Topical Collection "Integrated Pest Management Strategies for Horticultural Crops"

A topical collection in Insects (ISSN 2075-4450). This collection belongs to the section "Insect Pest and Vector Management".

Editor

Prof. Dr. Rosemary Collier
E-Mail Website
Collection Editor
Warwick Crop Centre, School of Life Sciences, University of Warwick, Wellesbourne, Warwick, CV35 9EF, UK
Interests: Integrated Pest Management; horticultural crops

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

The high-quality standards required by retailers and their customers present a particular challenge to those who manage the pests of horticultural crops. This is exacerbated by the great diversity of crops grown, each on a relatively small area, leading to a limited ‘market’ for anyone developing novel methods of pest control. However, there is an undoubted need for effective IPM strategies on a range of horticultural crops to reduce reliance on chemical pesticides, manage pesticide resistance, and address the expectations of a market which is increasingly demanding ‘perfect’ but residue-free produce. This Special Issue will collect original and review articles that focus on Integrated Pest Management in horticultural crops, with a particular emphasis on approaches that are being integrated successfully into commercial practice.

Prof. Rosemary Collier
Collection Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Integrated Pest Management
  • horticultural crops
  • fruit
  • vegetables
  • ornamental crops

Published Papers (11 papers)

2021

Jump to: 2020, 2019

Article
Encapsulation of Basil Essential Oil by Paste Method and Combined Application with Mechanical Trap for Oriental Fruit Fly Control
Insects 2021, 12(7), 633; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12070633 - 13 Jul 2021
Viewed by 608
Abstract
In this work, the chemical compositions of basils oils, including those of lemon basil, white holy basil, Thai basil, tree basil and red holy basil, were analysed. Methyl eugenol was detected in all types of basils. The essential oils of red and white [...] Read more.
In this work, the chemical compositions of basils oils, including those of lemon basil, white holy basil, Thai basil, tree basil and red holy basil, were analysed. Methyl eugenol was detected in all types of basils. The essential oils of red and white holy basils possessed a comparable ability (~25%) to attract male Oriental fruit fly to the synthesised fruit fly attractant in the laboratory experiment. To control the release of the active ingredients, the white holly basil oil (WBO) was encapsulated with maltodextrin (MD) and gum arabic (GA) by paste method. The essential oil is retained in the wall complex much longer with the addition of MD. The results also revealed that the combination of the MD:GA (25:75) had the highest loading efficiency of the oil (9.40%) as observed by the numerous porous structures by scanning electron microscopy. Fourier-transform infrared spectra of the encapsulated polymer confirmed traces of essential oil functional groups. The field test study advised that WBO-encapsulated products improved fruit fly attractive efficiency by maintaining the release rate of basil essential oil. Full article
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Article
Endophytic Isaria javanica pf185 Persists after Spraying and Controls Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Colletotrichum acutatum (Glomerellales: Glomerellaceae) in Pepper
Insects 2021, 12(7), 631; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12070631 - 12 Jul 2021
Viewed by 717
Abstract
This study endeavored to sustainably control aphids and anthracnose after spraying endophytic Isaria javanica pf185 under field conditions. Under two different tents; one batch of seedlings was sprayed with a 107 conidia/mL I. javanica pf185 suspension; while another was sprayed with 0.05% [...] Read more.
This study endeavored to sustainably control aphids and anthracnose after spraying endophytic Isaria javanica pf185 under field conditions. Under two different tents; one batch of seedlings was sprayed with a 107 conidia/mL I. javanica pf185 suspension; while another was sprayed with 0.05% Tween 80® in distilled water. Six leaf discs from the top; middle; and bottom part of the plant canopy were weekly collected and placed on moistened filter paper in a Petri dish for insecticidal and antifungal bioassays against Myzus persicae and Colletotrichum acutatum. Differences were noticed from the 18th day after spraying with mortality (86.67 ± 0.57% versus 36.67 ± 0.64%) and leaf damage (13.45 ± 0.03% versus 41.18 ± 0.06%) on fungus-treated and controlled, respectively. The corrected insecticidal efficacy was 20.43, 39.82, 72.32, 66.43 and 70.04%, while the corrected fungicidal efficacy was 26.07, 38.01, 53.35, 29.08 and 41.81% during five successive weeks. A positive correlation was evident between insecticidal efficacy and relative humidity (r2 = 0.620) and temperature (r2 = 0.424), respectively. No correlation was found between antifungal activity and relative humidity (r2 = 0.061) and temperature (r2 = 0), respectively. The entomopathogenic fungus survived on leaf surface area and in tissues after spraying. Full article
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Article
More Power with Flower for the Pupal Parasitoid Trichopria drosophilae: A Candidate for Biological Control of the Spotted Wing Drosophila
Insects 2021, 12(7), 628; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12070628 - 10 Jul 2021
Viewed by 595
Abstract
Parasitoids are currently considered for biological control of the spotted wing drosophila (SWD) in berry crops. Releases of mass-reared parasitoids require the presence of all resources necessary to ensure their effectiveness in the crop system. The use of floral resources to feed Trichopria [...] Read more.
Parasitoids are currently considered for biological control of the spotted wing drosophila (SWD) in berry crops. Releases of mass-reared parasitoids require the presence of all resources necessary to ensure their effectiveness in the crop system. The use of floral resources to feed Trichopria drosophilae, one of the candidate species, was investigated in a laboratory study. The life expectancy of males and females increased by three to four times when they had access to flowers of buckwheat or of two cultivars of sweet alyssum. Female realized lifetime fecundity increased from 27 offspring/female exposed to water only to 69 offspring/female exposed to buckwheat flowers. According to this almost threefold increase in parasitoid fitness, it is advisable to introduce flowering plants into the crop system, when parasitoid releases are carried out. Sweet alyssum offers the advantage of not growing too tall in combination with an extended blooming. However, adult SWD were also able to feed on flowers of both plants and survived for at least 27 days, much longer than starving flies. The introduction of flowering plants to promote natural enemies therefore requires further consideration of the risk–benefit balance under field conditions to prevent unintended reinforcement of this pest. Full article
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Article
Intercropping Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) with Sweet Pepper (Capsicum annum) Reduces Major Pest Population Densities without Impacting Natural Enemy Populations
Insects 2021, 12(1), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12010074 - 15 Jan 2021
Viewed by 1000
Abstract
Intercropping of aromatic plants provides an environmentally benign route to reducing pest damage in agroecosystems. However, the effect of intercropping on natural enemies, another element which may be vital to the success of an integrated pest management approach, varies in different intercropping systems. [...] Read more.
Intercropping of aromatic plants provides an environmentally benign route to reducing pest damage in agroecosystems. However, the effect of intercropping on natural enemies, another element which may be vital to the success of an integrated pest management approach, varies in different intercropping systems. Rosemary, Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Lamiaceae), has been reported to be repellent to many insect species. In this study, the impact of sweet pepper/rosemary intercropping on pest population suppression was evaluated under greenhouse conditions and the effect of rosemary intercropping on natural enemy population dynamics was investigated. The results showed that intercropping rosemary with sweet pepper significantly reduced the population densities of three major pest species on sweet pepper, Frankliniella intonsa, Myzus persicae, and Bemisia tabaci, but did not affect the population densities of their natural enemies, the predatory bug, Orius sauteri, or parasitoid, Encarsia formosa. Significant pest population suppression with no adverse effect on released natural enemy populations in the sweet pepper/rosemary intercropping system suggests this could be an approach for integrated pest management of greenhouse-cultivated sweet pepper. Our results highlight the potential of the integration of alternative pest control strategies to optimize sustainable pest control. Full article
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Graphical abstract

