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Nutrient-Dependent Changes of Protein Palmitoylation: Impact on Nuclear Enzymes and Regulation of Gene Expression

1
Institute of Human Physiology, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome 00168, Italy
2
Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCSS, Rome 00168, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(12), 3820; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19123820
Received: 29 October 2018 / Revised: 22 November 2018 / Accepted: 27 November 2018 / Published: 30 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Genomics)
Diet is the main environmental stimulus chronically impinging on the organism throughout the entire life. Nutrients impact cells via a plethora of mechanisms including the regulation of both protein post-translational modifications and gene expression. Palmitoylation is the most-studied protein lipidation, which consists of the attachment of a molecule of palmitic acid to residues of proteins. S-palmitoylation is a reversible cysteine modification finely regulated by palmitoyl-transferases and acyl-thioesterases that is involved in the regulation of protein trafficking and activity. Recently, several studies have demonstrated that diet-dependent molecules such as insulin and fatty acids may affect protein palmitoylation. Here, we examine the role of protein palmitoylation on the regulation of gene expression focusing on the impact of this modification on the activity of chromatin remodeler enzymes, transcription factors, and nuclear proteins. We also discuss how this physiological phenomenon may represent a pivotal mechanism underlying the impact of diet and nutrient-dependent signals on human diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: protein palmitoylation; nutrient-dependent signals; chromatin remodelers; transcription factors; epigenetics; personalized medicine protein palmitoylation; nutrient-dependent signals; chromatin remodelers; transcription factors; epigenetics; personalized medicine
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Spinelli, M.; Fusco, S.; Grassi, C. Nutrient-Dependent Changes of Protein Palmitoylation: Impact on Nuclear Enzymes and Regulation of Gene Expression. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 3820.

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