Biology and Management of Sap-Sucking Pests

A topical collection in Insects (ISSN 2075-4450). This collection belongs to the section "Insect Pest and Vector Management".

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Editors


E-Mail Website
Collection Editor
Okayama University, Institute of Plant Science and Resources, Kurashiki, Okayama 710-0046, Japan
Interests: integrated pest management; biological control, environmental science; plant protection; molecular biology; agricultural and applied entomology; insecticide resistance; insect rearing; insect ecology; metabolomics; chemical ecology; tritrophic interactions; plant-insect interactions; plant-microbe-insect interactions; plant defense
University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577, Japan
Interests: insect ecology; agricultural entomology; ecology and evolution entomology; integrated pest management; ecology parasitology; plant protection

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

Sap-sucking pests such as brown plant hoppers, whiteflies, aphids, mealybugs, etc. are herbivorous pests that suck the sap (containing vital nutrient-rich assimilates) of plants, yielding detriments in the plants and severely threatening their health. The detriments may not always be severe, however, the fact that the sucking pests can vector viral disease is becoming a serious threat to many major cash crops. Furthermore, as result of sucking nutrient-rich assimilates from the plants, large amounts of sticky feeding residues known as honeydew are produced and deposited on plants. The honeydew then supports the growth of various microbes on plant surfaces, leading to a sooty appearance of infested plants and hence promoting yield losses.

In this Topical Collection, we intend to feature articles that deliberate the biology of the sucking pests; the tritrophic interactions between the sucking pests, the microbes they host, and the plants they attack; the plant defense mechanisms against the sucking pests; the biology, behavior, and ecology of natural enemies against the sucking pests; and the Integrated Pest Management strategies harmonizing environmentally sound biological control agents and conventional methods are all welcomed.

Dr. Nickolas G. Kavallieratos
Dr. David Wari
Dr. Kazumu Kuramitsu
Collection Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • sap-sucking pest biology
  • plant-insect interaction
  • plant–microbe–insect interactions
  • plant defense mechanisms
  • natural enemies
  • integrated pest management

Published Papers (23 papers)

2024

Jump to: 2023, 2022, 2021, 2020

20 pages, 871 KiB  
Article
Heterosis for Resistance to Insect Herbivores in a 3-Line Hybrid Rice System
Insects 2024, 15(3), 164; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects15030164 - 28 Feb 2024
Viewed by 307
Abstract
Three-line hybrid rice is produced by crossing male sterile (A line) rice with a fertility-restorer (R line). Fertile lines (B lines) are also required to maintain A line seed for breeding programs. We used a range of hybrids and their parental lines to [...] Read more.
Three-line hybrid rice is produced by crossing male sterile (A line) rice with a fertility-restorer (R line). Fertile lines (B lines) are also required to maintain A line seed for breeding programs. We used a range of hybrids and their parental lines to assess the frequency and nature of heterosis for resistance to the whitebacked planthopper (Sogatella furcifera), brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens) and yellow stemborer (Scirpophaga incertulas). Heterosis is defined as trait improvement above the average of the parental lines as a result of outbreeding. Based on the results from a greenhouse study that challenged hybrids and their parental lines with each herbivore species, we found that susceptibility to planthoppers was associated with one of the eight A lines tested, but resistance was improved by crossing with a relatively resistant restorer. Higher frequencies of heterosis for susceptibility in comparisons between hybrids and their B lines suggest that susceptibility was not related to the cytoplasmic genomes of the associated sterile A lines. Furthermore, because none of the parental lines possessed currently effective resistance genes, improved resistance against planthoppers was probably due to quantitative resistance. In a related field trial, hybrids had generally higher yields than their fertile parents and often produced larger grain; however, they were often more susceptible to stemborers, leaffolders (Cnaphalocrocis medinalis) and other caterpillars (Rivula atimeta). This was largely a consequence of hybrid heterosis for plant biomass and was strongly affected by crop duration. We make a series of recommendations to improve hybrid breeding to reduce the risks of herbivore damage. Full article
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2023

