Special Issue "Selected Papers from the REHABEND 2020 Congress"

A special issue of Infrastructures (ISSN 2412-3811).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Ignacio Lombillo
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
University of Cantabria. E.T.S. de Ingenieros de Caminos, Canales y Puertos, Av./Los Castros 44, 39005, Santander, Spain
Interests: structural health monitoring; nonminor destructive testing; laboratory testing; masonry structures; concrete structures; existing buildings; structural analysis; building pathology
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Haydee Blanco
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
University of Cantabria, Department of Structural and Mechanical Engineering, Av. Los Castros s/n, 39005 Santander, Spain
Interests: structural health monitoring; heritage buildings; non-destructive testing; interventions; sensors; structural analysis
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Yosbel Boffill
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
University of Cantabria, Department of Structural and Mechanical Engineering, Av. Los Castros s/n, 39005 Santander, Spain
Interests: masonry structures; ancient buildings; brickwork; lime mortars; physical and mechanical characterization; structural analysis
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Luis Villegas
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
University of Cantabria, Department of Structural and Mechanical Engineering, Av. Los Castros s/n, 39005 Santander, Spain
Interests: building pathology; laboratory testing; masonry structures; concrete structures; structural analysis
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The 8th Edition of the REHABEND Congress (REHABEND 2020, www.rehabend.unican.es) is focused on methods of analysis, planning, and implementation of construction rehabilitation measures, as well as maintenance and management strategies of existing buildings. The growing relevance of the refurbishment, rehabilitation, and conservation of existing buildings and infrastructure, in particular, historical heritage, has exposed the need to calibrate effective methods of analysis, planning, and implementation of construction rehabilitation measures, as well as maintenance and management strategies for existing buildings. The event is intended to promote the transfer of knowledge between experts in different countries that are working on this topic.

Topics of interest include the following: multidisciplinary studies (historical, archaeological, etc.); heritage and territory; urban regeneration; economic and financial policies; social participation processes and socio-cultural aspects in rehabilitation projects; construction pathology; diagnostic techniques and structural assessment (non-destructive testing, monitoring, and numerical modeling); guides and regulations; theoretical criteria of intervention projects; traditional materials and construction methods; novelty products applicable and new technologies; sustainable design and energy efficiency; intervention plans; rehabilitation and durability; reinforcement technologies; restoration of artworks; conservation of industrial heritage; examples of intervention; construction maintenance; preventive conservation of built heritage; heritage and cultural tourism; teaching and training; new technologies applied to heritage diffusion; accessibility to cultural heritage; working networks in cultural heritage; and built heritage management.

The REHABEND Congress on ‘Construction Pathology, Rehabilitation Technology, and Heritage Management’ will explore the progress that has been made in recent years in terms of the theoretical and experimental knowledge of these topics. This volume, thus, will contain a selection of the best papers presented at the REHABEND 2020 conference.

Prof. Dr. Ignacio Lombillo
Dr. Haydee Blanco
Dr. Yosbel Boffill
Dr. Luis Villegas

Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Infrastructures is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Ecological Restoration Plasters and Mineral Pigments Designed with Raw Material from the Island of Gavdos
Infrastructures 2020, 5(12), 110; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures5120110 - 03 Dec 2020
Viewed by 776
Abstract
Gavdos is an island of ca. 34 km2 located to the south of Crete, Greece, with a local landscape rich in clay material of remarkable diversity in colour and quality. The limited natural and human-made resources are persistently recycled, forming the built [...] Read more.
Gavdos is an island of ca. 34 km2 located to the south of Crete, Greece, with a local landscape rich in clay material of remarkable diversity in colour and quality. The limited natural and human-made resources are persistently recycled, forming the built structures of the island and determining the island’s sustainable local tradition. In the framework of this research, areas with clay soil were identified through a geological survey and testimonies of local inhabitants. The studied clay samples were characterized with mineralogical and physicochemical analyses. Two out of ten samples with a clay content higher than 50%, after low-temperature thermal treatment (600 °C and 700 °C), functioned as pozzolanic additives enhancing the performance in resistance to salt decay and plasticity of lime mortars. Seven raw clay samples were used as pigments in lime-based colours and their performance and durability, as assessed with the appropriate laboratory analyses, revealed the existence of stable mineral pigments under UV and visible light irradiation. There is great potential in the exploitation of local raw material from the island of Gavdos for the restoration of the traditional building stock on the island in terms of resource efficiency, environmental impact and preservation of the local identity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the REHABEND 2020 Congress)
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Open AccessArticle
The Strengthening of Masonry Walls in Seismic-Prone Areas with the CAM System: Experimental and Numerical Results
Infrastructures 2020, 5(12), 108; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures5120108 - 03 Dec 2020
Viewed by 556
Abstract
In this paper, experimental and numerical results of a research project about the structural behavior of strengthened masonry are presented and discussed. The aim of the research is to study the in-plane shear behavior of an old masonry wall with an opening in [...] Read more.
