Special Issue "Parasite-Insect Interactions"

A special issue of Insects (ISSN 2075-4450).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2017).

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Kenneth Wilson

Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ, UK
Website | E-Mail
Interests: host-parasite interactions; ecoimmunology; crop pest biocontrol
Guest Editor
Dr. Fleur Ponton

The Charles Perkins Centre, the University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia
Website | E-Mail
Interests: Nutrition; Parasites; Insect; Immunity
Guest Editor
Dr. Sheena Cotter

University of Lincoln, Brayford Pool, Lincoln, Lincolnshire, LN6 7TS, UK
Website | E-Mail
Interests: ecoimmunology; nutrition; host-parasite interactions; social immunity

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Insects have a major impact on all of our lives, from vectoring plant and animal diseases to eating or pollinating our crops. Good or bad, all insects are potentially at risk from parasites and diseases, be they parasitic wasps and flies, entomopathogenic worms, or microbial pathogens such as bacteria, viruses and fungi. This special issue will include original research articles and reviews by leading entomologists and associated experts. Articles will focus on the biology, ecology and evolution of the parasites and pathogens of beneficial and pest insects, and the molecular, physiological and genetic interactions between the two.

Prof. Kenneth Wilson
Dr. Fleur Ponton
Dr. Sheena Cotter
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Insects is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.


Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review, Other

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Spore Acquisition and Survival of Ambrosia Beetles Associated with the Laurel Wilt Pathogen in Avocados after Exposure to Entomopathogenic Fungi
Received: 1 March 2018 / Revised: 3 April 2018 / Accepted: 17 April 2018 / Published: 25 April 2018
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Abstract
Laurel wilt is a disease threatening the avocado industry in Florida. The causative agent of the disease is a fungus vectored by ambrosia beetles that bore into the trees. Until recently, management strategies for the vectors of the laurel wilt fungus relied solely [...] Read more.
Laurel wilt is a disease threatening the avocado industry in Florida. The causative agent of the disease is a fungus vectored by ambrosia beetles that bore into the trees. Until recently, management strategies for the vectors of the laurel wilt fungus relied solely on chemical control and sanitation practices. Beneficial entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) are the most common and prevalent natural enemies of pathogen vectors. Laboratory experiments demonstrated that commercial strains of EPF can increase the mortality of the primary vector, Xyleborus glabratus, and potential alternative vectors, Xylosandrus crassiusculus, Xyleborus volvulus and Xyleborus bispinatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae). Our study provides baseline data for three formulated commercially-available entomopathogenic fungi used as potential biocontrol agents against X. crassiusculus, X. volvulus and X. bispinatus. The specific objectives were to determine: (1) the mean number of viable spores acquired per beetle species adult after being exposed to formulated fungal products containing different strains of EPF (Isaria fumosorosea, Metarhizium brunneum and Beauveria bassiana); and (2) the median and mean survival times using paper disk bioassays. Prior to being used in experiments, all fungal suspensions were adjusted to 2.4 × 106 viable spores/mL. The number of spores acquired by X. crassiusculus was significantly higher after exposure to B. bassiana, compared to the other fungal treatments. For X. volvulus, the numbers of spores acquired per beetle were significantly different amongst the different fungal treatments, and the sequence of spore acquisition rates on X. volvulus from highest to lowest was I. fumosorosea > M. brunneum > B. bassiana. After X. bispinatus beetles were exposed to the different suspensions, the rates of acquisition of spores per beetle amongst the different fungal treatments were similar. Survival estimates (data pooled across two tests) indicated an impact for each entomopathogenic fungus per beetle species after exposure to a filter paper disk treated at the same fungal suspension concentration. Kaplan–Meier analysis (censored at day 7) revealed that each beetle species survived significantly shorter in bioassays containing disks treated with EPF compared to water only. This study demonstrated that ambrosia beetles associated with the laurel wilt pathogen in avocados are susceptible to infection by EPF under laboratory conditions. However, the EPF needs to be tested under field conditions to confirm their efficacy against the beetles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Parasite-Insect Interactions)
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Open AccessArticle
Cross-Resistance: A Consequence of Bi-partite Host-Parasite Coevolution
Received: 28 November 2017 / Revised: 2 February 2018 / Accepted: 19 February 2018 / Published: 26 February 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1620 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Host-parasite coevolution can influence interactions of the host and parasite with the wider ecological community. One way that this may manifest is in cross-resistance towards other parasites, which has been observed to occur in some host-parasite evolution experiments. In this paper, we test [...] Read more.
