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Special Issue "Nutrition Genomics"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Bioactives and Nutraceuticals".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Jesús Osada
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Universidad de Zaragoza, Facultad de Veterinaria, Departamento de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular y Celular, Zaragoza, Spain
Tel. 34-976761644
Dr. Adela Ramírez-Torres
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Surgery, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California, United States

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The scientific interest in characterizing the whole genome response to nutrients is becoming of paramount interest considering that nutrition is one of the crucial events in cell and organism lives. With the recent incorporation of microarrays and whole genome sequence is technically feasible. Gathering all the research carried in the field represent an endless process, and in this way, this issue offers a unique opportunity to those researchers dealing with these aspects.

This Special Issue will cover a selection of recent research topics and current review articles in the field of diets and high-throughput gene expression. Experimental papers, up-to-date review articles, and commentaries are all welcome. Contributions to this Special Issue may cover all aspects of diets and high-throughput gene expression including epigenomics modifications in any tissue. When complex diets are used, they should be perfectly characterized. Both microarrays and RNA seq methods are welcome. By the time of submission, raw data will have been deposit at public repositories. Confirmation of data with an independent approach for RNA or at protein level, when analyzing mRNA, will be certainly encouraged. When using qPCR, adherence to MIQE guidelines will be required.

Prof. Dr. Jesús Osada
Dr. Adela Ramírez-Torres
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. There is an Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal. For details about the APC please see here. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Diet 
  • Nutrient 
  • Microarrays 
  • DNA sequencing 
  • Epigenomics 
  • Transcriptomics

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Maternal and Post-Weaning High-Fat Diets Produce Distinct DNA Methylation Patterns in Hepatic Metabolic Pathways within Specific Genomic Contexts
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(13), 3229; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20133229 - 30 Jun 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Calorie-dense high-fat diets (HF) are associated with detrimental health outcomes, including obesity, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. Both pre- and post-natal HF diets have been hypothesized to negatively impact long-term metabolic health via epigenetic mechanisms. To understand how the timing of HF diet intake [...] Read more.
Calorie-dense high-fat diets (HF) are associated with detrimental health outcomes, including obesity, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. Both pre- and post-natal HF diets have been hypothesized to negatively impact long-term metabolic health via epigenetic mechanisms. To understand how the timing of HF diet intake impacts DNA methylation and metabolism, male Sprague–Dawley rats were exposed to either maternal HF (MHF) or post-weaning HF diet (PHF). At post-natal week 12, PHF rats had similar body weights but greater hepatic lipid accumulation compared to the MHF rats. Genome-wide DNA methylation was evaluated, and analysis revealed 1744 differentially methylation regions (DMRs) between the groups with the majority of the DMR located outside of gene-coding regions. Within differentially methylated genes (DMGs), intragenic DNA methylation closer to the transcription start site was associated with lower gene expression, whereas DNA methylation further downstream was positively correlated with gene expression. The insulin and phosphatidylinositol (PI) signaling pathways were enriched with 25 DMRs that were associated with 20 DMGs, including PI3 kinase (Pi3k), pyruvate kinase (Pklr), and phosphodiesterase 3 (Pde3). Together, these results suggest that the timing of HF diet intake determines DNA methylation and gene expression patterns in hepatic metabolic pathways that target specific genomic contexts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Genomics)
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Open AccessArticle
Reduced Diet-induced Thermogenesis in Apolipoprotein A-IV Deficient Mice
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(13), 3176; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20133176 - 28 Jun 2019
Abstract
In the presence of dietary lipids, both apolipoprotein A-IV (ApoA-IV) production and brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis are increased. The effect of dietary lipid-induced AproA-IV on BAT thermogenesis and energy expenditure remains unknown. In the present study, we hypothesized that ApoA-IV knockout (ApoA-IV-KO) [...] Read more.
