Special Issue "Recent Advances in Fall Armyworm Research"

A special issue of Insects (ISSN 2075-4450). This special issue belongs to the section "Insect Pest and Vector Management".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2022 | Viewed by 11653

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Gao Hu
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
College of Plant Protection, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China
Interests: fall armyworm; insect migration; radar entomology; monitoring and forecasting of pests
Prof. Dr. Peng-Cheng Liu
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
College of Plant Protection, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China
Interests: fall armyworm; molecular entomology; insect reproduction; insect development; pest control

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The fall armyworm, an invasive pest from the Americas, is rapidly spreading through the Old World. It has a wide range of hosts and catastrophic destructive capability—it has about 353 host species, remarkably corn, with 15–73% of the yield loss of corn caused by its higher-instar larva. In this Special Issue we review the most up-to-date research developed for the biology, ecology and control of this pest.

Prof. Dr. Gao Hu
Prof. Dr. Peng-Cheng Liu
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • fall armyworm
  • invasive species
  • biology
  • ecology
  • insect migration
  • population management
  • pesticides
  • natural enemies

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Research

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Article
Temperature-Dependent Development Models Describing the Effects of Temperature on the Development of the Fall Armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
Insects 2022, 13(12), 1084; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects13121084 - 24 Nov 2022
Viewed by 274
Abstract
The fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) is an economically important pest that recently invaded Africa and Asia; however, information regarding its biological capacity to establish itself in newly invaded environments is largely unknown. We investigated the effects of temperature on the development [...] Read more.
The fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) is an economically important pest that recently invaded Africa and Asia; however, information regarding its biological capacity to establish itself in newly invaded environments is largely unknown. We investigated the effects of temperature on the development and survival of the invaded populations of S. frugiperda and selected mathematical models to evaluate its development in a new environment. S. frugiperda exhibited optimum survival and growth at temperatures between 28 °C and 30 °C. The lower and upper thermal thresholds for the egg-to-adult life cycle were 13.51 °C and 34.13 °C, respectively. We compared seven mathematical models and found that the Shi model was the most suitable for describing the temperature-dependent development rate of S. frugiperda. Therefore, the Shi mathematical model may be used to predict both the occurrence of particular developmental stages and the geographic distribution to implement measures for the management of S. frugiperda in agricultural fields. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Fall Armyworm Research)
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Article
Larvicidal and Antifeedant Effects of Copper Nano-Pesticides against Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) and Its Immunological Response
Insects 2022, 13(11), 1030; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects13111030 - 07 Nov 2022
Viewed by 495
Abstract
This study aimed to synthesize and evaluate the efficacy of CuO NPs (copper oxide nanoparticles) with varying test concentrations (10–500 ppm) against larvicidal, antifeedant, immunological, and enzymatic activities against larvae of S. frugiperda at 24 h of treatment. Copper nanoparticles were characterized by using [...] Read more.
This study aimed to synthesize and evaluate the efficacy of CuO NPs (copper oxide nanoparticles) with varying test concentrations (10–500 ppm) against larvicidal, antifeedant, immunological, and enzymatic activities against larvae of S. frugiperda at 24 h of treatment. Copper nanoparticles were characterized by using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDaX) analysis. The EDaX analysis results clearly show that the synthesized copper nanoparticles contain copper as the main element, and the SEM analysis results show nanoparticle sizes ranging from 29 to 45 nm. The CuO NPs showed remarkable larvicidal activity (97%, 94%, and 81% were observed on the 3rd, 4th, and 5th instar larvae, respectively). The CuO NPs produced high antifeedant activity (98.25%, 98.01%, and 98.42%), which was observed on the 3rd, 4th, and 5th instar larvae, respectively. CuO NPs treatment significantly reduced larval hemocyte levels 24 h after treatment; hemocyte counts and sizes changed in the CuO NPs treatment compared to the control. After 24 h of treatment with CuO NPs, the larval acetylcholinesterase enzyme levels decreased with dose-dependent activity. The present findings conclude that CuO NPs cause remarkable larvicidal antifeedant activity and that CuO NPs are effective, pollution-free green nano-insecticides against S. frugiperda. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Fall Armyworm Research)
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Article
Effects of Elevated CO2 Concentration on Host Adaptability and Chlorantraniliprole Susceptibility in Spodoptera frugiperda
Insects 2022, 13(11), 1029; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects13111029 - 07 Nov 2022
Viewed by 414
Abstract
Elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations (eCO2) can affect both herbivorous insects and their host plants. The fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda, is a highly polyphagous agricultural pest that may attack more than 350 host plant species and has developed resistance to [...] Read more.
Elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations (eCO2) can affect both herbivorous insects and their host plants. The fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda, is a highly polyphagous agricultural pest that may attack more than 350 host plant species and has developed resistance to both conventional and novel-action insecticides. However, the effects of eCO2 on host adaptability and insecticide resistance of FAW are unclear. We hypothesized that eCO2 might affect insecticide resistance of FAW by affecting its host plants. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the effect of eCO2 on (1) FAW’s susceptibility to chlorantraniliprole after feeding on wheat, (2) FAW’s population performance traits (including the growth and reproduction), and (3) changes in gene expression in the FAW by transcriptome sequencing. The toxicity of chlorantraniliprole against the FAW under eCO2 (800 µL/L) stress showed that the LC50 values were 2.40, 2.06, and 1.46 times the values at the ambient CO2 concentration (400 µL/L, aCO2) for the three generations, respectively. Under eCO2, the life span of pupae and adults and the total number of generations were significantly shorter than the FAW under aCO2. Compared to the aCO2 treatment, the weights of the 3rd and 4th instar larvae and pupae of FAW under eCO2 were significantly heavier. Transcriptome sequencing results showed that more than 79 detoxification enzyme genes in FAW were upregulated under eCO2 treatment, including 40 P450, 5 CarE, 17 ABC, and 7 UGT genes. Our results showed that eCO2 increased the population performance of FAW on wheat and reduced its susceptibility to chlorantraniliprole by inducing the expression of detoxification enzyme genes. This study has important implications for assessing the damage of FAW in the future under the environment of increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Fall Armyworm Research)
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Article
Temporal and Spatial Distribution Patterns of Spodoptera frugiperda in Mountain Maize Fields in China
Insects 2022, 13(10), 938; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects13100938 - 16 Oct 2022
Viewed by 491
Abstract
Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a major pest of maize worldwide. This pest colonized maize in Shizong, Qujing, Yunnan, China in 2019. To explore the temporal and spatial distribution of S. frugiperda in local fields, “W” type 5-point sampling was performed from 2020 [...] Read more.
Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a major pest of maize worldwide. This pest colonized maize in Shizong, Qujing, Yunnan, China in 2019. To explore the temporal and spatial distribution of S. frugiperda in local fields, “W” type 5-point sampling was performed from 2020 to 2021. The spatial distribution was analyzed using the aggregation index, Iwao’s regression, and Taylor’s power law. The temporal distribution showed two peaks for both 2020 and 2021 when the density of eggs, larvae, and adults was high throughout the maize growth period. Additionally, 1st and 3rd instar larvae were higher in number during the maize seedling, jointing, and spinning stages. Fourth to 6th instar larvae were higher in number after the tasseling stage. Additionally, the spatial distribution results showed that 1st to 3rd instar larvae were aggregated, while 4th to 6th instar larvae were uniformly distributed in mountain maize fields. This study provides monitoring data for S. frugiperda and clarifies the temporal and spatial distribution characteristics for larvae in mountain maize fields. Further, it also provides guidance for investigation into population dynamics and the development of predictive models for integrated S. frugiperda management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Fall Armyworm Research)
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Article
The Transcription of Flight Energy Metabolism Enzymes Declined with Aging While Enzyme Activity Increased in the Long-Distance Migratory Moth, Spodoptera frugiperda
Insects 2022, 13(10), 936; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects13100936 - 16 Oct 2022
Viewed by 507
Abstract
Of all the things that can fly, the flight mechanisms of insects are possibly the least understood. By using RNAseq, we studied the aging-associated gene expression changes in the thorax of Spodoptera frugiperda females. Three possible flight energy metabolism pathways were constructed based [...] Read more.