Jump to: 2024, 2022, 2021, 2020

16 pages, 2877 KiB  
Article
Effect of Leaf Removal and Insecticide Applications on Population Densities of Leafhoppers and Mites Associated with Grapevines
Insects 2023, 14(10), 791; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects14100791 - 28 Sep 2023
Viewed by 695
Abstract
In this study, we tested the effects of mechanical leaf removal, insecticide application, and their interaction on leafhoppers and phytophagous and predatory mites occurring in two vineyards over three growing seasons. Leaf removal was performed in the fruit zone using a two-head pulsed [...] Read more.
In this study, we tested the effects of mechanical leaf removal, insecticide application, and their interaction on leafhoppers and phytophagous and predatory mites occurring in two vineyards over three growing seasons. Leaf removal was performed in the fruit zone using a two-head pulsed air leaf remover, while insecticides were applied with a tunnel air-assisted sprayer at the maximum dose/ha recommended on the product label. Results demonstrated the efficacy of insecticide application in reducing the population densities of leafhoppers but also their detrimental effects on predatory mites. In a number of case studies, leaf removal reduced leafhopper and predatory mite densities. In one vineyard, phytophagous mite populations increased some weeks after leaf removal and insecticide application, highlighting the need to carefully consider the potential impact of vineyard management practices on non-target arthropods in the IPM framework. Full article
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11 pages, 1041 KiB  
Article
Feeding Behavior Comparison of Bean Bugs, Riptortus pedestris and Halyomorpha halys on Different Soybean Cultivars
Insects 2023, 14(4), 322; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects14040322 - 27 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1124
Abstract
Riptortus pedestris (Fabricius) and Halyomorpha halys (Stål) are the major pests that feed on soybean pods, seeds, and fruits. Higher populations and damage occur during the soybean maturity stages (podding to harvest). To compare the feeding behavior of R. pedestris and H. halys [...] Read more.
Riptortus pedestris (Fabricius) and Halyomorpha halys (Stål) are the major pests that feed on soybean pods, seeds, and fruits. Higher populations and damage occur during the soybean maturity stages (podding to harvest). To compare the feeding behavior of R. pedestris and H. halys, we used the six most cultivated cultivars (Daepung-2ho, Daechan, Pungsannamul, Daewon, Seonpung, and Seoritae) in Korea using the electropenetrography (EPG) technique. Both R. pedestris and H. halys, the NP (non-penetration), a non-probing waveform, was the shortest in the Pungsannamul (298 and 268 min) and the longest in the Daepung-2ho (334 and 339 min), respectively. The feeding waveforms Pb (phloem feeding: E1-Salivation and E2-Sap feeding) and G (xylem feeding) were the longest in Pungsannamul and the shortest in Daepung-2ho. In addition, as a result of investigating the damage rate by planting six cultivars of beans in the field, as expected, the proportions of damage types B and C were highest in Pungsannamul and lowest in Daepung-2ho. These results reveal that both bug species ingest xylem sap from leaflets and stems using a salivary sheath strategy to acquire water and nutrients from soybean pods/seeds with cell-rupture tactics. This study provides perceptive information to understand the feeding behavior, field occurrence, and damage patterns of R. pedestris and H. halys, which may have key implications for the management of hemipteran pests by determining the specificity and susceptibility of host plants. Full article
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2022

