Topical Collection "Pesticide Chemistry and Toxicology"

A topical collection in Insects (ISSN 2075-4450). This collection belongs to the section "Insect Pest and Vector Management".

Editor

Dr. Hanafy Ismail
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Pembroke Place Liverpool, L3 5QA, UK
Interests: chemical biology; malaria and neglected tropical diseases (NTDs); functional interfaces; insecticide and drug resistance; vector-host-pathogens interactions

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

Insecticides are chemical substances used to control insect pests that can damage public health or the economy. However, many insecticide chemicals are resistant to degradation in the environment and have bio-accumulative properties. Even after banning some insecticides, they can still accumulate in the environment and adversely affect non-target organisms and human health. Hence, understanding how insecticides operate and how these chemicals can adversely affect their surrounding nature is essential. This Special Issue will report recent discoveries and review key subject areas of insecticide chemistry and toxicology for safe and effective insect pest management. We invite manuscripts that focus on one or more of the following research areas: (1) identifying novel insecticide targets or modes of action; (2) xenobiotic metabolism and selective toxicity; (3) formulation and rational insecticide use; (4) resistance mechanisms and new methods to circumvent insecticide resistance; (5) environmental persistence and recommendations for safe and effective insect pest management.

Dr. Hanafy Ismail
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • insecticides
  • modes of action
  • insecticide formulation
  • chemical biology
  • resistance mechanisms
  • environmental persistence
  • selective toxicity
  • safety evaluations

Published Papers (11 papers)

2022

Jump to: 2021

Article
Temporal Evaluation of Insecticide Resistance in Populations of the Major Arboviral Vector Aedes Aegypti from Northern Nigeria
Insects 2022, 13(2), 187; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects13020187 - 10 Feb 2022
Viewed by 943
Abstract
To support evidence-based control measures, two Nigerian Aedes populations (BUK and Pantami) were characterised. Larval bioassay using temephos and deltamethrin revealed a significant increase in deltamethrin resistance, with LC50 of 0.018mg/L (resistance ratio compared to New Orleans, RR = 2.250) in 2018 [...] Read more.
To support evidence-based control measures, two Nigerian Aedes populations (BUK and Pantami) were characterised. Larval bioassay using temephos and deltamethrin revealed a significant increase in deltamethrin resistance, with LC50 of 0.018mg/L (resistance ratio compared to New Orleans, RR = 2.250) in 2018 increasing ~6-fold, by 2019 (LC50 = 0.100mg/L, RR = 12.5), and ~11-fold in 2020 (LC50 = 0.198mg/L, RR = 24.750). For the median deltamethrin concentration (0.05mg/L), a gradual decrease in mortality was observed, from 50.6% in 2018, to 44.9% in 2019, and 34.2% in 2020. Extremely high DDT resistance was observed, with <3% mortalities and LT50s of 352.87 min, 369.19 min and 406.94 min in 2018, 2019 and 2020, respectively. Significant temporal increase in resistance was observed towards ƛ-cyhalothrin (a type II pyrethroid) over three years. Synergist bioassays with diethylmaleate and piperonylbutoxide significantly recovered DDT and ƛ-cyhalothrin susceptibility respectively, implicating glutathione S-transferases and CYP450s. Cone bioassays revealed increased resistance to the PermaNet® 3.0, side panels (mortalities of 94% in 2018, 66.4% in 2019, and 73.6% in 2020), while full susceptibility was obtained with the roof of PermaNet® 3.0. The F1534C kdr mutation occurred in low frequency, with significant correlation between heterozygote genotypes and DDT resistance. This temporal increase in resistance is a major challenge for control of this vector of public health importance. Full article
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Article
The Residual Efficacy of SumiShield™ 50WG and K-Othrine® WG250 IRS Formulations Applied to Different Building Materials against Anopheles and Aedes Mosquitoes
Insects 2022, 13(2), 112; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects13020112 - 20 Jan 2022
Viewed by 924
Abstract
Insecticides with novel modes of action are required to complement the pyrethroids currently relied upon for controlling malaria vectors. One example of this is the neonicotinoid clothianidin, the active ingredient in the indoor residual spray (IRS) SumiShield™ 50WG. In a preliminary experiment, the [...] Read more.
Insecticides with novel modes of action are required to complement the pyrethroids currently relied upon for controlling malaria vectors. One example of this is the neonicotinoid clothianidin, the active ingredient in the indoor residual spray (IRS) SumiShield™ 50WG. In a preliminary experiment, the mortality of insecticide-susceptible and resistant An. gambiae adults exposed to filter papers treated with this IRS product reached 80% by 3 days post-exposure and 100% by 6 days post-exposure. Next, cement, wood, and mud tiles were treated with the clothianidin or a deltamethrin-based IRS formulation (K-Othrine WG250). Insecticide resistant and susceptible Anopheles and Aedes were exposed to these surfaces periodically for up to 18 months. Pyrethroid resistant Cx. quinquefasciatus was also exposed at 9 months. Between exposures, tiles were stored in heat and relative humidity conditions reflecting those found in the field. On these surfaces, the clothianidin IRS was effective at killing both susceptible and resistant An. gambiae for 18 months post-treatment, while mortality amongst the resistant strains when exposed to the deltamethrin IRS was not above that of the negative control. Greater efficacy of clothianidin was also demonstrated against insecticide resistant strains of An. funestus compared to deltamethrin, though the potency was lower when compared with An. gambiae. In general, higher efficacy of the clothianidin IRS was observed on cement and mud compared to wood, though it demonstrated poorer residual activity against Ae.aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus. Full article
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2021