In the presence of dietary lipids, both apolipoprotein A-IV (ApoA-IV) production and brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis are increased. The effect of dietary lipid-induced AproA-IV on BAT thermogenesis and energy expenditure remains unknown. In the present study, we hypothesized that ApoA-IV knockout (ApoA-IV-KO) mice exhibited decreased BAT thermogenesis to affect energy homeostasis. To test this hypothesis, BAT thermogenesis in wildtype (WT) and ApoA-IV-KO mice fed either a standard low-fat chow diet or a high-fat diet (HFD) was investigated. When fed a chow diet, energy expenditure and food intake were comparable between WT and ApoA-IV-KO mice. After 1 week of HFD consumption, ApoA-IV-KO mice had comparable energy intake but produced lower energy expenditure relative to their WT controls in the dark phase. After an acute feeding of dietary lipids or 1-week HFD feeding, ApoA-IV-KO mice produced lower levels of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) and exhibited reduced expression of thermogenic genes in the BAT compared with WT controls. In response to cold exposure, however, ApoA-IV-KO mice had comparable energy expenditure and BAT temperature relative to WT mice. Thus, ApoA-IV-KO mice exhibited reduced diet-induced BAT thermogenesis and energy expenditure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Genomics)
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Open AccessArticle
Acute Effects of Single Doses of Bonito Fish Peptides and Vitamin D on Whole Blood Gene Expression Levels: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(8), 1944; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20081944 - 20 Apr 2019
Abstract
Fish contains high quality proteins and essential nutrients including 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D). Fish peptide consumption can lower cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, and studies have shown an association between 25(OH)D deficiency, CVD and CVD risk factors, such as diabetes. This study investigated acute [...] Read more.
Fish contains high quality proteins and essential nutrients including 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D). Fish peptide consumption can lower cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, and studies have shown an association between 25(OH)D deficiency, CVD and CVD risk factors, such as diabetes. This study investigated acute effects of a single dose of cholecalciferol (VitD3), bonito fish peptide hydrolysate (BPH), or a combination of both on CVD risk factors and whole blood gene expression levels. A randomized, crossover, placebo controlled trial was conducted in 22 adults. They ingested, in random order and at 7-day intervals, 1000 IU of VitD3, 3 g of BPH, a combination of both, or a placebo. A 180 min oral glucose tolerance test was performed. Differences in whole-genome expression levels after versus before each supplementation were computed for 18 subjects. We observed that 16, 1 and 5 transcripts were differentially expressed post- vs. pre-ingestion for VitD3, BPH or VitD3 + BPH treatments, respectively. VitD3-containing treatments affected the expression of the solute carrier family 25 member 20 (SLC25A20) gene involved in fatty acid oxidation, various transcription factors and genes related to glucose metabolism. These results suggest that VitD3 rapidly modulates genes related to CVD risk factors in blood while BPH seems to moderately modulate gene expression levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Genomics)
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Open AccessArticle
Mammary Gland Transcriptome and Proteome Modifications by Nutrient Restriction in Early Lactation Holstein Cows Challenged with Intra-Mammary Lipopolysaccharide
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(5), 1156; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20051156 - 06 Mar 2019
Abstract
The objective is to study the effects of nutrient restrictions, which induce a metabolic imbalance on the inflammatory response of the mammary gland in early lactation cows. The aim is to decipher the molecular mechanisms involved, by comparing a control, with a restriction [...] Read more.