Jump to: 2024, 2023, 2021, 2020

25 pages, 467 KiB  
Review
Cereal Aphid Parasitoids in Europe (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae): Taxonomy, Biodiversity, and Ecology
Insects 2022, 13(12), 1142; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects13121142 - 12 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2113
Abstract
Cereals are very common and widespread crops in Europe. Aphids are a diverse group of herbivorous pests on cereals and one of the most important limiting factors of cereal production. Here, we present an overview of knowledge about the taxonomy, biodiversity, and ecology [...] Read more.
Cereals are very common and widespread crops in Europe. Aphids are a diverse group of herbivorous pests on cereals and one of the most important limiting factors of cereal production. Here, we present an overview of knowledge about the taxonomy, biodiversity, and ecology of cereal aphid parasitoids in Europe, an important group of natural enemies contributing to cereal aphid control. We review the knowledge obtained from the integrative taxonomy of 26 cereal aphid primary parasitoid species, including two allochthonous species (Lysiphlebus testaceipes and Trioxys sunnysidensis) and two recently described species (Lipolexis labialis and Paralipsis brachycaudi). We further review 28 hyperparasitoid species belonging to three hymenopteran superfamilies and four families (Ceraphronoidea: Megaspillidae; Chalcidoidea: Pteromalidae, Encyrtidae; Cynipoidea: Figitidae). We also compile knowledge on the presence of secondary endosymbionts in cereal aphids, as these are expected to influence the community composition and biocontrol efficiency of cereal aphid parasitoids. To study aphid–parasitoid–hyperparasitoid food webs more effectively, we present two kinds of DNA-based approach: (i) diagnostic PCR (mainly multiplex PCR), and (ii) DNA sequence-based methods. Finally, we also review the effects of landscape complexity on the different trophic levels in the food webs of cereal aphids and their associated parasitoids, as well as the impacts of agricultural practices and environmental variation. Full article
8 pages, 1903 KiB  
Article
Predation Capacity of the Banded Thrips Aeolothrips intermedius for the Biological Control of the Onion Thrips Thrips tabaci
Insects 2022, 13(8), 702; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects13080702 - 04 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3029
Abstract
The onion thrips, Thrips tabaci, is a main insect pest for many field crops worldwide, with a particular preference for the species of the genus Allium. Aeolothrips intermedius is a banded thrips, whose larvae are considered the primary native predator of [...] Read more.
The onion thrips, Thrips tabaci, is a main insect pest for many field crops worldwide, with a particular preference for the species of the genus Allium. Aeolothrips intermedius is a banded thrips, whose larvae are considered the primary native predator of T. tabaci. Due of their predatory behaviour, A. intermedius larvae are considered a good candidate for biological control against thrips pests. However, limited information is available on the specific predation rate of A. intermedius against T. tabaci. The aim of our study was to evaluate the predatory efficiency of A. intermedius larvae against T. tabaci adults. Predation assays, performed under laboratory conditions, indicated that A. intermedius larvae begin to prey after an average of about 23 min, and the time taken by an A. intermedius larva to capture and subdue the prey until its death is about 26 min. Furthermore, the maximum number of prey that the A. intermedius larvae are able to kill in 12 h is up to eight adults of T. tabaci/A. intermedius larva. Full article
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19 pages, 1110 KiB  
Article
Interactions between Rice Resistance to Planthoppers and Honeydew-Related Egg Parasitism under Varying Levels of Nitrogenous Fertilizer
Insects 2022, 13(3), 251; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects13030251 - 01 Mar 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3327
Abstract
Host plant resistance is the most researched method for the management of planthoppers and leafhoppers in tropical rice. For optimal effects, resistance should be resilient to fertilizer inputs and work in synergy with natural enemies. In field plot experiments, we examined how rice [...] Read more.
Host plant resistance is the most researched method for the management of planthoppers and leafhoppers in tropical rice. For optimal effects, resistance should be resilient to fertilizer inputs and work in synergy with natural enemies. In field plot experiments, we examined how rice resistance and fertilizer inputs affect mortality of planthopper and leafhopper eggs by hymenopteran parasitoids. We used IR62 as a variety with resistance to Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) [BPH], Sogatella furcifera (Horváth) [WBPH] and Nephotettix virescens (Distant) [GLH], and IR64 as a susceptible control. The herbivores were more abundant during wet season sampling in low-nitrogen plots. During this study, parasitoids killed between 31 and 38% of BPH eggs and 24 and 52% of WBPH eggs during four days of field exposure. Parasitism, mainly due to Oligosita spp., was generally higher in high-nitrogen and IR64 plots. Similar densities of eggs in exposed plants suggest that these trends were mediated by semiochemicals and therefore support the Optimal Defense Hypothesis. Honeydew from BPH on IR62 had more xylem-derived wastes than honeydew on IR64. We applied honeydew from both varieties to sentinel plants. Parasitism by Anagrus spp. was higher on plants of either variety treated with honeydew derived from IR62; however, the effect was only apparent in high-nitrogen plots. Results suggest that Anagrus spp., by responding to honeydew, will counter the nitrogen-induced enhancement of planthopper fitness on resistant rice. Full article
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25 pages, 1132 KiB  
Article
Compatibility of Insecticides with Rice Resistance to Planthoppers as Influenced by the Timing and Frequency of Applications
Insects 2022, 13(2), 106; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects13020106 - 18 Jan 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3020
Abstract
The brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål)(BPH) is a pest of rice in Asia. We examined the effects of seven insecticides combined with host resistance against BPH. In a screenhouse environment, we treated BPH-infested and non-infested resistant (IR62) and susceptible (IR64) rice with buprofezin, [...] Read more.
The brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål)(BPH) is a pest of rice in Asia. We examined the effects of seven insecticides combined with host resistance against BPH. In a screenhouse environment, we treated BPH-infested and non-infested resistant (IR62) and susceptible (IR64) rice with buprofezin, carbofuran, cartap hydrochloride, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, fipronil, or thiamethoxam + chlorantraniliprole. In one experiment, plants received one, two or three applications. In a second experiment, plants received one early or late insecticide application. Carbofuran and fipronil reduced planthopper biomass densities but resistance did not contribute to these effects (i.e., resistance was redundant). Single applications of cartap hydrochloride (at 20 or 50 days after sowing (DAS)), cypermethrin (20 DAS), or buprofezin (50 DAS) reduced BPH biomass densities on IR62 (i.e., synergies); other insecticides and application times, and multiple applications of all insecticides did not reduce BPH biomass densities on IR62 more than on IR64 (i.e., either resistance or insecticides were redundant). Deltamethrin (three applications) was antagonistic to resistance, but host resistance tended to buffer against the negative effects of single deltamethrin applications. Yields of infested IR62 were not statistically improved by insecticide applications. Late applications reduced yields of non-infested rice. We discuss how prophylactic insecticide applications could destabilize BPH populations and reduce the productivity and profitability of resistant rice. Full article
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14 pages, 2038 KiB  
Article
Correlation-Based Network Analysis of the Influence of Bemisia tabaci Feeding on Photosynthesis and Foliar Sugar and Starch Composition in Soybean
Insects 2022, 13(1), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects13010056 - 05 Jan 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2060
Abstract
Bemisia tabaci (MEAM1) represents a species of economic importance in soybean. One of the obstacles to the management of B. tabaci is the quantification of damage by the pest because damage is indirectly inferred through losses in productivity. The objective of this study [...] Read more.
Bemisia tabaci (MEAM1) represents a species of economic importance in soybean. One of the obstacles to the management of B. tabaci is the quantification of damage by the pest because damage is indirectly inferred through losses in productivity. The objective of this study was to characterize the influence of B. tabaci feeding on soybean by assessing effects on photosynthetic parameters and the sugar and starch content of soybean leaves. The goal was to identify the optimal parameter to directly quantify pest damage on crop yield. Correlation networks were created among data on sugar content (fructose, glucose, and sucrose), starch and photosynthetic parameters (initial fluorescence, performance index on absorption basis, and turn-over number), and the number of nymphs at each of three infestations level (low, medium, and high) during both the vegetative and reproductive stage of the crop. In general, nymphs were more abundant during the vegetative stage. Starch content was strongly correlated with nymph density. A strong positive correlation was observed between fructose and nymph density during the vegetative stage. Among the photosynthetic parameters, the turn-over number N was positively correlated with nymph density at a low-infestation level and negatively correlated with nymphs when they occurred at a high-infestation level. B. tabaci feeding affected the plant’s physiology and its interaction is reflected in part by the relationships among photosynthetic parameters as well as the levels of sugars and starch. This understanding might be useful in developing better monitoring tools for pest management. Full article
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2021