Jump to: 2022

Article
First Evaluation of Field Evolved Resistance to Commonly Used Insecticides in House Fly Populations from Saudi Arabian Dairy Farms
Insects 2021, 12(12), 1120; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12121120 - 14 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 733
Abstract
The house fly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae), is one of the major vectors of several pathogens that affect humans and animals. We evaluated the toxicity of eight insecticides commonly used for house fly control using five field populations collected from dairies in [...] Read more.
The house fly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae), is one of the major vectors of several pathogens that affect humans and animals. We evaluated the toxicity of eight insecticides commonly used for house fly control using five field populations collected from dairies in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Among the five tested pyrethroids, non to moderate resistance was found in adults of both sexes compared to a susceptible strain. Resistance ratios ranged from 0.5- to 7-fold for alpha-cypermethrin, 2- to 21-fold for deltamethrin, 4- to 19-fold for bifenthrin, 1- to 9-fold for cyfluthrin, and 1- to 8-fold for cypermethrin. Among the three tested organophosphates, low to moderate resistance was found among adult flies compared to the susceptible strain, and the resistance ratios ranged from 4- to 27-fold for fenitrothion, 2- to 14-fold for chlorpyrifos, and 3- to 12-fold for malathion. The median lethal times for the tested insecticides were 3–33 h for alpha-cypermethrin, 3–24 h for deltamethrin, 5–59 h for bifenthrin, 1–7 h for cypermethrin, 0.3–7 h for cyfluthrin, 6–36 h for fenitrothion, 2–21 h for chlorpyrifos, and 3–34 h for malathion. This study presents baseline data pertaining to registered public health insecticides, and the results will assist future studies monitoring insecticide resistance, and the planning of effective integrated vector management programs. Full article
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Article
Tarnished Plant Bug (Heteroptera: Miridae) Behavioral Responses to Chemical Insecticides
Insects 2021, 12(12), 1072; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12121072 - 30 Nov 2021
Viewed by 630
Abstract
The tarnished plant bug (Lygus lineolaris Palisot de Beauvois) is the dominant insect pest of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) in the Mid-South Cotton Belt. This is partly due to the fact that this pest has developed resistance to most insecticides used [...] Read more.
The tarnished plant bug (Lygus lineolaris Palisot de Beauvois) is the dominant insect pest of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) in the Mid-South Cotton Belt. This is partly due to the fact that this pest has developed resistance to most insecticides used for control. Laboratory experiments were conducted during 2014 and 2015 to study the behavioral response of tarnished plant bug nymphs to several classes of insecticides. Twenty third-instar nymphs were placed in individual dishes divided into four quadrants with five green bean pieces in each quadrant (10 treated and 10 untreated green beans in each dish). Dishes were checked at 1, 4, 8, and 24 h. Tarnished plant bug nymphs appeared to avoid green beans treated with IGR, pyrethroid, organophosphate, or carbamate insecticides, while there appeared to be an attraction to green bean pieces treated with sulfoxamine and pyridine carboxamide insecticides. No relationship was observed with neonicotinoid insecticides within 24 h. Full article
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Correction
Correction: Moustafa et al. Insecticidal Activity of Lemongrass Essential Oil as an Eco-Friendly Agent against the Black Cutworm Agrotis ipsilon (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Insects 2021, 12, 737
Insects 2021, 12(11), 991; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12110991 - 04 Nov 2021
Viewed by 456
Abstract
Additional Affiliations [...] Full article
Article
Bioactivity of Carlina acaulis Essential Oil and Its Main Component towards the Olive Fruit Fly, Bactrocera oleae: Ingestion Toxicity, Electrophysiological and Behavioral Insights
