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Open AccessArticle

Maternal and Post-Weaning High-Fat Diets Produce Distinct DNA Methylation Patterns in Hepatic Metabolic Pathways within Specific Genomic Contexts

1
Division of Nutritional Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
2
Department of Human Genetics, University of California at Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
3
Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
4
Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Division of Nutritional Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
5
Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Division of Nutritional Sciences, Illinois Informatics Institute, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(13), 3229; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20133229
Received: 28 May 2019 / Revised: 24 June 2019 / Accepted: 26 June 2019 / Published: 30 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Genomics)
Calorie-dense high-fat diets (HF) are associated with detrimental health outcomes, including obesity, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. Both pre- and post-natal HF diets have been hypothesized to negatively impact long-term metabolic health via epigenetic mechanisms. To understand how the timing of HF diet intake impacts DNA methylation and metabolism, male Sprague–Dawley rats were exposed to either maternal HF (MHF) or post-weaning HF diet (PHF). At post-natal week 12, PHF rats had similar body weights but greater hepatic lipid accumulation compared to the MHF rats. Genome-wide DNA methylation was evaluated, and analysis revealed 1744 differentially methylation regions (DMRs) between the groups with the majority of the DMR located outside of gene-coding regions. Within differentially methylated genes (DMGs), intragenic DNA methylation closer to the transcription start site was associated with lower gene expression, whereas DNA methylation further downstream was positively correlated with gene expression. The insulin and phosphatidylinositol (PI) signaling pathways were enriched with 25 DMRs that were associated with 20 DMGs, including PI3 kinase (Pi3k), pyruvate kinase (Pklr), and phosphodiesterase 3 (Pde3). Together, these results suggest that the timing of HF diet intake determines DNA methylation and gene expression patterns in hepatic metabolic pathways that target specific genomic contexts. View Full-Text
Keywords: MeDIP-seq; CpG island and shore, maternal programming; insulin signaling; phosphatidylinositol signaling MeDIP-seq; CpG island and shore, maternal programming; insulin signaling; phosphatidylinositol signaling
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Moody, L.; Wang, H.; Jung, P.M.; Chen, H.; Pan, Y.-X. Maternal and Post-Weaning High-Fat Diets Produce Distinct DNA Methylation Patterns in Hepatic Metabolic Pathways within Specific Genomic Contexts. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 3229.

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