Host-parasite coevolution can influence interactions of the host and parasite with the wider ecological community. One way that this may manifest is in cross-resistance towards other parasites, which has been observed to occur in some host-parasite evolution experiments. In this paper, we test for cross-resistance towards Bacillus thuringiensis and Pseudomonas entomophila in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum, which was previously allowed to coevolve with the generalist entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana. We combine survival and gene expression assays upon infection to test for cross-resistance and underlying mechanisms. We show that larvae of T. castaneum that evolved with B. bassiana under coevolutionary conditions were positively cross-resistant to the bacterium B. thuringiensis, but not P. entomophila. Positive cross-resistance was mirrored at the gene expression level with markers that were representative of the oral route of infection being upregulated upon B. bassiana exposure. We find that positive cross-resistance towards B. thuringiensis evolved in T. castaneum as a consequence of its coevolutionary interactions with B. bassiana. This cross-resistance appears to be a consequence of resistance to oral toxicity. The fact that coevolution with B. bassiana results in resistance to B. thuringiensis, but not P. entomophila implies that B. thuringiensis and B. bassiana may share mechanisms of infection or toxicity not shared by P. entomophila. This supports previous suggestions that B. bassiana may possess Cry-like toxins, similar to those found in B. thuringiensis, which allow it to infect orally. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Parasite-Insect Interactions)
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Open AccessShort Note
Differential Regulation of Immune Signaling and Survival Response in Drosophila melanogaster Larvae upon Steinernema carpocapsae Nematode Infection
Received: 9 December 2017 / Revised: 27 January 2018 / Accepted: 1 February 2018 / Published: 8 February 2018
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Abstract
Drosophila melanogaster is an excellent model to dissect the molecular components and pathways of the innate anti-pathogen immune response. The nematode parasite Steinernema carpocapsae and its mutualistic bacterium Xenorhabdus nematophila form a complex that is highly pathogenic to insects, including D. melanogaster. [...] Read more.
Drosophila melanogaster is an excellent model to dissect the molecular components and pathways of the innate anti-pathogen immune response. The nematode parasite Steinernema carpocapsae and its mutualistic bacterium Xenorhabdus nematophila form a complex that is highly pathogenic to insects, including D. melanogaster. We have used symbiotic (carrying X. nematophila) and axenic (lacking X. nematophila) nematodes to probe the regulation of genes belonging to different immune signaling pathways in D. melanogaster larvae and assess the survival response of certain mutants to these pathogens. We found that both types of S. carpocapsae upregulate MyD88 (Toll), but not PGRP-LE (Imd); whereas axenic S. carpocapsae strongly upregulate Wengen (Jnk), Domeless (Jak/Stat), Dawdle (TGFβ, Activin), and Decapentaplegic (TGFβ, BMP). We further found that inactivation of Wengen and Decapentaplegic confers a survival advantage to larvae infected with axenic S. carpocapsae, whereas mutating PGRP-LE promotes the survival of larvae infected with symbiotic nematodes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Parasite-Insect Interactions)
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Open AccessArticle
Establishment Success of the Beetle Tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta Depends on Dose and Host Body Condition
Received: 15 January 2018 / Revised: 30 January 2018 / Accepted: 31 January 2018 / Published: 3 February 2018
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Abstract
Parasite effects on host fitness and immunology are often intensity-dependent. Unfortunately, only few experimental studies on insect-parasite interactions attempt to control the level of infection, which may contribute substantial variation to the fitness or immunological parameters of interest. The tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta—flour [...] Read more.