2020

Jump to: 2021, 2019

Review
The Potential for Decision Support Tools to Improve the Management of Root-Feeding Fly Pests of Vegetables in Western Europe
Insects 2020, 11(6), 369; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11060369 - 13 Jun 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1518
Abstract
Several important vegetable crops grown outdoors in temperate climates in Europe can be damaged by the root-feeding larvae of Diptera (Delia radicum, Delia floralis, Chamaepsila rosae, Delia platura, Delia florilega, Delia antiqua). Knowledge of pest insect [...] Read more.
Several important vegetable crops grown outdoors in temperate climates in Europe can be damaged by the root-feeding larvae of Diptera (Delia radicum, Delia floralis, Chamaepsila rosae, Delia platura, Delia florilega, Delia antiqua). Knowledge of pest insect phenology is a key component of any Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategy, and this review considers the methods used to monitor and forecast the occurrence of root-feeding flies as a basis for decision-making by growers and the ways that such information can be applied. It has highlighted some current management approaches where such information is very useful for decision support, for example, the management of C. rosae with insecticidal sprays and the management of all of these pests using crop covers. There are other approaches, particularly those that need to be applied at sowing or transplanting, where knowledge of pest phenology and abundance is less necessary. Going forward, it is likely that the number of insecticidal control options available to European vegetable growers will diminish and they will need to move from a strategy which often involves using a single ‘silver bullet’ to a combination of approaches/tools with partial effects (applied within an IPM framework). For the less-effective, combined methods, accurate information about pest phenology and abundance and reliable decision support are likely to be extremely important. Full article
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Article
Oviposition Preference of the Cabbage Root Fly towards Some Chinese Cabbage Cultivars: A Search for Future Trap Crop Candidates
Insects 2020, 11(2), 127; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11020127 - 17 Feb 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1255
Abstract
The development of integrated pest management strategies becomes more and more pressing in view of potential harmful effects of synthetic pesticides on the environment and human health. A promising alternative strategy against Delia radicum is the use of trap crops. Chinese cabbage ( [...] Read more.
The development of integrated pest management strategies becomes more and more pressing in view of potential harmful effects of synthetic pesticides on the environment and human health. A promising alternative strategy against Delia radicum is the use of trap crops. Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis and subsp. chinensis) is a highly sensitive Brassicaceae species previously identified as a good candidate to attract the cabbage root fly away from other crops. Here, we carried out multi-choice experiments both in the laboratory and in field conditions to measure the oviposition susceptibilities of different subspecies and cultivars of Chinese cabbages as compared to a broccoli reference. We found large differences among subspecies and cultivars of the Chinese cabbage, which received three to eleven times more eggs than the broccoli reference in field conditions. In laboratory conditions, the chinensis subspecies did not receive more eggs than the broccoli reference. We conclude that D. radicum largely prefers to lay eggs on the pekinensis subspecies of Chinese cabbage compared to the chinensis subspecies or broccoli. Some pekinensis cultivars, which received over ten times more eggs than broccoli in the field, appear especially promising candidates to further develop trap crop strategies against the cabbage root fly. Full article
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Article
Phenology of the Diamondback Moth (Plutella xylostella) in the UK and Provision of Decision Support for Brassica Growers
Insects 2020, 11(2), 118; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11020118 - 11 Feb 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1634
Abstract
In the UK, severe infestations by Plutella xylostella occur sporadically and are due mainly to the immigration of moths. The aim of this study was to develop a more detailed understanding of the phenology of P. xylostella in the UK and investigate methods [...] Read more.
In the UK, severe infestations by Plutella xylostella occur sporadically and are due mainly to the immigration of moths. The aim of this study was to develop a more detailed understanding of the phenology of P. xylostella in the UK and investigate methods of monitoring moth activity, with the aim of providing warnings to growers. Plutella xylostella was monitored using pheromone traps, by counting immature stages on plants, and by accessing citizen science data (records of sightings of moths) from websites and Twitter. The likely origin of migrant moths was investigated by analysing historical weather data. The study confirmed that P. xylostella is a sporadic but important pest, and that very large numbers of moths can arrive suddenly, most often in early summer. Their immediate sources are countries in the western part of continental Europe. A network of pheromone traps, each containing a small camera sending images to a website, to monitor P. xylostella remotely provided accessible and timely information, but the particular system tested did not appear to catch many moths. In another approach, sightings by citizen scientists were summarised on a web page. These were accessed regularly by growers and, at present, this approach appears to be the most effective way of providing timely warnings. Full article
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Communication