Of all the things that can fly, the flight mechanisms of insects are possibly the least understood. By using RNAseq, we studied the aging-associated gene expression changes in the thorax of Spodoptera frugiperda females. Three possible flight energy metabolism pathways were constructed based on 32 key metabolic enzymes found in S. frugiperda. Differential expression analysis revealed up to 2000 DEGs within old females versus young ones. Expression and GO and KEGG enrichment analyses indicated that most genes and pathways related to energy metabolism and other biological processes, such as transport, redox, longevity and signaling pathway, were downregulated with aging. However, activity assay showed that the activities of all the five tested key enzymes increased with age. The age-associated transcriptional decrease and activity increase in these enzymes suggest that these enzymes are stable. S. frugiperda is a long-distance migrator, and a high activity of enzymes may be important to guarantee a high flight capacity. The activity ratio of GAPDH/HOAD ranged from 0.594 to 0.412, suggesting that lipid is the main fuel of this species, particularly in old individuals. Moreover, the expression of enzymes in the proline oxidation pathway increased with age, suggesting that this energy metabolic pathway also is important for this species or linked to some aging-specific processes. In addition, the expression of immunity- and repair-related genes also increased with age. This study established the overall transcriptome framework of the flight muscle and aging-associated expression change trajectories in an insect for the first time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Fall Armyworm Research)
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Article
The Source Areas and Migratory Pathways of the Fall Armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith) in Sichuan Province, China
Insects 2022, 13(10), 935; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects13100935 - 16 Oct 2022
Viewed by 570
Abstract
The Sichuan Province, located in Southwest China, is one of China’s main maize-producing areas, and is also an important node along the north-south migratory pathways that pests follow within China. After its invasion, the fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith), was found in [...] Read more.
The Sichuan Province, located in Southwest China, is one of China’s main maize-producing areas, and is also an important node along the north-south migratory pathways that pests follow within China. After its invasion, the fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith), was found in 70.81% of all counties in Sichuan. However, FAW source areas and their migratory pathways into Sichuan remain unclear. This study simulated FAW sources and their migratory pathways into Sichuan during 2020 and 2021 using the trajectory simulation platform HYSPLIT with flight behavior parameters. Additionally, the seasonal horizontal wind field was also analyzed with the meteorological graphics processing software GrADS. The results showed that sporadic FAW migration into Sichuan began in April. By May, FAWs were found in much of the Sichuan Basin and moved further north and west in June. Except for year-round breeding areas, FAW sources varied monthly and expanded northward and eastward. The source areas were concentrated in Yunnan, Guizhou, Chongqing, and Myanmar on the western pathway of national migration and also in Vietnam, Guangxi, and Hunan of the eastern pathway. At various times, parts of Sichuan have also served as sources for other parts of Sichuan. FAWs migrated to Sichuan from the source areas via 6 potential pathways, 1 pathway into southwest Sichuan and 5 pathways into the Sichuan basin. The southwestern airflow from the Bay of Bengal, the southeastern airflow controlled by the western Pacific subtropical high, and the local topographically influenced airflow could provide the airflow needed for FAW migration. This work provides new information that can assist the monitoring and warning of the presence of FAW and support integrated management strategies for this pest in Sichuan and throughout China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Fall Armyworm Research)
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Article
Effects of Nano-Graphene Oxide on the Growth and Reproductive Dynamics of Spodoptera frugiperda Based on an Age-Stage, Two-Sex Life Table
Insects 2022, 13(10), 929; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects13100929 - 13 Oct 2022
Viewed by 451
Abstract
The development and reproduction of the fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda, which were reared on artificial diets containing nano-graphene oxide (GO), were determined based on age-stage, two-sex life table analysis. The results showed that GO had adverse effects on FAWs. Compared with [...] Read more.