Parasite effects on host fitness and immunology are often intensity-dependent. Unfortunately, only few experimental studies on insect-parasite interactions attempt to control the level of infection, which may contribute substantial variation to the fitness or immunological parameters of interest. The tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta—flour beetle Tenebrio molitor model—has been used extensively for ecological and evolutionary host–parasite studies. Successful establishment of H. diminuta cysticercoids in T. molitor relies on ingestion of viable eggs and penetration of the gut wall by the onchosphere. Like in other insect models, there is a lack of standardization of the infection load of cysticercoids in beetles. The aims of this study were to: (1) quantify the relationship between exposure dose and establishment success across several H. diminuta egg concentrations; and (2) test parasite establishment in beetles while experimentally manipulating host body condition and potential immune response to infection. Different egg concentrations of H. diminuta isolated from infected rat feces were fed to individual beetles 7–10 days after eclosion and beetles were exposed to starvation, wounding, or insertion of a nylon filament one hour prior to infection. We found that the establishment of cysticercoids in relation to exposure dose could be accurately predicted using a power function where establishment success was low at three lowest doses and higher at the two highest doses tested. Long-term starvation had a negative effect on cysticercoid establishment success, while insertion of a nylon filament and wounding the beetles did not have any effect compared to control treatment. Thus, our results show that parasite load may be predicted from the exposure dose within the observed range, and that the relationship between dose and parasite establishment success is able to withstand some changes in host body condition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Parasite-Insect Interactions)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Diversity and Phylogenetic Analyses of Bacterial Symbionts in Three Whitefly Species from Southeast Europe
Received: 7 August 2017 / Revised: 17 September 2017 / Accepted: 15 October 2017 / Published: 20 October 2017
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (3436 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood), and Siphoninus phillyreae (Haliday) are whitefly species that harm agricultural crops in many regions of the world. These insects live in close association with bacterial symbionts that affect host fitness and adaptation to the environment. In the [...] Read more.
Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood), and Siphoninus phillyreae (Haliday) are whitefly species that harm agricultural crops in many regions of the world. These insects live in close association with bacterial symbionts that affect host fitness and adaptation to the environment. In the current study, we surveyed the infection of whitefly populations in Southeast Europe by various bacterial symbionts and performed phylogenetic analyses on the different symbionts detected. Arsenophonus and Hamiltonella were the most prevalent symbionts in all three whitefly species. Rickettsia was found to infect mainly B. tabaci, while Wolbachia mainly infected both B. tabaci and S. phillyreae. Furthermore, Cardinium was rarely found in the investigated whitefly populations, while Fritschea was never found in any of the whitefly species tested. Phylogenetic analyses revealed a diversity of several symbionts (e.g., Hamiltonella, Arsenophonus, Rickettsia), which appeared in several clades. Reproductively isolated B. tabaci and T. vaporariorum shared the same (or highly similar) Hamiltonella and Arsenophonus, while these symbionts were distinctive in S. phillyreae. Interestingly, Arsenophonus from S. phillyreae did not cluster with any of the reported sequences, which could indicate the presence of Arsenophonus, not previously associated with whiteflies. In this study, symbionts (Wolbachia, Rickettsia, and Cardinium) known to infect a wide range of insects each clustered in the same clades independently of the whitefly species. These results indicate horizontal transmission of bacterial symbionts between reproductively isolated whitefly species, a mechanism that can establish new infections that did not previously exist in whiteflies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Parasite-Insect Interactions)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
The Heartrate Reaction to Acute Stress in Horned Passalus Beetles (Odontotaenius disjunctus) is Negatively Affected by a Naturally-Occurring Nematode Parasite
Received: 18 July 2017 / Revised: 29 September 2017 / Accepted: 16 October 2017 / Published: 18 October 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (3196 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
There are many events in the lives of insects where rapid, effective stress reactions are needed, including fighting conspecifics to defend territories, evading predators, and responding to wounds. A key element of the stress reaction is elevation of heartrate (HR), for enhancing distribution [...] Read more.