Jump to: 2024, 2023, 2022, 2020

19 pages, 2126 KiB  
Article
Making the Shift from Research to Commercial Orchards: A Case Study in Aphid–Peach Tree Interactions as Affected by Nitrogen and Water Supplies
Insects 2021, 12(11), 1003; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12111003 - 08 Nov 2021
Viewed by 1378
Abstract
Peach orchards are intensively sprayed crops, and alternative methods must be found to replace pesticides. We intend here to evaluate if limiting water and nitrogen (N) supply could be effective in controlling aphid infestation in commercial orchards. N and water supply were therefore [...] Read more.
Peach orchards are intensively sprayed crops, and alternative methods must be found to replace pesticides. We intend here to evaluate if limiting water and nitrogen (N) supply could be effective in controlling aphid infestation in commercial orchards. N and water supply were therefore either unrestricted or restricted by 30% only for water, or for both water and N, in 2018 and 2019 on trees of two contrasting varieties. Natural infestations (green peach aphid, mealy plum aphid, leaf curl aphid) were monitored regularly at tree and shoot level. Infested and control shoots were compared for their development during the infestation period, their apex concentrations of total N, amino acids, non-structural carbohydrates, and polyphenols at infestation peak. At tree level, limiting both water and N supplies decreased the proportion of infested shoots by 30%, and the number of trees hosting the most harmful specie by 20 to 50%. Limiting only N supplies had almost no effect on infestation severity. At shoot level, the apex N concentration of infested shoots was stable (around 3.2% dry weight) and was found to be independent of treatment, variety, and year. The remaining biochemical variables were not affected by infestation status but by variety and year. Shoot development was only slightly affected by treatment. Aphids colonized the most vigorous shoots, being those with longer apical ramifications in 2018 and higher growth rates in 2019, in comparison with the controls. The differences were, respectively, 40 and 55%. It was concluded that a double restriction in water and N could limit, but not control, aphid infestations in commercial orchards. Full article
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20 pages, 4229 KiB  
Article
Geographical Distribution and Long-Term Monitoring of Physokermes hellenicus (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Coccidae) on Abies spp. (Pinales: Pinaceae) in Greece
Insects 2021, 12(11), 1001; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12111001 - 06 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1762
Abstract
The scale Physokermes hellenicus (Kozár & Gounari) (Hemiptera: Coccidae) has been recently included in the Greek entomofauna as a beneficial honeydew species. However, there are no adequate data about its geographical distribution and degree of infestation. Therefore, a study was conducted to examine [...] Read more.
The scale Physokermes hellenicus (Kozár & Gounari) (Hemiptera: Coccidae) has been recently included in the Greek entomofauna as a beneficial honeydew species. However, there are no adequate data about its geographical distribution and degree of infestation. Therefore, a study was conducted to examine these parameters in fifteen mountains of Greece. Furthermore, the monitoring of P. hellenicus infestation was carried out over a six-year period with regard to natural enemies and honeydew presence at three mountains (i.e., Menalon, Parnis and Tymfristos) that are traditional honeybee foraging areas. An extensive geographical distribution of the scale was negatively correlated with the latitude. Over the period of the study, P. hellenicus infestation exhibited a decreasing trend in the three mountains, which was more obvious at Menalon. The abundance of natural enemies of P. hellenicus, their effectiveness on honeydew excretion and the fecundity of P. hellenicus are discussed. The reduction in the honey produced at the Menalon mountain (a protected designation of origin product) could be attributed to the reduced presence of P. hellenicus in the fir forest. Among the other identified arthropods, Dreyfusia nordmannianae Eckstein (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) is reported for the first time infesting Abies cephalonica (Pinales: Pinaceae) in Greece. Furthermore, this species is reported for the first time as a co-parasite with P. hellenicus on A. cephalonica in Greece. Since D. nordmannianae is a serious pest, additional research is needed to determine its status in Greek fir forest ecosystems. Full article
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20 pages, 1040 KiB  
Article
Nitrogenous Fertilizer Reduces Resistance but Enhances Tolerance to the Brown Planthopper in Fast-Growing, Moderately Resistant Rice
Insects 2021, 12(11), 989; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12110989 - 03 Nov 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2387
Abstract
The brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), is a key challenge to rice production in Asia. Outbreaks of planthoppers are associated with excessive fertilizer applications; consequently, we examined planthopper interactions with susceptible, tolerant and resistant varieties of rice under varying levels of soil nitrogen [...] Read more.
The brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), is a key challenge to rice production in Asia. Outbreaks of planthoppers are associated with excessive fertilizer applications; consequently, we examined planthopper interactions with susceptible, tolerant and resistant varieties of rice under varying levels of soil nitrogen in a greenhouse experiment. We compared planthopper fitness (survival × reproduction) and plant tolerance (functional plant loss index) for 16 varieties at 0, 80 and 150 Kg added nitrogen ha−1. The planthoppers grew larger, developed more quickly and laid more eggs on susceptible varieties, compared with the resistant and tolerant varieties. Moreover, soil nitrogen generally increased planthopper fitness on resistant varieties, but relative resistance was maintained. Functional plant loss was highest among the susceptible varieties, but weight and growth rate reductions per mg of planthopper were often highest in the tolerant varieties. Tolerance was associated with large, fast-growing plants, with at least moderate resistance to the planthopper. Susceptibility was associated with a small size and/or an absence of resistance genes. Our results suggested that early-tillering rice plants can be both resistant and tolerant to the brown planthopper, but cannot be both susceptible and tolerant of planthoppers at high densities. This indicates that at least moderate resistance is required for tolerance against this herbivore. Furthermore, although dwarf varieties had a low tolerance of planthoppers, they could express resistance through functioning resistance genes. Full article
