect of Cleaning Multiple-Funnel Traps on Captures of Bark and Woodboring Beetles in Northeastern United States
by Kevin J. Dodds and Marc F. DiGirolomo
Insects 2020, 11(10), 702; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11100702 - 14 Oct 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2814 | Correction
Abstract
Two experiments were conducted in mixed hardwood-conifer forests in the northeastern United States to test the effects of cleaning surfactant and non-surfactant treated multiple-funnel traps used to catch bark and woodboring beetles. Large amounts of pollen and other debris often form a crust [...] Read more.
Two experiments were conducted in mixed hardwood-conifer forests in the northeastern United States to test the effects of cleaning surfactant and non-surfactant treated multiple-funnel traps used to catch bark and woodboring beetles. Large amounts of pollen and other debris often form a crust on the interior of traps (personal observations). Such surface deposits may provide footholds for beetles to escape capture in traps. In one experiment, we tested cleaned surfactant and non-surfactant traps against non-cleaned surfactant and non-surfactant traps. In a second experiment, we tested field cleaning of modified multiple-funnel traps as an alternative to substituting clean traps on each collection visit. There was no effect of surfactant treated traps, cleaned or not, on total beetles or individual bark beetle species captured. However, in situ cleaned traps were statistically better at capturing total beetles, total bark beetles, and several bark beetle species than non-cleaned control traps. Surfactant-treated non-modified traps and cleaned modified traps had higher species richness and abundance than other treatments at the site level. Our results suggest that cleaning traps to remove accumulated pollen and debris may be helpful for some species but would have limited benefit for broad-scale trapping of bark and woodboring beetles in northeastern forests. Full article
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22 pages, 4111 KiB  
Article
Impact of Horizontal Edge–Interior and Vertical Canopy–Understory Gradients on the Abundance and Diversity of Bark and Woodboring Beetles in Survey Traps
by Jon Sweeney, Cory Hughes, Vincent Webster, Chantelle Kostanowicz, Reginald Webster, Peter Mayo and Jeremy D. Allison
Insects 2020, 11(9), 573; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11090573 - 26 Aug 2020
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2680
Abstract
Semiochemical-baited intercept traps are important tools used to collect information about the presence/absence and population dynamics of forest insects. The performance of these tools is influenced by trap location along both horizontal edge–interior and vertical understory–canopy gradients. Consequently, the development of survey and [...] Read more.
Semiochemical-baited intercept traps are important tools used to collect information about the presence/absence and population dynamics of forest insects. The performance of these tools is influenced by trap location along both horizontal edge–interior and vertical understory–canopy gradients. Consequently, the development of survey and detection programs requires both the development of effective traps and semiochemical lures but also deployment protocols to guide their use. We used field trapping experiments to examine the impact of both horizontal edge–interior and vertical understory–canopy gradients and their interactions with the species richness and abundance of Buprestidae, Cerambycidae and Curculionidae. Both gradients had significant effects on the diversity and abundance of all three families collected in traps and the pattern of gradient effects differed between the two experiments. In the first experiment, traps were deployed along transects involving large (>100 m) forest gaps and in the second experiment traps transected small (ca. 15 m) forest gaps. These results were consistent with the idea that gradient effects on the abundance and diversity of these three families of forest Coleoptera are context dependent. The results of this study suggest that monitoring programs for bark and woodboring beetles should deploy traps at multiple locations along both vertical understory–canopy and horizontal edge–interior gradients. Full article
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