Insects 2021, 12(10), 880; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12100880 - 29 Sep 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 777
Abstract
Among botanical insecticides based on essential oils (EOs) or their main components, Carlina acaulis EO and the aromatic polyacetylene carlina oxide, constituting more than 90% of its EO, were recently proven to be effective against the larvae and adults of some insect vectors [...] Read more.
Among botanical insecticides based on essential oils (EOs) or their main components, Carlina acaulis EO and the aromatic polyacetylene carlina oxide, constituting more than 90% of its EO, were recently proven to be effective against the larvae and adults of some insect vectors and pests. In this study, the toxicity of C. acaulis EO and carlina oxide were tested on Bactrocera oleae adults using a protein bait formulation. The LC50 values of the C. acaulis EO and carlina oxide were 706 ppm and 1052 ppm, respectively. Electroantennographic (EAG) tests on B. oleae adults showed that both carlina EO and oxide elicited EAG dose-dependent responses in male and female antennae. The responses to the EO were significantly higher than those to carlina oxide, indicating that other compounds, despite their lower concentrations, can play a relevant role. Moreover, Y-tube assays carried out to assess the potential attractiveness or repellency of carlina oxide LC90 to B. oleae adults showed that it was unattractive to both males and females of B. oleae, and the time spent by both sexes in either the control or the treatment arm did not differ significantly. Overall, this study points out the potential use of C. acaulis EO and carlina oxide for the development of green and effective “lure-and-kill” tools. Full article
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Article
Resistance Affects the Field Performance of Insecticides Used for Control of Choristoneura rosaceana in Michigan Apples and Cherries
Insects 2021, 12(9), 846; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12090846 - 21 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 709
Abstract
Field-based residual bioassays and residue analysis were conducted to assess the field performance and toxicity longevity of different insecticides that had previously been associated with resistance of Choristoneura rosaceana populations collected from apple and cherry orchards. In this study, 12–24 h-old larvae of [...] Read more.
Field-based residual bioassays and residue analysis were conducted to assess the field performance and toxicity longevity of different insecticides that had previously been associated with resistance of Choristoneura rosaceana populations collected from apple and cherry orchards. In this study, 12–24 h-old larvae of apple and cherry populations were exposed to apple and cherry leaf samples, respectively, at post-application intervals and a susceptible population served as a reference of each. In the apple and cherry trials, the order of residual longevity of insecticides that effectively controlled the tested populations was as follows: bifenthrin and spinetoram (apple: 14, cherry 21-day post-application), phosmet (apple: 7, cherry 14-day post-application), chlorantraniliprole (apple: 7-day post-application), and indoxacarb and emamectin benzoate (apple: 1, cherry 7-day post-application). Compared to the susceptible population, the resistant populations resulted in a measurable loss of field performance, or “practical resistance”, for the insecticides emamectin benzoate (at 7-day post-application), chlorantraniliprole (at 21-day post-application), and indoxacarb (at all post-application intervals) in the apple trials, while in cherry trial just indoxacarb at 7-day post-application showed a reduced efficacy. In terms of long-lasting residues, only chlorantraniliprole and indoxacarb maintained measurable leaf residues over all post-application intervals while the leaf residues of the other compounds had largely degraded within the first 7 days. These findings can help fruit growers make adjustments to their spray/re-application intervals and optimally utilize important chemical tools in their integrated pest management programs. Full article
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Article