The objective is to study the effects of nutrient restrictions, which induce a metabolic imbalance on the inflammatory response of the mammary gland in early lactation cows. The aim is to decipher the molecular mechanisms involved, by comparing a control, with a restriction group, a transcriptome and proteome, after an intra-mammary lipopolysaccharide challenge. Multi-parous cows were either allowed ad libitum intake of a lactation diet (n = 8), or a ration containing low nutrient density (n = 8; 48% barley straw and dry matter basis) for four days starting at 24 ± 3 days in milk. Three days after the initiation of their treatments, one healthy rear mammary quarter of 12 lactating cows was challenged with 50 µg of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Transcriptomic and proteomic analyses were performed on mammary biopsies obtained 24 h after the LPS challenge, using bovine 44K microarrays, and nano-LC-MS/MS, respectively. Restriction-induced deficits in energy, led to a marked negative energy balance (41 versus 97 ± 15% of Net Energy for Lactation (NEL) requirements) and metabolic imbalance. A microarray analyses identified 25 differentially expressed genes in response to restriction, suggesting that restriction had modified mammary metabolism, specifically β-oxidation process. Proteomic analyses identified 53 differentially expressed proteins, which suggests that the modification of protein synthesis from mRNA splicing to folding. Under-nutrition influenced mammary gland expression of the genes involved in metabolism, thereby increasing β-oxidation and altering protein synthesis, which may affect the response to inflammation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Genomics)
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Open AccessArticle
Olive Oil, Palm Oil, and Hybrid Palm Oil Distinctly Modulate Liver Transcriptome and Induce NAFLD in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20010008 - 20 Dec 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is highly prevalent worldwide. The most severe form is nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Among risk factors for the development of NAFLD is excessive lipid intake. Since palm (P) oil is the most consumed oil in the world, we aimed [...] Read more.
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is highly prevalent worldwide. The most severe form is nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Among risk factors for the development of NAFLD is excessive lipid intake. Since palm (P) oil is the most consumed oil in the world, we aimed to investigate the effects of high-fat diets made with P oil, hybrid palm (HP) oil, or olive (O) oil in liver. Twenty-four male mice (C57Bl/6J) were fed a high-fat diet (41% fat) containing P, HP, or O oils for 8 weeks and compared to a control (C) group fed a chow diet. Adiposity was measured with computed tomography. Body, adipose tissue, and liver weights, as well as liver fat (Bligh–Dyer), blood lipid profile, glucose, and liver enzymes were measured. Liver histology (hematoxylin–eosin) and transcriptome (microarray-based) were performed. ANOVA tests with Newman–Keuls were used. Body weight was increased in the P group (p < 0.001) and body fat in the O group (C vs. O p ≤ 0.01, P vs. O p ≤ 0.05, HP vs. O p ≤ 0.05). All high-fat diets disturbed the blood lipid profile and glucose, with marked effects of HP on very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL), triglycerides, and alkaline phosphatase (p ≤ 0.001). HP had the highest liver fat (42.76 ± 1.58), followed by P (33.94 ± 1.13). O had a fat amount comparable to C (16.46 ± 0.34, 14.71 ± 0.70, respectively). P and HP oils induced hepatocyte ballooning. Transcriptome alterations of the O group were related to amino acid metabolism and fatty acid (FA) metabolism, the P group to calcium ion homeostasis, and HP oil to protein localization. Both P and HP oils induced NASH in mice via disturbed hepatocyte transcription. This raises concerns about the content of these oils in several industrialized foods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Genomics)
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Open AccessArticle
Transcriptome Analysis of Long Non-Coding RNA in the Bovine Mammary Gland Following Dietary Supplementation with Linseed Oil and Safflower Oil
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(11), 3610; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19113610 - 15 Nov 2018
Abstract
This study aimed to characterize the long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) expression in the bovine mammary gland and to infer their functions in dietary response to 5% linseed oil (LSO) or 5% safflower oil (SFO). Twelve cows (six per treatment) in mid lactation were [...] Read more.