In this paper, experimental and numerical results of a research project about the structural behavior of strengthened masonry are presented and discussed. The aim of the research is to study the in-plane shear behavior of an old masonry wall with an opening in the arch form, reinforced with a pioneering system of 3D pre-tensioned stainless steel ties. The masonry wall was in-plane loaded until first cracking appeared, then it was reinforced and re-loaded until failure. The experimental results have highlighted the benefits of the reinforcing method adopted, especially to provide an increasing in terms of both strength and ductility. Numerical modeling of the masonry wall behavior was accomplished by using non-linear finite-element methods generally adopted for reinforced concrete elements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the REHABEND 2020 Congress)
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Open AccessArticle
Investigation Strategy for Structural Assessment of Historic Towers
Infrastructures 2020, 5(12), 106; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures5120106 - 01 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 649
Abstract
Historical masonry towers are relevant architectural heritage often in a strategic position within city centres. Their height and position require specific controls in order to define the state of preservation. The paper describes the investigation procedures developed by the authors in selected case [...] Read more.
Historical masonry towers are relevant architectural heritage often in a strategic position within city centres. Their height and position require specific controls in order to define the state of preservation. The paper describes the investigation procedures developed by the authors in selected case studies. According to the timing and to the complexity of the structure, the approach requires preliminary visual inspections, geometric, crack pattern survey supplemented by historical research and stratigraphic survey. Operational modal testing evaluates the overall structural behaviour, indicating eventual local (or global) problems to study in depth by monitoring or further local tests. Emergency operations, such as controls after earthquakes, could require prompt procedures. In this case, the combination of visual inspection, geometric and damage survey with dynamic testing is a reliable procedure for structural assessment. Additional investigation increases the knowledge of local problems or gives information for further activity such as structural modelling. For instance, relevant data are the evaluation of the masonry quality or the control of the local state of stress to estimate through non-destructive or minor destructive testing in selected positions. Nevertheless, such activities require accurate projects of the investigation too, planning and localising several tests in order to solve the problems detected in the preliminary steps of the diagnosis process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the REHABEND 2020 Congress)
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Open AccessArticle
Confinement of Masonry Columns with the FRCM-System: Theoretical and Experimental Investigation
Infrastructures 2020, 5(11), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures5110101 - 16 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 597
Abstract
Fabric Reinforced Cementitious Matrix (FRCM) systems are promising solutions for the confinement of masonry columns because they demonstrate strengthening effectiveness and, at the same time, compatibility with historical substrates. Nevertheless, the matrix is responsible for the stress-transfer from the structural element to the [...] Read more.
Fabric Reinforced Cementitious Matrix (FRCM) systems are promising solutions for the confinement of masonry columns because they demonstrate strengthening effectiveness and, at the same time, compatibility with historical substrates. Nevertheless, the matrix is responsible for the stress-transfer from the structural element to the fabric-reinforcement. Therefore, in the case of poor-quality mortar, the effectiveness of the strengthening can be limited or even compromised. On the other hand, the low content of fibers utilized for FRCM systems generally involves the need to apply more layers in order to accomplish design requirements and a continuous configuration of the reinforcement is more often addressed. Few experimental and theoretical investigations have been targeted to the before mentioned aspects in the recent past, namely the influence of the kind of mortar, the number of layers, and the strengthening configuration (continuous, discontinuous) on the effectiveness of confinement. The present paper refers to the results of an experimental investigation on FRCM confined clay brick masonry. A series of small-scale masonry columns were tested under monotonic centered load until collapse. The varied parameters were the number of confining layers (i.e., 1, 2, and 3) and the confinement configuration (i.e., continuous and discontinuous). The performed research aims to contribute in strengthening to the knowledge in the field of FRCM-confinement, mainly focusing on some of the mentioned unexplored aspects (number of layers, strengthening configuration) that could be considered for validation/improvement of analytical design-oriented formulas. In particular, some analytical models, available in the technical literature, were adopted for predicting the herein reported experimental results. Even if based on few experimental results, the outcomes showed that the number of FRCM-layers and the confinement configuration were crucial parameters affecting the confining effectiveness. The compressive strength was satisfactorily predicted in all cases by the two available utilized models. On the other hand, an improvement in the utilized AOM model is suggested in order to include the stress–strain curves of the hardening type. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the REHABEND 2020 Congress)
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Open AccessArticle
Seismic Vulnerability Assessment of a Monumental Masonry Building
Infrastructures 2020, 5(11), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures5110093 - 01 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 598
Abstract
Recent seismic events that hit the central part of Italy have highlighted again the high vulnerability of the historical and architectonical heritage of Italy and the importance of preserving it. However, the seismic assessment of monumental buildings is particularly complex because each historical [...] Read more.