There are many events in the lives of insects where rapid, effective stress reactions are needed, including fighting conspecifics to defend territories, evading predators, and responding to wounds. A key element of the stress reaction is elevation of heartrate (HR), for enhancing distribution of blood (hemolymph) to body compartments. We conducted two experiments designed to improve understanding of the insect stress reaction and how it is influenced by parasitism in a common beetle species (Odontotaenius disjunctus). By non-destructively observing heartbeat frequency before, during and after applying a stressor (physical restraint) for 10 min, we sought to determine: (1) the exact timing of the cardiac stress reaction; (2) the magnitude of heartrate elevation during stress; and (3) if the physiological response is affected by a naturally-occurring nematode parasite, Chondronema passali. Restraint caused a dramatic increase in heartrate, though not immediately; maximum HR was reached after approximately 8 min. Average heartrate went from 65.5 beats/min to a maximum of 81.5 (24.5% increase) in adults raised in the lab (n = 19). Using wild-caught adults (n = 77), average heartrates went from 54.9 beats/min to 74.2 (35.5% increase). When restraint was removed, HR declined after ~5 min, and reached baseline 50 min later. The nematode parasite did not affect baseline heartrates in either experiment, but in one, it retarded the heartrate elevation during stress, and in the other, it reduced the overall magnitude of the elevation. While we acknowledge that our results are based on comparisons of beetles with naturally-occurring parasite infections, these results indicate this parasite causes a modest reduction in host cardiac output during acute stress conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Parasite-Insect Interactions)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
A Preliminary Investigation of the Interactions between the Brood Parasite Chalcoela iphitalis and Its Polistine Wasp Hosts
Received: 10 July 2017 / Revised: 9 August 2017 / Accepted: 22 August 2017 / Published: 24 August 2017
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Abstract
The life history of Chalcoela iphitalis—a common brood parasite of social wasps—has been described in previous literature, but critical information regarding oviposition behavior and possible differential host parasitism remain cryptic. Here we report on infestation levels of this moth in field populations [...] Read more.
The life history of Chalcoela iphitalis—a common brood parasite of social wasps—has been described in previous literature, but critical information regarding oviposition behavior and possible differential host parasitism remain cryptic. Here we report on infestation levels of this moth in field populations of paper wasps in Polistes and Mischocyttarus, as well as the oviposition behavior of the moths under a laboratory setting. We found evidence for differential parasitism between paper wasp genera in the field, with almost 50% nest infestation in P. bellicosus and no occurrences of moth infestation in M. mexicanus. Laboratory results revealed that oviposition occurs only at night and is stimulated by contact with the wasp nest or adult wasps. In this setting, eggs were laid largely on the substrate above or adjacent to the host nest, but not on the nest itself. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Parasite-Insect Interactions)
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Open AccessArticle
Bacterial Infection Increases Reproductive Investment in Burying Beetles
Insects 2015, 6(4), 926-942; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects6040926
Received: 10 August 2015 / Revised: 22 October 2015 / Accepted: 26 October 2015 / Published: 30 October 2015
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (874 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Nicrophorus genus lives and breeds in a microbe rich environment. As such, it would be expected that strategies should be in place to counter potentially negative effects of the microbes common to this environment. In this study, we show the response of [...] Read more.