Photosynthesis Inhibiting Effects of Pesticides on Sweet Pepper Leaves
Insects 2020, 11(2), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11020069 - 21 Jan 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1770
Abstract
Although a large number of pesticides of different compositions are regularly used in agriculture, the impact of pesticides on the physiology of field crops is not well understood. Pesticides can produce negative effects on crop physiology―especially on photosynthesis―leading to a potential decrease in [...] Read more.
Although a large number of pesticides of different compositions are regularly used in agriculture, the impact of pesticides on the physiology of field crops is not well understood. Pesticides can produce negative effects on crop physiology―especially on photosynthesis―leading to a potential decrease in both the growth and the yield of crops. To investigate these potential effects in greenhouse sweet peppers, the effect of 20 insecticides and 2 fungicides (each sprayed with a wetting agent) on the photosynthesis of sweet pepper leaves was analyzed. Among these pesticides, nine caused significant reductions in photosynthetic activity. The effects were observed in distinctive ways—either as a transitory drop of the photosynthetic-rate values, which was observed at two hours after the treatment and was found to have recovered after 24 h, or as a sustained reduction of these values, which remained substantial over a number of days. The results of this study suggest that the production of a crop may substantially benefit when the frequent use of pesticides can be substituted with alternative pest control methods (e.g., biological control). Our results advocate further investigation of the potential impact of pesticides, either alone or in combination, on the photosynthesis of crop plants. Full article
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Article
Importance of Antixenosis and Antibiosis Resistance to the Cabbage Whitefly (Aleyrodes proletella) in Brussels Sprout Cultivars
Insects 2020, 11(1), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11010056 - 17 Jan 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1136
Abstract
The cabbage whitefly Aleyrodes proletella (L.) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is an important pest of a wide range of vegetable Brassicas. Since the control of this pest is still challenging, new approaches such as the use of resistant cultivars are required. For this, we screened [...] Read more.
The cabbage whitefly Aleyrodes proletella (L.) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is an important pest of a wide range of vegetable Brassicas. Since the control of this pest is still challenging, new approaches such as the use of resistant cultivars are required. For this, we screened 16 commercialised Brussels sprout cultivars for resistance against this species. Antibiosis was tested with no-choice experiments in a climate chamber, using reproduction, mortality, longevity, developmental time and weight as parameters. Antixenosis was screened in three choice experiments with circular design in a greenhouse to detect cultivar preferences. A field trial with both antibiosis and antixenosis tests was done to verify results under natural conditions. Finally, for several cultivars, also the leaf glucosinolate concentrations were analysed. Cabbage whiteflies showed on certain cultivars significantly increased mortality, prolonged developmental times and reduced weights. Besides, some cultivars were significantly less infested. However, the incidence of antibiosis and antixenosis as well as the glucosinolate patterns were partly inconsistent. Although a number of moderately resistant cultivars could be identified, the detected resistance is certainly not strong and consistent enough as an exclusive measure of a plant protection strategy but might become a component of a multi-layered strategy against cabbage whiteflies. Full article
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Article
Susceptibility of Myzus persicae, Brevicoryne brassicae and Nasonovia ribisnigri to Fungal Biopesticides in Laboratory and Field Experiments
Insects 2020, 11(1), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11010055 - 17 Jan 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1187
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) for the control of aphid pests of field vegetable crops. Four biopesticides based on the EPF Beauveria bassiana (Botanigard ES and Naturalis L), Cordyceps fumosorosea s.l. (Preferal WG), and [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) for the control of aphid pests of field vegetable crops. Four biopesticides based on the EPF Beauveria bassiana (Botanigard ES and Naturalis L), Cordyceps fumosorosea s.l. (Preferal WG), and Akanthomyces dipterigenus (Vertalec) were evaluated in a laboratory bioassay against peach-potato aphid Myzus persicae, cabbage aphid Brevicoryne brassicae, and currant-lettuce aphid Nasonovia ribisnigri. There was significant variation in the spore dose provided by the products, with Botanigard ES producing the highest dose (639 viable spores per mm2). Botanigard ES also caused more mortality than the other products. Combining Vertalec with the vegetable oil-based adjuvant Addit had an additive effect on the mortality of B. brassicae. All fungal products reduced the number of progeny produced by M. persicae but there was no effect with B. brassicae or N. ribisnigri. When aphid nymphs were treated with Botanigard ES and Preferal WG, both products reduced population development, with up to 86% reduction occurring for Botanigard ES against M. persicae. In a field experiment, Botanigard ES sprayed twice, at seven-day intervals, against B. brassicae on cabbage plants, reduced aphid numbers by 73%. In a second field experiment with B. brassicae, M. persicae, and N. ribisnigri, Botanigard ES reduced populations of B. brassicae and N. ribisnigri but there was no significant effect on M. persicae. Full article

