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Open AccessReview

A Review of the Biology and Control of Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), with Special Reference to Biological Control Using Entomopathogenic Fungi

1
Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Malaysia
2
Department of Biology, Faculty of Natural and Applied Sciences, Umaru Musa Yar’adua University, P.M.B., Katsina 2218, Nigeria
3
Laboratory of Climate-Smart Food Crop Production, Institute of Tropical Agriculture and Food Security (ITAFoS), Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Malaysia
4
Department of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, Faculty Science & Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi 43600, Malaysia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Insects 2020, 11(9), 619; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11090619
Received: 17 August 2020 / Revised: 5 September 2020 / Accepted: 8 September 2020 / Published: 10 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biology and Management of Sap-Sucking Pests)
The whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, is considered one of the most destructive insect pests of vegetables and ornamental crops globally. Synthetic chemical pesticides are mainly used to control B. tabaci, however, their extensive usage has led to a series of detrimental concerns to human health and environmental contamination. It is therefore of significant interest to develop a safer and eco-friendly alternative for controlling B. tabaci. Here, we review the use of entomopathogenic fungi as a proven, biologically sustainable method to effectively control B. tabaci. The development of entomopathogenic fungi in an integrated pest management strategy against B. tabaci can reduce our reliance on chemical pesticides, and help us to secure food safety while preserving nature.
Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), consists of genetically diverse species known to cause significant destruction in several crops around the world. Nymphs and adults of B. tabaci cause damage to plants during feeding, and they can act as a virus vector, thus causing significant yield loss to crops in the tropical and subtropical regions. Chemical pesticides are widely used to control B. tabaci due to their immediate action, but this approach has several drawbacks including food safety issues, insecticide resistance, environmental pollution, and the effect on non-target organisms. A biological control agent using entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) has therefore been developed as an alternative against the conventional use of chemical pesticides in an integrated pest management (IPM) system to effectively control B. tabaci. It is apparent from this review that species of hyphomycetes fungi are the most common EPF used to effectively control B. tabaci, with the second instar being the most susceptible stage of infection. Therefore, this review article focuses specifically on the control of B. tabaci with special emphasis on the use of EPF as biological control agents and their integration in IPM. View Full-Text
Keywords: biological control; Bemisia tabaci; entomopathogenic fungi; host plant; whitefly biological control; Bemisia tabaci; entomopathogenic fungi; host plant; whitefly
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sani, I.; Ismail, S.I.; Abdullah, S.; Jalinas, J.; Jamian, S.; Saad, N. A Review of the Biology and Control of Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), with Special Reference to Biological Control Using Entomopathogenic Fungi. Insects 2020, 11, 619.

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