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18 pages, 1060 KiB  
Article
Adaptation by the Brown Planthopper to Resistant Rice: A Test of Female-Derived Virulence and the Role of Yeast-like Symbionts
Insects 2021, 12(10), 908; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12100908 - 06 Oct 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2421
Abstract
The adaptation by planthoppers to feed and develop on resistant rice is a challenge for pest management in Asia. We conducted a series of manipulative experiments with the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens (Stål)) on the resistant rice variety IR62 (BPH3/ [...] Read more.
The adaptation by planthoppers to feed and develop on resistant rice is a challenge for pest management in Asia. We conducted a series of manipulative experiments with the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens (Stål)) on the resistant rice variety IR62 (BPH3/BPH32 genes) to assess behavioral and bionomic changes in planthoppers exhibiting virulence adaptation. We also examined the potential role of yeast-like symbionts (YLS) in virulence adaptation by assessing progeny fitness (survival × reproduction) following controlled matings between virulent males or females and avirulent males or females, and by manipulating YLS densities in progeny through heat treatment. We found virulence-adapted planthoppers developed faster, grew larger, had adults that survived for longer, had female-biased progeny, and produced more eggs than non-selected planthoppers on the resistant variety. However, feeding capacity—as revealed through honeydew composition—remained inefficient on IR62, even after 20+ generations of exposure to the resistant host. Virulence was derived from both the male and female parents; however, females contributed more than males to progeny virulence. We found that YLS are essential for normal planthopper development and densities are highest in virulent nymphs feeding on the resistant host; however, we found only weak evidence that YLS densities contributed more to virulence. Virulence against IR62 in the brown planthopper, therefore, involves a complex of traits that encompass a series of behavioral, physiological, and genetic mechanisms, some of which are determined only by the female parent. Full article
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24 pages, 5532 KiB  
Article
Efficacy and Cost-Effectiveness of Phenotyping for Rice Resistance and Tolerance to Planthoppers
Insects 2021, 12(10), 847; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12100847 - 22 Sep 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1638
Abstract
The standard seedling seedbox test (SSST) is the most prevalent phenotyping test in research on the genetics and breeding of planthopper-resistant rice. Using 16 rice lines that included plants susceptible, resistant and tolerant to the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens), we compared [...] Read more.
The standard seedling seedbox test (SSST) is the most prevalent phenotyping test in research on the genetics and breeding of planthopper-resistant rice. Using 16 rice lines that included plants susceptible, resistant and tolerant to the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens), we compared the SSST to modified seedling seedbox tests (MSSTs) and the days-to-wilt (DTW) test. We also conducted a series of performance tests to assess nymph survival and development; adult longevity and egg-laying; egg survival; honeydew production; and plant weight loss. We also assessed the relative costs of the different phenotyping tests to better recommend test protocols that are suitable for high-throughput phenotyping. The SSST was found to be highly robust but fails to identify late-stage resistance; tolerance; or ovicidal responses. MSSTs improved phenotyping by identifying plants with low damage from planthoppers at later growth stages. Herbivore performance tests such as population or biomass build-up tests reduce space requirements and reduce setup and evaluation costs compared with bulk tests. They can also facilitate the assessment of plant tolerance; albeit with added costs. The DTW test most clearly segregates resistant and susceptible plants, thereby facilitating gene discovery and marker-assisted selection. We recommend that bulk testing be improved by switching from the SSST to a suitable MSST and that donor variety and pre-release lines be assessed for the nature of rice–planthopper interactions using biomass build-up tests—including the DTW test. Full article
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16 pages, 1082 KiB  
Article
Effect of Soy Leaf Flavonoids on Pea Aphid Probing Behavior
Insects 2021, 12(8), 756; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12080756 - 22 Aug 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2317
Abstract
Flavonoids detected in soybean Glycine max (L.) Merr. (Fabaceae) cause various alterations in the metabolism, behavior, and development of insect herbivores. The pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) poses potential threat to soybeans, but the effect of individual flavonoids on its feeding-associated [...] Read more.
Flavonoids detected in soybean Glycine max (L.) Merr. (Fabaceae) cause various alterations in the metabolism, behavior, and development of insect herbivores. The pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) poses potential threat to soybeans, but the effect of individual flavonoids on its feeding-associated behavior is relatively unknown. We monitored probing behavior (stylet penetration activities) of A. pisum on its preferred host plant, Pisum sativum L. untreated (control) and treated with 0.1% ethanolic solutions of flavonoids apigenin, daidzein, genistein, and kaempferol. We applied the electrical penetration graph (electropenetrography, EPG) technique, which visualizes the movements of aphid stylets within plant tissues. None of the applied flavonoids affected the propensity to probe the plants by A. pisum. However, apigenin enhanced the duration of probes in non-phloem tissues, which caused an increase in the frequency and duration of stylet mechanics derailment and xylem sap ingestion but limited the ingestion of phloem sap. Daidzein caused a delay in reaching phloem vessels and limited sap ingestion. Kaempferol caused a reduction in the frequency and duration of the phloem phase. Genistein did not affect aphid probing behavior. Our findings provide information for selective breeding programs of resistant plant cultivars to A. pisum. Full article