The development and reproduction of the fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda, which were reared on artificial diets containing nano-graphene oxide (GO), were determined based on age-stage, two-sex life table analysis. The results showed that GO had adverse effects on FAWs. Compared with the control, the duration of the egg stage and first, second, and sixth instar larval stages increased with increasing GO concentrations; however, the lifespan of male and female adults decreased with increasing GO concentrations. Weights of FAW pupae that were supplied with GO-amended diets increased by 0.17–15.20% compared to the control. Intrinsic growth, limited growth, and net reproductive rates of FAWs feeding on GO supplemented diets were significantly lower than the control, while mean generational periods (0.5 mg/g: 38.47; 1 mg/g: 40.38; 2 mg/g: 38.42) were significantly longer than the control. The expression of genes encoding vitellogenin (Vg) and vitellogenin receptor (VgR) expression was abnormal in female FAW adults feeding on GO-amended diets; the number of eggs laid decreased relative to the control, but Vg expression increased. In conclusion, GO prolonged the developmental period of FAWs, decreased fecundity, and led to a decline in the population size. The study provides a basis for the rational use of GO as a pesticide synergist for FAW control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Fall Armyworm Research)
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Article
Comparison of Phototactic Behavior between Two Migratory Pests, Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera frugiperda
Insects 2022, 13(10), 917; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects13100917 - 09 Oct 2022
Viewed by 613
Abstract
The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is an important migratory pest, causing great losses to agricultural production. Light trapping is a pesticide-free method for pest control and is influenced by many factors, especially wavelength and light intensity. In this study, a series [...] Read more.
The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is an important migratory pest, causing great losses to agricultural production. Light trapping is a pesticide-free method for pest control and is influenced by many factors, especially wavelength and light intensity. In this study, a series of phototactic behavioral assays were carried out and the physical parameters were included to identify phototactic responses of S. frugiperda, with Helicoverpa armigera as control. It was found that S. frugiperda showed the highest average phototactic rate to blue light among five different LED lights. The phototactic rates of the two moths increased gradually with light intensity and were not obviously influenced by sex. In addition, the phototactic rate of S. frugiperda was significantly lower under a low light intensity of UV light than that of H. armigera, further confirmed by the indoor simulation experiment and EC50. According to the obtained parameters, the trapping distance of S. frugiperda to blue light was smaller than that of H. armigera to UV light. Therefore, we summarized a proposal of using blue light for light traps to control S. frugiperda, with a maximum distance of no more than 108 m. These results provide an experimental and theoretical basis for improving light-trapping techniques for managing S. frugiperda. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Fall Armyworm Research)
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Article
Intraguild Interactions of Three Biological Control Agents of the Fall Armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (JE Smith) in Florida
Insects 2022, 13(9), 815; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects13090815 - 07 Sep 2022
Viewed by 707
Abstract
The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a maize pest worldwide. Its host range comprises more than 350 reported plant species, and it is the primary insect pest attacking maize in Florida. Global trade has not only assisted but accelerated [...] Read more.
The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a maize pest worldwide. Its host range comprises more than 350 reported plant species, and it is the primary insect pest attacking maize in Florida. Global trade has not only assisted but accelerated its invasion into the Eastern Hemisphere. Regular pesticide use promotes resistance in the species; therefore, there is an urgent need for alternative pest management strategies. This study evaluated the interactions of biological control agents within a similar guild. Some of the reported interactions could potentially lead to the integration of these agents within the same niche to increase biological control efficiency against the fall armyworm. We evaluated three biocontrol agents that are natural enemies of Lepidopteran pests, the true bugs Podisus maculiventris and Euthyrhynchus floridanus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) and a parasitoid, Cotesia marginiventris (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Depending on their intraguild interactions, these agents could potentially be useful for biological control of the fall armyworm. The study investigated these three biocontrol agents and concluded that integrating these agents to control the fall armyworm is a possibility; however, only under certain conditions. Investigations were focused on evaluating the predator–parasitoid and devised pairing interactions. Predator response to prey in a choice or no-choice scenario and choices based on olfaction or other bodily cues were studied under experimental laboratory conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Fall Armyworm Research)
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Article
Sf-FGFR and Sf-SR-C Are Not the Receptors for Vip3Aa to Exert Insecticidal Toxicity in Spodoptera frugiperda
Insects 2022, 13(6), 547; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects13060547 - 14 Jun 2022
Viewed by 1148
Abstract
Vip3Aa is a novel insecticidal protein secreted by Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) during its vegetative growth stages. It has high insecticidal activity against lepidopteran pests such as Spodoptera frugiperda, and has no cross-resistance with Cry insecticidal proteins. As a new type [...] Read more.