This study aimed to characterize the long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) expression in the bovine mammary gland and to infer their functions in dietary response to 5% linseed oil (LSO) or 5% safflower oil (SFO). Twelve cows (six per treatment) in mid lactation were fed a control diet for 28 days followed by a treatment period (control diet supplemented with 5% LSO or 5% SFO) of 28 days. Mammary gland biopsies were collected from each animal on day-14 (D-14, control period), D+7 (early treatment period) and D+28 (late treatment period) and were subjected to RNA-Sequencing and subsequent bioinformatics analyses. Functional enrichment of lncRNA was performed via potential cis regulated target genes located within 50 kb flanking regions of lncRNAs and having expression correlation of >0.7 with mRNAs. A total of 4955 lncRNAs (325 known and 4630 novel) were identified which potentially cis targeted 59 and 494 genes in LSO and SFO treatments, respectively. Enrichments of cis target genes of lncRNAs indicated potential roles of lncRNAs in immune function, nucleic acid metabolism and cell membrane organization processes as well as involvement in Notch, cAMP and TGF-β signaling pathways. Thirty-two and 21 lncRNAs were differentially expressed (DE) in LSO and SFO treatments, respectively. Six genes (KCNF1, STARD13, BCL6, NXPE2, HHIPL2 and MMD) were identified as potential cis target genes of six DE lncRNAs. In conclusion, this study has identified lncRNAs with potential roles in mammary gland functions and potential candidate genes and pathways via which lncRNAs might function in response to LSO and SFA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Genomics)
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Open AccessArticle
Co-Expression Network Analysis Identifies miRNA–mRNA Networks Potentially Regulating Milk Traits and Blood Metabolites
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(9), 2500; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19092500 - 24 Aug 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
MicroRNAs (miRNA) regulate mRNA networks to coordinate cellular functions. In this study, we constructed gene co-expression networks to detect miRNA modules (clusters of miRNAs with similar expression patterns) and miRNA–mRNA pairs associated with blood (triacylglyceride and nonesterified fatty acids) and milk (milk yield, [...] Read more.
MicroRNAs (miRNA) regulate mRNA networks to coordinate cellular functions. In this study, we constructed gene co-expression networks to detect miRNA modules (clusters of miRNAs with similar expression patterns) and miRNA–mRNA pairs associated with blood (triacylglyceride and nonesterified fatty acids) and milk (milk yield, fat, protein, and lactose) components and milk fatty acid traits following dietary supplementation of cows’ diets with 5% linseed oil (LSO) (n = 6 cows) or 5% safflower oil (SFO) (n = 6 cows) for 28 days. Using miRNA transcriptome data from mammary tissues of cows for co-expression network analysis, we identified three consensus modules: blue, brown, and turquoise, composed of 70, 34, and 86 miRNA members, respectively. The hub miRNAs (miRNAs with the most connections with other miRNAs) were miR-30d, miR-484 and miR-16b for blue, brown, and turquoise modules, respectively. Cell cycle arrest, and p53 signaling and transforming growth factor–beta (TGF-β) signaling pathways were the common gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways enriched for target genes of the three modules. Protein percent (p = 0.03) correlated with the turquoise module in LSO treatment while protein yield (p = 0.003) and milk yield (p = 7 × 10−04) correlated with the turquoise model, protein and milk yields and lactose percent (p < 0.05) correlated with the blue module and fat percent (p = 0.04) correlated with the brown module in SFO treatment. Several fatty acids correlated (p < 0.05) with the blue (CLA:9,11) and brown (C4:0, C12:0, C22:0, C18:1n9c and CLA:10,12) modules in LSO treatment and with the turquoise (C14:0, C18:3n3 and CLA:9,11), blue (C14:0 and C23:0) and brown (C6:0, C16:0, C22:0, C22:6n3 and CLA:10,12) modules in SFO treatment. Correlation of miRNA and mRNA data from the same animals identified the following miRNA–mRNA pairs: miR-183/RHBDD2 (p = 0.003), miR-484/EIF1AD (p = 0.011) and miR-130a/SBSPON (p = 0.004) with lowest p-values for the blue, brown, and turquoise modules, respectively. Milk yield, protein yield, and protein percentage correlated (p < 0.05) with 28, 31 and 5 miRNA–mRNA pairs, respectively. Our results suggest that, the blue, brown, and turquoise modules miRNAs, hub miRNAs, miRNA–mRNA networks, cell cycle arrest GO term, p53 signaling and TGF-β signaling pathways have considerable influence on milk and blood phenotypes following dietary supplementation of dairy cows’ diets with 5% LSO or 5% SFO. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Genomics)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Gene–Environment Interactions on Body Fat Distribution
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(15), 3690; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20153690 - 27 Jul 2019
Abstract
The prevalence of obesity has been increasing markedly in the U.S. and worldwide in the past decades; and notably, the obese populations are signified by not only the overall elevated adiposity but also particularly harmful accumulation of body fat in the central region [...] Read more.