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15 pages, 3391 KiB  
Article
Capsella bursa-pastoris Is a Key Overwintering Plant for Aphids in the Mediterranean Region
Insects 2021, 12(8), 744; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12080744 - 18 Aug 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2443
Abstract
The reproduction of aphids depends to a great extent on their host plants, an integration that impacts on the successful expansion of overwintering populations. Therefore, a survey was conducted to evaluate the globally distributed Capsella bursa-pastoris as an overwintering host of economically important [...] Read more.
The reproduction of aphids depends to a great extent on their host plants, an integration that impacts on the successful expansion of overwintering populations. Therefore, a survey was conducted to evaluate the globally distributed Capsella bursa-pastoris as an overwintering host of economically important aphid species, their parasitoids and hyperparasitoids in the southern and western regions of Turkey from November to March in 2006 to 2013. During this survey, 395 samples of C. bursa-pastoris were collected with 25 aphid species recorded. Among aphids that feed on this host, Myzus persicae, Aphis gossypii, Rhopalosiphum padi, Aphis fabae, Aphis craccivora, Lipaphis erysimi, and Brevicoryne brassicae were the most frequently recorded. In total, 10,761 individual parasitoids were identified. Binodoxys angelicae, Aphidius colemani, Aphidius matricariae, Diaeretiella rapae, Ephedrus persicae, and Lysiphlebus confusus were the most abundant aphidiines that emerged from the aphids collected from C. bursa-pastoris. Alloxysta spp. (Hymenoptera: Cynipoidea), Chalcidoidea (unidentified at genus level), and Dendrocerus spp. (Hymenoptera: Ceraphronoidea) were identified as hyperparasitoids on the parasitoids. These findings indicate that C. bursa-pastoris is a key non-agricultural plant that significantly contributes to the overwintering of numerous aphids and their parasitoids, which should be given serious consideration when biological control strategies are designed. Full article
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18 pages, 3348 KiB  
Article
OBP14 (Odorant-Binding Protein) Sensing in Adelphocoris lineolatus Based on Peptide Nucleic Acid and Graphene Oxide
Insects 2021, 12(5), 422; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12050422 - 08 May 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1858
Abstract
OBPs play a crucial role in the recognition of ligands and are involved in the initial steps of semiochemical perception. The diverse expression of OBP genes allows them to participate in different physiological functions in insects. In contrast to classic OBPs with typical [...] Read more.
OBPs play a crucial role in the recognition of ligands and are involved in the initial steps of semiochemical perception. The diverse expression of OBP genes allows them to participate in different physiological functions in insects. In contrast to classic OBPs with typical olfactory roles in A. lineolatus, the physiological functions of Plus-C OBPs remain largely unknown. In addition, detection of the expression of insect OBP genes by conventional methods is difficult in vitro. Here, we focused on AlinOBP14, a Plus-C OBP from A. lineolatus, and we developed a PNA-GO-based mRNA biosensor to detect the expression of AlinOBP14. The results demonstrated that AlinOBP14 plays dual roles in A. lineolatus. The AlinOBP14 is expressed beneath the epidermis of the vertex and gena in heads of A. lineolatus, and it functions as a carrier for three terpenoids, while AlinOBP14 is also expressed in the peripheral antennal lobe and functions as a carrier for endogenous compounds such as precursors for juvenile hormone (JH) and JHⅢ. Our investigation provides a new method to detect the expression of OBP genes in insects, and the technique will facilitate the use of these genes as potential targets for novel insect behavioral regulation strategies against the pest. Full article
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19 pages, 1780 KiB  
Article
Mild Abiotic Stress Affects Development and Stimulates Hormesis of Hemp Aphid Phorodon cannabis
Insects 2021, 12(5), 420; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12050420 - 08 May 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2781
Abstract
The hemp aphid Phorodon cannabis Passerini is a well- known (Asia, Europe) or newly emerging (North America) insect. It is a monophagous insect pest causing considerable damage in field and glasshouse cultivations. The aim of this work was to study the effects of [...] Read more.
The hemp aphid Phorodon cannabis Passerini is a well- known (Asia, Europe) or newly emerging (North America) insect. It is a monophagous insect pest causing considerable damage in field and glasshouse cultivations. The aim of this work was to study the effects of meteorological (temperature) and agronomical (herbicide) factors on the biology of the hemp aphid. In one experiment, hemp plants were kept at constant temperatures ranging from 20 to 30 °C, and aphid survival and fecundity were measured. In a related experiment conducted at 20 °C, plants were treated with field-appropriate rates of a selective graminicide containing quizalofop-P-tefuryl (40 gL−1, 4.38%, HRAC group 1), commonly used to control weeds in hemp, and aphid enzyme activity was measured in addition to population parameters. We found that hemp aphids could live, feed and reproduce within the whole studied range of temperatures, demonstrating its great evolutionary plasticity. However, the optimal temperature for development was 25 °C, at which the insect lived and reproduced for 25 and 15 days, respectively, with an average fecundity of 7.5 nymphs per reproduction day. The herbicide treatment increased the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), β-glucosidase, S-glutathione transferase (GST), oxidoreductive peroxidase (POD), and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) in the aphids, but only on certain days after treatment, which indicates a mild stress in aphid tissues, related to a higher reproduction and changed feeding behavior; aphids moved from the actively growing tips compared to untreated plants. The results of these experiments are discussed in terms of the impact on the future management of this pest. Full article
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13 pages, 4053 KiB  