The Nicrophorus genus lives and breeds in a microbe rich environment. As such, it would be expected that strategies should be in place to counter potentially negative effects of the microbes common to this environment. In this study, we show the response of Nicrophorus vespilloides to the common soil bacterium, Bacillus subtilis. Phenoloxidase (PO) levels are not upregulated in response to the challenge and the bacteria are observed to multiply within the haemolymph of the host. Despite the growth of B. subtilis, survival is not affected, either in virgin or in breeding beetles. Some limit on bacterial growth in the haemolymph does seem to be occurring, suggesting mechanisms of resistance, in addition to tolerance mechanisms. Despite limited detrimental effects on the individual, the challenge by Bacillus subtilis appears to act as a cue to increase reproductive investment. The challenge may indicate a suite of negative environmental conditions that could compromise future breeding opportunities. This could act as a cue to increase parental investment in the current bout. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Parasite-Insect Interactions)
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Open AccessArticle
Development of a Real-Time qPCR Assay for Quantification of Covert Baculovirus Infections in a Major African Crop Pest
Insects 2015, 6(3), 746-759; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects6030746
Received: 23 April 2015 / Revised: 14 August 2015 / Accepted: 19 August 2015 / Published: 25 August 2015
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (491 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Many pathogens and parasites are present in host individuals and populations without any obvious signs of disease. This is particularly true for baculoviruses infecting lepidopteran hosts, where studies have shown that covert persistent viral infections are almost ubiquitous in many species. To date, [...] Read more.
Many pathogens and parasites are present in host individuals and populations without any obvious signs of disease. This is particularly true for baculoviruses infecting lepidopteran hosts, where studies have shown that covert persistent viral infections are almost ubiquitous in many species. To date, the infection intensity of covert viruses has rarely been quantified. In this study, we investigated the dynamics of a covert baculovirus infection within the lepidopteran crop pest Spodoptera exempta. A real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) procedure using a 5' nuclease hydrolysis (TaqMan) probe was developed for specific detection and quantification of Spodoptera exempta nucleopolyhedrovirus (SpexNPV). The qPCR assay indicated that covert baculovirus dynamics varied considerably over the course of the host life-cycle, with infection load peaking in early larval instars and being lowest in adults and final-instar larvae. Adult dissections indicated that, contrary to expectation, viral load aggregation was highest in the head, wings and legs, and lowest in the thorax and abdomen. The data presented here have broad implications relating to our understanding of transmission patterns of baculoviruses and the role of covert infections in host-pathogen dynamics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Parasite-Insect Interactions)
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Open AccessArticle
Parasitic Manipulation of Host Behaviour: Baculovirus SeMNPV EGT Facilitates Tree-Top Disease in Spodoptera exigua Larvae by Extending the Time to Death
Insects 2015, 6(3), 716-731; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects6030716
Received: 8 June 2015 / Revised: 15 July 2015 / Accepted: 27 July 2015 / Published: 31 July 2015
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (875 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Many parasites enhance their dispersal and transmission by manipulating host behaviour. One intriguing example concerns baculoviruses that induce hyperactivity and tree-top disease (i.e., climbing to elevated positions prior to death) in their caterpillar hosts. Little is known about the underlying mechanisms [...] Read more.
Many parasites enhance their dispersal and transmission by manipulating host behaviour. One intriguing example concerns baculoviruses that induce hyperactivity and tree-top disease (i.e., climbing to elevated positions prior to death) in their caterpillar hosts. Little is known about the underlying mechanisms of such parasite-induced behavioural changes. Here, we studied the role of the ecdysteroid UDP-glucosyltransferase (egt) gene of Spodoptera exigua multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SeMNPV) in tree-top disease in S. exigua larvae. Larvae infected with a mutant virus lacking the egt gene exhibited a shorter time to death and died before the induction of tree-top disease. Moreover, deletion of either the open reading frame or the ATG start codon of the egt gene prevented tree-top disease, indicating that the EGT protein is involved in this process. We hypothesize that SeMNPV EGT facilitates tree-top disease in S. exigua larvae by prolonging the larval time to death. Additionally, we discuss the role of egt in baculovirus-induced tree-top disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Parasite-Insect Interactions)
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Open AccessArticle
Tissue-Specific Immune Gene Expression in the Migratory Locust, Locusta Migratoria
Insects 2015, 6(2), 368-380; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects6020368
Received: 3 March 2015 / Revised: 2 April 2015 / Accepted: 8 April 2015 / Published: 16 April 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (230 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The ability of hosts to respond to infection involves several complex immune recognition pathways. Broadly conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) allow individuals to target a range of invading microbes. Recently, studies on insect innate immunity have found evidence that a single pathogen can [...] Read more.