The prevalence of obesity has been increasing markedly in the U.S. and worldwide in the past decades; and notably, the obese populations are signified by not only the overall elevated adiposity but also particularly harmful accumulation of body fat in the central region of the body, namely, abdominal obesity. The profound shift from “traditional” to “obesogenic” environments, principally featured by the abundance of palatable, energy-dense diet, reduced physical activity, and prolonged sedentary time, promotes the obesity epidemics and detrimental body fat distribution. Recent advances in genomics studies shed light on the genetic basis of obesity and body fat distribution. In addition, growing evidence from investigations in large cohorts and clinical trials has lent support to interactions between genetic variations and environmental factors, e.g., diet and lifestyle factors, in relation to obesity and body fat distribution. This review summarizes the recent discoveries from observational studies and randomized clinical trials on the gene–environment interactions on obesity and body fat distribution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Genomics)
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Open AccessReview
Nutritional Regulation of Gene Expression: Carbohydrate-, Fat- and Amino Acid-Dependent Modulation of Transcriptional Activity
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(6), 1386; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20061386 - 19 Mar 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The ability to detect changes in nutrient levels and generate an adequate response to these changes is essential for the proper functioning of living organisms. Adaptation to the high degree of variability in nutrient intake requires precise control of metabolic pathways. Mammals have [...] Read more.
The ability to detect changes in nutrient levels and generate an adequate response to these changes is essential for the proper functioning of living organisms. Adaptation to the high degree of variability in nutrient intake requires precise control of metabolic pathways. Mammals have developed different mechanisms to detect the abundance of nutrients such as sugars, lipids and amino acids and provide an integrated response. These mechanisms include the control of gene expression (from transcription to translation). This review reports the main molecular mechanisms that connect nutrients’ levels, gene expression and metabolism in health. The manuscript is focused on sugars’ signaling through the carbohydrate-responsive element binding protein (ChREBP), the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) in the response to fat and GCN2/activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) and mTORC1 pathways that sense amino acid concentrations. Frequently, alterations in these pathways underlie the onset of several metabolic pathologies such as obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases or cancer. In this context, the complete understanding of these mechanisms may improve our knowledge of metabolic diseases and may offer new therapeutic approaches based on nutritional interventions and individual genetic makeup. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Genomics)
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Open AccessReview
Nutrient-Dependent Changes of Protein Palmitoylation: Impact on Nuclear Enzymes and Regulation of Gene Expression
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(12), 3820; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19123820 - 30 Nov 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
Diet is the main environmental stimulus chronically impinging on the organism throughout the entire life. Nutrients impact cells via a plethora of mechanisms including the regulation of both protein post-translational modifications and gene expression. Palmitoylation is the most-studied protein lipidation, which consists of [...] Read more.