Article
Host-Plant Variations Affect the Biotic Potential, Survival, and Population Projection of Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae)
Insects 2021, 12(5), 375; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12050375 - 21 Apr 2021
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 3203
Abstract
The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae Sulzer (Hemiptera: Aphididae), a polyphagous insect pest is a major threat to a wide range of crops worldwide. Aiming to evaluate the life history traits of M. persicae, feeding on different host plants, we used five [...] Read more.
The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae Sulzer (Hemiptera: Aphididae), a polyphagous insect pest is a major threat to a wide range of crops worldwide. Aiming to evaluate the life history traits of M. persicae, feeding on different host plants, we used five vegetables: cabbage, Brassica oleracea (Brassicaceae); chinese cabbage, B. rapa (Brassicaceae); chili pepper, Capsicum annum (Solanaceae); crown daisy, Chrysanthemum coronarium (Asteraceae); and eggplant, Solanum melongena (Solanaceae). TWOSEX-MSchart software was used for the statistical analysis about the age-stage, two-sex life table theory. The highest fecundity (69.65 individuals) rate of M. persicae, intrinsic rate of increase (r = 0.425 d−1), finite rate of increase (λ = 1.531 d−1), net reproductive rate (R0 = 69.65 offspring), and shortest mean generation time (T = 9.964 d) were recorded on the chili pepper plant. Whereas, lower fitness occurred on cabbage. The findings attained from population growth parameters indicate that chili pepper is the most susceptible plant, while cabbage is resistant to aphids. Population projection results also supported this statement, as the final total population size on cabbage was significantly lower than other plants. The reported information would be useful for devising integrated pest management programs, particularly those involving M. persicae. This information also suggests the adaptability of M. persicae causing economic damage to these vegetable cultivars. Full article
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3 pages, 182 KiB  
Editorial
Sap-Sucking Pests; They Do Matter
Insects 2021, 12(4), 363; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12040363 - 19 Apr 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2803
Abstract
This is an excerpt giving an overview of the Special Issue: Biology and Management of Sap-Sucking Pests [...] Full article
13 pages, 1036 KiB  
Article
Augmenting Nesidiocoris tenuis (Nesidiocoris) with a Factitious Diet of Artemia Cysts to Control Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) on Tomato Plants under Greenhouse Conditions
Insects 2021, 12(3), 265; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12030265 - 21 Mar 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2800
Abstract
Natural predators such as Nesidiocoris tenuis are known for their role in managing greenhouse pests. However, techniques in maximizing the biological control potential of N. tenuis under field conditions are still lacking. We evaluated under greenhouse conditions the prospects of Artemia cysts enhanced [...] Read more.
Natural predators such as Nesidiocoris tenuis are known for their role in managing greenhouse pests. However, techniques in maximizing the biological control potential of N. tenuis under field conditions are still lacking. We evaluated under greenhouse conditions the prospects of Artemia cysts enhanced with high fructose corn syrup and honey, and delivered using hemp strings (hemp rope) as supplementary factitious dietary in augmenting the proliferation and spread of N. tenuis on tomato plants. Results showed that N. tenuis supplemented with hemp rope could establish, proliferate and disperse among tomato plants compared to the N. tenuis supplemented with banker plants. Even though N. tenuis proliferated exponentially on banker plants, their movement and relocation to tomato plants, as expected, were only congested on tomato plants near the banker plants. However, as the survey continued, they relocated to the rest of the tomato plants. Furthermore, the number of Bemisia tabaci eggs and nymphs, a serious greenhouse pest of tomato, was observed to be significantly reduced in hemp rope greenhouse compared to banker plants and the negative control (no pest control system) greenhouses. This study, therefore, establishes foundational data on the usage of Artemia cysts enhanced with isomerized sugar (high fructose corn syrup) and honey under greenhouse conditions as factitious supplementary dietary in supporting N. tenuis establishment and spread, traits that are essential towards development of whitefly Integrated Pest Management (IPM) system. enhanced with isomerized sugar (high fructose corn syrup) and honey. Full article
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16 pages, 2432 KiB  
Article
Potential of Cucurbitacin B and Epigallocatechin Gallate as Biopesticides against Aphis gossypii
Insects 2021, 12(1), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12010032 - 05 Jan 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2748
Abstract
Aphis gossypii (Glover) is distributed worldwide and causes substantial economic and ecological problems owing to its rapid reproduction and high pesticide resistance. Plant-derived cucurbitacin B (CucB) and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) are known to have insecticidal and repellent activities. However, their insecticidal activity on [...] Read more.
Aphis gossypii (Glover) is distributed worldwide and causes substantial economic and ecological problems owing to its rapid reproduction and high pesticide resistance. Plant-derived cucurbitacin B (CucB) and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) are known to have insecticidal and repellent activities. However, their insecticidal activity on cotton- and cucurbit-specialized aphids (CO and CU), the two important host biotypes of A. gossypii, remains to be investigated. In the present study, we characterized, for the first time, the effects of these two plant extracts on the two host biotypes of A. gossypii. CucB and EGCG significantly reduced the A. gossypii population-level fitness and affected their ability to adapt to nonhost plants. Activities of important detoxification enzymes were also altered, indicating that pesticide resistance is weakened in the tested aphids. Our results suggest that CucB and EGCG have unique properties and may be developed as potential biopesticides for aphid control in agriculture. Full article
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2020