Baseline Susceptibility of Spodoptera frugiperda Populations Collected in India towards Different Chemical Classes of Insecticides
Insects 2021, 12(8), 758; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12080758 - 23 Aug 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1322
Abstract
Fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda, is a major pest of maize in the Americas and recently invaded the Eastern hemisphere. It was first detected in India in 2018 and is considered a major threat to maize production. FAW control largely relies on [...] Read more.
Fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda, is a major pest of maize in the Americas and recently invaded the Eastern hemisphere. It was first detected in India in 2018 and is considered a major threat to maize production. FAW control largely relies on the application of chemical insecticides and transgenic crops expressing Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal proteins. Assessing FAW resistance and insecticide susceptibility is a cornerstone to develop sustainable resistance management strategies. In this study, we conducted more than 400 bioassays to assess the efficacy of nine insecticides from seven mode-of-action classes against 47 FAW populations collected in 2019 and 2020 across various geographical areas in India. The resistance status of the field-collected populations was compared to an Indian population sampled in 2018, and an insecticide susceptible reference population collected in 2005 in Brazil. Low to moderate resistance levels were observed for thiodicarb, chlorpyriphos, deltamethrin, chlorantraniliprole and flubendiamide in several populations (including the reference population collected in 2018). The highest resistance ratios were observed for deltamethrin which likely compromises recommended label rates for pyrethroid insecticides in general. Our data provide a useful baseline for future FAW resistance monitoring initiatives and highlight the need to implement insecticide resistance management strategies. Full article
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Article
Insecticidal Activity of Lemongrass Essential Oil as an Eco-Friendly Agent against the Black Cutworm Agrotis ipsilon (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
Insects 2021, 12(8), 737; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12080737 - 17 Aug 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1941 | Correction
Abstract
Background: The destructive insect pest Agrotis ipsilon (Hufnagel) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a polyphagous species targeting many economically important plants. The extensive and arbitrary use of insecticides has resulted in the build-up of insecticide resistance and pesticide residues accumulating in food. Therefore, it is [...] Read more.
Background: The destructive insect pest Agrotis ipsilon (Hufnagel) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a polyphagous species targeting many economically important plants. The extensive and arbitrary use of insecticides has resulted in the build-up of insecticide resistance and pesticide residues accumulating in food. Therefore, it is becoming evident that alternative pest management tools are needed to reduce risks to humans, the environment, and non-target organisms, and at the same time, they should be used in field application at the lowest cost. Methods: In view of this objective, the present study demonstrates the toxicity of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf) essential oil (EO), against the black cutworm A. ipsilon under controlled laboratory conditions in terms of measuring the activity of peroxidase and detoxification enzymes. The chemical components of the EO were analyzed using GC–MS. Results: The results show that after 96 h post treatment, the LC15 and LC50 values were 427.67 and 2623.06 mg/L, respectively, of C. citratus EO on second-instar larvae of A. ipsilon. A slight significance in elongation of the larval duration with LC15 and LC50 value was found with control. By GC–MS analysis, the main compounds identified in the EO were α-citral and β-citral with percentages of 35.91%, and 35%, respectively. The oxidative stress indicates a significant increase in CAT and lipid peroxidase enzyme activity after 96 h post treatment at the LC15 and LC50. Conversely, the detoxification enzyme activity shows an inhibition of CarE and GST enzymes of larvae exposed to LC15 and LC50 values in response to C. citratus EO. Conclusions: The present data show that lemongrass EO has insecticidal activity against the black cutworm, A. ipsilon. Full article