Diet is the main environmental stimulus chronically impinging on the organism throughout the entire life. Nutrients impact cells via a plethora of mechanisms including the regulation of both protein post-translational modifications and gene expression. Palmitoylation is the most-studied protein lipidation, which consists of the attachment of a molecule of palmitic acid to residues of proteins. S-palmitoylation is a reversible cysteine modification finely regulated by palmitoyl-transferases and acyl-thioesterases that is involved in the regulation of protein trafficking and activity. Recently, several studies have demonstrated that diet-dependent molecules such as insulin and fatty acids may affect protein palmitoylation. Here, we examine the role of protein palmitoylation on the regulation of gene expression focusing on the impact of this modification on the activity of chromatin remodeler enzymes, transcription factors, and nuclear proteins. We also discuss how this physiological phenomenon may represent a pivotal mechanism underlying the impact of diet and nutrient-dependent signals on human diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Genomics)
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Open AccessReview
Trimethylamine N-Oxide: A Link among Diet, Gut Microbiota, Gene Regulation of Liver and Intestine Cholesterol Homeostasis and HDL Function
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(10), 3228; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19103228 - 19 Oct 2018
Cited by 9
Abstract
Recent evidence, including massive gene-expression analysis and a wide-variety of other multi-omics approaches, demonstrates an interplay between gut microbiota and the regulation of plasma lipids. Gut microbial metabolism of choline and l-carnitine results in the formation of trimethylamine (TMA) and concomitant conversion [...] Read more.
Recent evidence, including massive gene-expression analysis and a wide-variety of other multi-omics approaches, demonstrates an interplay between gut microbiota and the regulation of plasma lipids. Gut microbial metabolism of choline and l-carnitine results in the formation of trimethylamine (TMA) and concomitant conversion into trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) by liver flavin monooxygenase 3 (FMO3). The plasma level of TMAO is determined by the genetic variation, diet and composition of gut microbiota. Multiple studies have demonstrated an association between TMAO plasma levels and the risk of atherothrombotic cardiovascular disease (CVD). We aimed to review the molecular pathways by which TMAO production and FMO3 exert their proatherogenic effects. TMAO may promote foam cell formation by upregulating macrophage scavenger receptors, deregulating enterohepatic cholesterol and bile acid metabolism and impairing macrophage reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). Furthermore, FMO3 may promote dyslipidemia by regulating multiple genes involved in hepatic lipogenesis and gluconeogenesis. FMO3 also impairs multiple aspects of cholesterol homeostasis, including transintestinal cholesterol export and macrophage-specific RCT. At least part of these FMO3-mediated effects on lipid metabolism and atherogenesis seem to be independent of the TMA/TMAO formation. Overall, these findings have the potential to open a new era for the therapeutic manipulation of the gut microbiota to improve CVD risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Genomics)
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Open AccessReview
Polyamine Metabolism and Gene Methylation in Conjunction with One-Carbon Metabolism
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(10), 3106; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19103106 - 10 Oct 2018
Cited by 5
Abstract
Recent investigations have revealed that changes in DNA methylation status play an important role in aging-associated pathologies and lifespan. The methylation of DNA is regulated by DNA methyltransferases (DNMT1, DNMT3a, and DNMT3b) in the presence of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), which serves as a [...] Read more.
Recent investigations have revealed that changes in DNA methylation status play an important role in aging-associated pathologies and lifespan. The methylation of DNA is regulated by DNA methyltransferases (DNMT1, DNMT3a, and DNMT3b) in the presence of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), which serves as a methyl group donor. Increased availability of SAM enhances DNMT activity, while its metabolites, S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine (SAH) and decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine (dcSAM), act to inhibit DNMT activity. SAH, which is converted from SAM by adding a methyl group to cytosine residues in DNA, is an intermediate precursor of homocysteine. dcSAM, converted from SAM by the enzymatic activity of adenosylmethionine decarboxylase, provides an aminopropyl group to synthesize the polyamines spermine and spermidine. Increased homocysteine levels are a significant risk factor for the development of a wide range of conditions, including cardiovascular diseases. However, successful homocysteine-lowering treatment by vitamins (B6, B12, and folate) failed to improve these conditions. Long-term increased polyamine intake elevated blood spermine levels and inhibited aging-associated pathologies in mice and humans. Spermine reversed changes (increased dcSAM, decreased DNMT activity, aberrant DNA methylation, and proinflammatory status) induced by the inhibition of ornithine decarboxylase. The relation between polyamine metabolism, one-carbon metabolism, DNA methylation, and the biological mechanism of spermine-induced lifespan extension is discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Genomics)
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