Recent seismic events that hit the central part of Italy have highlighted again the high vulnerability of the historical and architectonical heritage of Italy and the importance of preserving it. However, the seismic assessment of monumental buildings is particularly complex because each historical construction is a singular case realized by specific techniques. Therefore, the first step should be the knowledge of the building even if it is a difficult task. In the present paper, the seismic behavior of an important nineteenth century astronomical observatory, constructed between 1816 and 1819, was investigated. The building, located in Naples, in the southern part of Italy, and classified by the Italian code as an area of medium seismic hazard, was analyzed in the elastic and inelastic range under seismic actions. In this study, the results of two different models were proposed and critically compared. The first one was implemented by shell elements for walls and vaults developing a linear dynamic analysis, while the second one simulates the building through “equivalent frames” applying a nonlinear static analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the REHABEND 2020 Congress)
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Open AccessArticle
Strengthening of Low-Strength Concrete Columns with Fibre Reinforced Polymers. Full-Scale Tests
Infrastructures 2020, 5(11), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures5110091 - 31 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 474
Abstract
Confinement of columns with externally bonded fibre reinforced polymers (FRP) sheets is an easy and effective way of enhancing the load carrying and strain capacity of reinforced concrete (RC) columns. Many experimental studies have been conducted on cylindrical small-scale un-reinforced concrete specimens externally [...] Read more.
Confinement of columns with externally bonded fibre reinforced polymers (FRP) sheets is an easy and effective way of enhancing the load carrying and strain capacity of reinforced concrete (RC) columns. Many experimental studies have been conducted on cylindrical small-scale un-reinforced concrete specimens externally confined with FRP. It is widely accepted that confinement of square or rectangular columns is less efficient than the confinement of circular columns. The theoretical models for rectangular sections are mostly based on approaches for circular columns modified by a shape factor, but the different models do not give similar results. This paper presents an experimental program on large-scale square and rectangular RC columns externally strengthened with carbon FRP sheets and subjected to axial load. The main variables were the side-aspect ratio of the cross-section, the radius of curvature of the corners and the amount of FRP reinforcement. The results show that the FRP confinement can increase the strength and strain capacity of rectangular concrete columns with low strength concrete. The FRP hoop ultimate strain was much lower than the material ultimate tensile strain obtained from flat coupon tests and the strain efficiency factor achieved in the tests was less than the value usually recommended by design guides. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the REHABEND 2020 Congress)
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Wall Thickness and Water Content on the Out-of-Plane Stability of Adobe Walls
Infrastructures 2020, 5(9), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures5090078 - 22 Sep 2020
Viewed by 630
Abstract
This paper presents the results of a numerical study using the finite element method to assess the effect of wall thickness and a moist region along the wall base on the out-of-plane lateral stability of adobe walls. The models consisted of cantilever unreinforced [...] Read more.
This paper presents the results of a numerical study using the finite element method to assess the effect of wall thickness and a moist region along the wall base on the out-of-plane lateral stability of adobe walls. The models consisted of cantilever unreinforced adobe walls with a thickness of 25 cm, 30 cm, and 40 cm. Numerical analyses were performed for four lengths (L) of the moist region and for dry walls. The moist region was modelled with material characteristics corresponding to partially saturated and nearly saturated adobe. The results showed the detrimental effect of moisture along the lower portion of the wall on the out-of-plane lateral strength. The out-of-plane lateral strength reduction ratio dropped significantly as L increased. A high slenderness ratio was found to be critical for cantilever adobe walls when L extended beyond half of the wall length. The results provided insights concerning the role of wall thickness in the stability against overturning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the REHABEND 2020 Congress)
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Open AccessArticle
Seismic Capacity Estimation of a Masonry Bell-Tower with Verticality Imperfection Detected by a Drone-Assisted Survey
Infrastructures 2020, 5(9), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures5090072 - 08 Sep 2020
Viewed by 693
Abstract
Masonry towers are considered an important part of cultural heritage due to their architectural and historical value. From a structural perspective these kind of buildings are considered slender elements, the same as a cantilever beam. In real cases it is not easy to [...] Read more.