Article
Deltamethrin-Mediated Effects on Locomotion, Respiration, Feeding, and Histological Changes in the Midgut of Spodoptera frugiperda Caterpillars
Insects 2021, 12(6), 483; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12060483 - 22 May 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1105
Abstract
Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is the main pest of maize crops, and effective methods for pest management are needed. The insecticidal efficacy of deltamethrin was evaluated against S. frugiperda for toxicity, survival, locomotion, anti-feeding, and histological changes in the midgut. Concentration–mortality [...] Read more.
Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is the main pest of maize crops, and effective methods for pest management are needed. The insecticidal efficacy of deltamethrin was evaluated against S. frugiperda for toxicity, survival, locomotion, anti-feeding, and histological changes in the midgut. Concentration–mortality bioassays confirmed that deltamethrin (LC50 = 3.58 mg mL−1) is toxic to S. frugiperda caterpillars. The survival rate was 99.7% in caterpillars not exposed to deltamethrin, decreasing to 50.3% in caterpillars exposed to LC50, and 0.1% in caterpillars treated with LC90. Spodoptera frugiperda demonstrated reduced mobility on deltamethrin-treated surfaces. Deltamethrin promoted a low respiration rate of S. frugiperda for up to 3 h after insecticide exposure, displaying immobilization and inhibiting food consumption. Deltamethrin induces histological alterations (e.g., disorganization of the striated border, cytoplasm vacuolization, and cell fragmentation) in the midgut, damaging the digestive cells and peritrophic matrix, affecting digestion and nutrient absorption. Full article
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Article
Bio-Insecticide of Thymus vulgaris and Ocimum basilicum Extract from Cell Suspensions and Their Inhibitory Effect against Serine, Cysteine, and Metalloproteinases of the Red Palm Weevil (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus)
Insects 2021, 12(5), 405; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12050405 - 30 Apr 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1035
Abstract
The current study was designed to investigate the insecticide role of volatile constituents produced from cell suspensions of T. vulgaris and O. basilicum against R. ferrugineus. Constituents were extracted from cell suspension after 40 days. Growth kinetics were measured with an inoculation [...] Read more.
The current study was designed to investigate the insecticide role of volatile constituents produced from cell suspensions of T. vulgaris and O. basilicum against R. ferrugineus. Constituents were extracted from cell suspension after 40 days. Growth kinetics were measured with an inoculation of Verticillium dahliae and identified by GC-MS. Total volatile phenolic constituents were measured. Insecticidal activity against R. ferrugineus (adult) and proteolytic enzyme activity in larvae were assessed. GC-MS showed that the T. vulgaris extract has higher amounts of thymol, p-cymene, γ-terpinene, β-caryophyllene, and linalool in comparison to the O. basilicum extract, which is rich in estragole, β-terpineol, (E)-β-ocimene, 1,8-cineole, germacrene D, and eugenol. The T. vulgaris extract showed an LC50 of 1032 µg/mL, followed by O. basilicum with an LC50 of 1246 µg/mL. The IC50 values against the total proteases were 110.8 and 119.4 µg/mL for T. vulgaris and O. basilicum, respectively. The IC50 for the trypsin-like serine proteinase assessment was 81.6 and 91 µg/mL for T. vulgaris and O. basilicum, respectively. Cysteine, chymotrypsin, and metalloproteinase assessment showed an IC50 above 5000 µg/mL for both extracts. The study is proposed as a potential approach to use T. vulgaris and O. basilicum extract as a bio-insecticide against R. ferrugineus using an accessible and efficient cell suspension technique. Full article
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