Vip3Aa is a novel insecticidal protein secreted by Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) during its vegetative growth stages. It has high insecticidal activity against lepidopteran pests such as Spodoptera frugiperda, and has no cross-resistance with Cry insecticidal proteins. As a new type of insecticide, it plays an important role in controlling agricultural pests. However, the insecticidal mechanism of the Vip3Aa toxin, especially its definite receptors, have not been fully revealed. In this study, the previously reported Vip3Aa receptor genes Sf-FGFR and Sf-SR-C were knocked out separately using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. Bioassay results showed that the sensitivity of these two knockout strains to Vip3Aa were not significantly changed compared to that of the normal strain. The current results are not consistent with the previously reports that Sf-SR-C and Sf-FGFR were the receptors of Vip3Aa in vitro. This suggests that the Sf-SR-C and Sf-FGFR genes we tested may not be critical in the mode of action of Vip3Aa in vivo in Spodoptera frugiperda. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Fall Armyworm Research)
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Article
Safety Evaluation of Chemical Insecticides to Tetrastichus howardi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a Pupal Parasitoid of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Using Three Exposure Routes
Insects 2022, 13(5), 443; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects13050443 - 07 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1103
Abstract
Spodoptera frugiperda has become a major pest in many crops worldwide. The main control strategies are biological and chemical controls. However, pesticides have varying degrees of toxicity to parasitic wasps in the field. To integrate chemical and biological controls, we evaluated the safety [...] Read more.
Spodoptera frugiperda has become a major pest in many crops worldwide. The main control strategies are biological and chemical controls. However, pesticides have varying degrees of toxicity to parasitic wasps in the field. To integrate chemical and biological controls, we evaluated the safety of insecticides to Tetrastichus howardi, an important pupal parasitoid of S. frugiperda. This study assessed the toxicity of six major control insecticides (emamectin benzoate, chlorfenapyr, indoxacarb, chlorantraniliprole, bisultap, and lufenuron) to T. howardi based on risk quotient. The results showed that indoxacarb had the lowest risk quotient (RQ = 7.43). Then the side effects of three sublethal concentrations (LC20, LC30, LC40) of indoxacarb were tested using three methods (1. Adult exposure to pesticide residues on the glass tube; 2. Adult exposure to pesticide residues on the host; 3. Larval exposure to pesticides through host exposure). Overall, T. howardi had a lower parasitism rate and emergence rate with the higher pesticide concentrations. Furthermore, among three methods, the adult exposure to pesticide residues on the glass tube was the most efficient in inhibiting the parasitism rate, and impairing the emergence rate and the offspring female/male ratio. This study guides a more scientific and comprehensive application of pesticides and releases natural enemies in the field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Fall Armyworm Research)
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Article
Flight Capability and the Low Temperature Threshold of a Chinese Field Population of the Fall Armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda
Insects 2022, 13(5), 422; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects13050422 - 29 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 988
Abstract
The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), is capable of long-distance migration; thus, evaluation of its flight capability is relevant to the design of monitoring and control strategies for this pest. Previous studies have quantified the flight ability of lab-reared populations under [...] Read more.