The ability of hosts to respond to infection involves several complex immune recognition pathways. Broadly conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) allow individuals to target a range of invading microbes. Recently, studies on insect innate immunity have found evidence that a single pathogen can activate different immune pathways across species. In this study, expression changes in immune genes encoding peptidoglycan-recognition protein SA (PGRP-SA), gram-negative binding protein 1 (GNBP1) and prophenoloxidase (ProPO) were investigated in Locusta migratoria, following an immune challenge using injected lipopolysaccharide (LPS) solution from Escherichia coli. Since immune activation might also be tissue-specific, gene expression levels were followed across a range of tissue types. For PGRP-SA, expression increased in response to LPS within all seven of the tissue-types assayed and differed significantly between tissues. Expression of GNBP1 similarly varied across tissue types, yet showed no clear expression difference between LPS-injected and uninfected locusts. Increases in ProPO expression in response to LPS, however, could only be detected in the gut sections. This study has revealed tissue-specific immune response to add a new level of complexity to insect immune studies. In addition to variation in recognition pathways identified in previous works, tissue-specificity should be carefully considered in similar works. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Parasite-Insect Interactions)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Daily Rhythms in Mosquitoes and Their Consequences for Malaria Transmission
Received: 22 November 2015 / Revised: 25 March 2016 / Accepted: 6 April 2016 / Published: 14 April 2016
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (1821 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The 24-h day involves cycles in environmental factors that impact organismal fitness. This is thought to select for organisms to regulate their temporal biology accordingly, through circadian and diel rhythms. In addition to rhythms in abiotic factors (such as light and temperature), biotic [...] Read more.
The 24-h day involves cycles in environmental factors that impact organismal fitness. This is thought to select for organisms to regulate their temporal biology accordingly, through circadian and diel rhythms. In addition to rhythms in abiotic factors (such as light and temperature), biotic factors, including ecological interactions, also follow daily cycles. How daily rhythms shape, and are shaped by, interactions between organisms is poorly understood. Here, we review an emerging area, namely the causes and consequences of daily rhythms in the interactions between vectors, their hosts and the parasites they transmit. We focus on mosquitoes, malaria parasites and vertebrate hosts, because this system offers the opportunity to integrate from genetic and molecular mechanisms to population dynamics and because disrupting rhythms offers a novel avenue for disease control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Parasite-Insect Interactions)
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Other

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Open AccessTechnical Note
Isolation and Characterization of Microsatellite Loci for Cotesia plutellae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)
Received: 9 March 2017 / Revised: 21 May 2017 / Accepted: 12 June 2017 / Published: 20 June 2017
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Abstract
Fourteen polymorphic microsatellite loci were isolated in this transcriptome-based data analysis for Cotesia plutellae, which is an important larval parasitoid of the worldwide pest Plutella xylostella. A subsequent test was performed for a wild C. plutellae population (N = 32) [...] Read more.
Fourteen polymorphic microsatellite loci were isolated in this transcriptome-based data analysis for Cotesia plutellae, which is an important larval parasitoid of the worldwide pest Plutella xylostella. A subsequent test was performed for a wild C. plutellae population (N = 32) from Fuzhou, Fujian, southeastern China, to verify the effectiveness of the 14 microsatellite loci in future studies on C. plutellae genetic diversity. The observed number of alleles ranged from two to six. The expected and observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.123 to 0.316 and from 0.141 to 0.281, respectively. The polymorphism information content (PIC) value ranged from 0.272 to 0.622. Potentially due to the substructure of the sampled population, three of the 14 microsatellite loci deviated from Hardy—Weinberg equilibrium (HWE). Further, loci C6, C22, and C31 could be amplified in Cocobius fulvus and Encarsia japonica, suggesting the transferability of these three polymorphic loci to other species of Hymenoptera. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Parasite-Insect Interactions)
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