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30 pages, 8370 KiB  
Article
Resolving the Taxonomic Status of Potential Biocontrol Agents Belonging to the Neglected Genus Lipolexis Förster (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Aphidiinae) with Descriptions of Six New Species
Insects 2020, 11(10), 667; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11100667 - 29 Sep 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2336
Abstract
Lipolexis is a small genus in the subfamily Aphidiinae represented by one species in Europe (Lipolexis gracilis Förster) and by four in Asia (Lipolexis wuyiensis Chen, L. oregmae Gahan, L. myzakkaiae Pramanik and Raychaudhuri and L. pseudoscutellaris Pramanik and Raychaudhuri). Although [...] Read more.
Lipolexis is a small genus in the subfamily Aphidiinae represented by one species in Europe (Lipolexis gracilis Förster) and by four in Asia (Lipolexis wuyiensis Chen, L. oregmae Gahan, L. myzakkaiae Pramanik and Raychaudhuri and L. pseudoscutellaris Pramanik and Raychaudhuri). Although L. oregmae is employed in biological control programs against pest aphids, the last morphological study on the genus was completed over 50 years ago. This study employs an integrative approach (morphology and molecular analysis (COI barcode region)), to examine Lipolexis specimens that were sampled worldwide, including specimens from BOLD database. These results establish that two currently recognized species of Lipolexis (L. gracilis, L. oregmae) are actually a species complex and also reveal phylogenetic relationships within the genus. Six new species are described and a global key for the identification of Lipolexis species is provided. Full article
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18 pages, 603 KiB  
Review
A Review of the Biology and Control of Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), with Special Reference to Biological Control Using Entomopathogenic Fungi
Insects 2020, 11(9), 619; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11090619 - 10 Sep 2020
Cited by 67 | Viewed by 11580
Abstract
Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), consists of genetically diverse species known to cause significant destruction in several crops around the world. Nymphs and adults of B. tabaci cause damage to plants during feeding, and they can act as a virus vector, thus [...] Read more.
Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), consists of genetically diverse species known to cause significant destruction in several crops around the world. Nymphs and adults of B. tabaci cause damage to plants during feeding, and they can act as a virus vector, thus causing significant yield loss to crops in the tropical and subtropical regions. Chemical pesticides are widely used to control B. tabaci due to their immediate action, but this approach has several drawbacks including food safety issues, insecticide resistance, environmental pollution, and the effect on non-target organisms. A biological control agent using entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) has therefore been developed as an alternative against the conventional use of chemical pesticides in an integrated pest management (IPM) system to effectively control B. tabaci. It is apparent from this review that species of hyphomycetes fungi are the most common EPF used to effectively control B. tabaci, with the second instar being the most susceptible stage of infection. Therefore, this review article focuses specifically on the control of B. tabaci with special emphasis on the use of EPF as biological control agents and their integration in IPM. Full article
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