Masonry towers are considered an important part of cultural heritage due to their architectural and historical value. From a structural perspective these kind of buildings are considered slender elements, the same as a cantilever beam. In real cases it is not easy to model with high accuracy these heritage constructions, since the geometry and mechanical properties of the constituent materials are not adequately known. On the other hand, a deep knowledge of the structural and seismic vulnerability of the masonry towers is needed in order to preserve and retrofit, when necessary, their architectural and cultural value. In the present research an exhaustive study is presented, as it regards the assessment of the seismic vulnerability of a heritage masonry bell-tower, built in the 14th century. An innovative protocol of structural survey followed, and it is proposed herein. The geometry of the tower was easily obtained by digital photogrammetry assisted by a drone. The geometrical model was easily converted into a digitalized input, that was introduced into a finite element method (FEM)-based code. The 3D model was used for linear static, linear dynamic and nonlinear static (pushover) structural analyses. The vulnerability of the masonry tower was assessed and at least one kinematic was found to be not verified. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the REHABEND 2020 Congress)
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Open AccessArticle
Failures of the Cast-Iron Columns of Historic Buildings—Case Studies
Infrastructures 2020, 5(9), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures5090071 - 02 Sep 2020
Viewed by 757
Abstract
Selected technical problems related to the rehabilitation of cast-iron columns in structures from the turn of the 19th and 20th century are discussed in the paper. Lack of contemporary standard regulations related to the design of cast-iron structures is a significant problem in [...] Read more.
Selected technical problems related to the rehabilitation of cast-iron columns in structures from the turn of the 19th and 20th century are discussed in the paper. Lack of contemporary standard regulations related to the design of cast-iron structures is a significant problem in the design works and experimental investigations on cast-iron columns are frequently required. The paper presents results of the tests concerning principal properties of cast-iron—strength and deformability. The historical design principles are discussed in the light of the results of experimental investigations. As it was demonstrated, the actual load-carrying capacities of cast-iron columns may exceed by several times the values resulting from the 20th century design rules. The conservatism of the design principles resulted, however, from the material uncertainties—lack of homogeneity and hidden defects of the cast-iron. Selected examples of failures of cast-iron columns from 19th-century structures such as post-industrial buildings and engineering structures are discussed. They resulted from errors made during adaptation works. The reasons for these failures and considered methods of repairing the structures are presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the REHABEND 2020 Congress)
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Open AccessArticle
The Selected Issues of Adaptation of 19th and 20th Century Post-Industrial Buildings in Łódź
Infrastructures 2020, 5(8), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures5080069 - 18 Aug 2020
Viewed by 883
Abstract
The paper deals with selected technical problems related to the adaptation for new uses of the structure of existing post-industrial buildings from the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries. A major difficulty is the fact that the strength and geometric properties of [...] Read more.
The paper deals with selected technical problems related to the adaptation for new uses of the structure of existing post-industrial buildings from the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries. A major difficulty is the fact that the strength and geometric properties of cast-iron, steel, and masonry elements often differ significantly from the values characterizing contemporary materials. Due to uncertainty regarding the load-carrying capacity of historical structures, in many cases there is a need to carry out destructive tests of elements taken from the buildings. As the example of cast-iron girders in the former spinning mill of “I. Poznański” demonstrated, such tests can prove a significant margin of load-carrying capacity and confirm the possibility of adapting the structure to new purposes. The paper also presents examples of strengthening the existing wooden ceilings by joining with the reinforced concrete structure, which allowed the keeping of the original elements and an increase of the allowable load. Selected problems related to the assessment of historical masonry structures were also described. The discussed examples of structural failures showed that they often resulted from incorrect assessment of the strength of historical masonry elements as well as improperly conducted construction works. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the REHABEND 2020 Congress)
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