2019

Jump to: 2021, 2020

Article
Long-Lasting Insecticide Netting for Protecting Tree Stems from Attack by Ambrosia Beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)
Insects 2020, 11(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11010008 - 20 Dec 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 912
Abstract
Ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) are destructive wood-boring insects of horticultural trees. We evaluated long-lasting insecticide netting for protecting stems against ambrosia beetles. Container-grown eastern redbud, Cercis canadensis, trees were flood-stressed to induce ambrosia beetle attacks, and deltamethrin-treated netting was wrapped from [...] Read more.
Ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) are destructive wood-boring insects of horticultural trees. We evaluated long-lasting insecticide netting for protecting stems against ambrosia beetles. Container-grown eastern redbud, Cercis canadensis, trees were flood-stressed to induce ambrosia beetle attacks, and deltamethrin-treated netting was wrapped from the base of the stem vertically to the branch junction. Trees were deployed under field conditions in Ohio, Virginia, Tennessee, and Mississippi with the following treatments: (1) flooded tree; (2) flooded tree with untreated netting; (3) flooded tree with treated ‘standard mesh’ netting of 24 holes/cm2; (4) flooded tree with treated ‘fine mesh’ netting of 28 holes/cm2; and/or (5) non-flooded tree. Treated netting reduced attacks compared to untreated netting and/or unprotected trees in Mississippi in 2017, Ohio and Tennessee in 2018, and Virginia in 2017–2018. Inconsistent effects occurred in Mississippi in 2018. Fewer Anisandrus maiche, Xylosandrus germanus, and Xyleborinus saxesenii were dissected from trees deployed in Ohio protected with treated netting compared to untreated netting; trees deployed in other locations were not dissected. These results indicate long-lasting insecticide netting can provide some protection of trees from ambrosia beetle attacks. Full article
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