The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), is capable of long-distance migration; thus, evaluation of its flight capability is relevant to the design of monitoring and control strategies for this pest. Previous studies have quantified the flight ability of lab-reared populations under controlled conditions, but less is known about the flight capability of natural populations. In addition, the low temperature threshold for flight in natural populations also needs to be determined. In this study, the flight capability of S. frugiperda adults emerging from field-collected larvae in South China was measured by a flight mill system. The results show that the flight capability of S. frugiperda moths varied greatly between individuals, and that some adults are capable of flying great distances. The longest self-powered flight distance was 116.7 km with a cumulative flight duration of 36.51 h during a 48-h period. Typically, the flight activity of tethered individuals was relatively stable during the first 12 h, indicating that migrating moths can fly through an entire night. Based on the accumulated flight duration in the first 12 h, moths can be clearly divided into two groups (<5 h and ≥5 h flight duration), and 58% of individuals belonged to the latter group with strong migratory tendency. Further, flight activity under low temperature conditions was tested, and the results of a logit generalized linear model indicate that the low temperature flight threshold of S. frugiperda is 13.1 °C under declining temperatures. Our results provide a scientific basis for further elucidating the flight biology and migration mechanism of S. frugiperda. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Fall Armyworm Research)
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Article
Effects of Host Plants on Bacterial Community Structure in Larvae Midgut of Spodoptera frugiperda
Insects 2022, 13(4), 373; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects13040373 - 11 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1234
Abstract
The fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda, is one of the most important invasive species and causes great damage to various host crops in China. In this study, the diversity and function of gut bacteria in the 5th instar larvae of FAW fed [...] Read more.
The fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda, is one of the most important invasive species and causes great damage to various host crops in China. In this study, the diversity and function of gut bacteria in the 5th instar larvae of FAW fed on maize, wheat, potato and tobacco leaves were analyzed through 16S rRNA sequencing. A total of 1324.25 ± 199.73, 1313.5 ± 74.87, 1873.00 ± 190.66 and 1435.25 ± 139.87 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) from the gut of FAW fed on these four different host plants were detected, respectively. Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were the most abundant bacterial phyla. Beta diversity analysis showed that the gut bacterial community structure of larvae fed on different host plants was significantly differentiated. At the genus level, the abundance of Enterococcus in larvae fed on wheat was significantly lower than those fed on the other three host plants. Enterobacter and ZOR0006 were dominant in FAW fed on tobacco leaves, and in low abundance in larvae fed on wheat. Interestingly, when fed on Solanaceae (tobacco and potato) leaves which contained relative higher levels of toxic secondary metabolites than Gramineae (wheat and maize), the genera Enterococcus, Enterobacter and Acinetobacter were significantly enriched. The results indicated that gut bacteria were related to the detoxification and adaptation of toxic secondary metabolites of host plants in FAW. Further analysis showed that replication, repair and nucleotide metabolism functions were enriched in the gut bacteria of larvae fed on tobacco and potato. In conclusion, the gut bacterial diversity and community composition in FAW larvae fed on different host plants showed significant differences, and the insect is likely to regulate their gut bacteria for adaptation to different host plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Fall Armyworm Research)
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Review

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Review
Impact of Temperature Change on the Fall Armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda under Global Climate Change
Insects 2022, 13(11), 981; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects13110981 - 26 Oct 2022
Viewed by 585
Abstract
The fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797), known as an important agricultural pest around the world, is indigenous to the tropical–subtropical regions in the Western Hemisphere, although its distribution has expanded over large parts of America, Africa, Asia and Oceania [...] Read more.
The fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797), known as an important agricultural pest around the world, is indigenous to the tropical–subtropical regions in the Western Hemisphere, although its distribution has expanded over large parts of America, Africa, Asia and Oceania in the last few years. The pest causes considerable costs annually coupled with its strong invasion propensity. Temperature is identified as the dominant abiotic factor affecting herbivorous insects. Several efforts have reported that temperature directly or indirectly influences the geographic distribution, phenology and natural enemies of the poikilothermal FAW, and thus may affect the damage to crops, e.g., the increased developmental rate accelerates the intake of crops at higher temperatures. Under some extreme temperatures, the FAW is likely to regulate various genes expression in response to environmental changes, which causes a wider viability and possibility of invasion threat. Therefore, this paper seeks to review and critically consider the variations of developmental indicators, the relationships between the FAW and its natural enemies and the temperature tolerance throughout its developmental stage at varying levels of heat/cold stress. Based on this, we discuss more environmentally friendly and economical control measures, we put forward future challenges facing climate change, we further offer statistical basics and instrumental guidance significance for informing FAW pest forecasting, risk analyses and a comprehensive management program for effective control globally. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Fall Armyworm Research)
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