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Special Issue "Pro-inflammatory and Anti-inflammatory Cytokines in Autoimmune Diseases"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Pathology, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Pio Conti
Website
Guest Editor
Postgraduate Medical School, University of Chieti, Italy

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Cytokines are immunoregulatory proteins which mediate many pathophysiological states. The increased concentration of cytokines in humans causes local and systemic inflammation, which can even lead to death.

Inflammatory cytokines are proteins that underlie immune-mediated diseases and contribute to the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases.

In autoimmune diseases, increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines have been found in the serum of affected persons, and are positively correlated with disease severity, suggesting that pro-inflammatory cytokines may be a prognostic marker of autoimmune disorders.

The uncontrolled production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines involved in autoimmunity suggests the need to find new therapeutic targets in order to alleviate the disease.

Some anti-inflammatory cytokines have recently been described to suppress inflammation by nonspecific inhibition of several cytokines and chemokines.

These topics are very intricate, and deserve thorough study.

Prof. Pio Conti
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. There is an Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal. For details about the APC please see here. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Review

Open AccessReview
Interleukin-6 in Rheumatoid Arthritis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(15), 5238; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21155238 - 23 Jul 2020
Abstract
The role of interleukin (IL)-6 in health and disease has been under a lot of scrutiny in recent years, particularly during the recent COVID-19 pandemic. The inflammatory pathways in which IL-6 is involved are also partly responsible of the development and progression of [...] Read more.
The role of interleukin (IL)-6 in health and disease has been under a lot of scrutiny in recent years, particularly during the recent COVID-19 pandemic. The inflammatory pathways in which IL-6 is involved are also partly responsible of the development and progression of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), opening interesting perspectives in terms of therapy. Anti-IL-6 drugs are being used with variable degrees of success in other diseases and are being tested in RA. Results have been encouraging, particularly when anti-IL-6 has been used with other drugs, such as metothrexate (MTX). In this review we discuss the main immunologic aspects that make anti-IL-6 a good candidate in RA, but despite the main therapeutic options available to target IL-6, no gold standard treatment has been established so far. Full article
Open AccessReview
Advances in Mast Cell Activation by IL-1 and IL-33 in Sjögren’s Syndrome: Promising Inhibitory Effect of IL-37
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(12), 4297; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21124297 - 16 Jun 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Sjögren’s syndrome (SS) is a chronic autoimmune inflammatory disease that affects primarily older women and is characterized by irreversible damage of the exocrine glands, including tear (xerophthalmia) and salivary glands (xerostomia). Secretory glands lose their functionality due to the infiltration of immune cells, [...] Read more.
Sjögren’s syndrome (SS) is a chronic autoimmune inflammatory disease that affects primarily older women and is characterized by irreversible damage of the exocrine glands, including tear (xerophthalmia) and salivary glands (xerostomia). Secretory glands lose their functionality due to the infiltration of immune cells, which produce cytokines and cause inflammation. Primary SS is characterized by dry syndrome with or without systemic commitment in the absence of other pathologies. Secondary SS is accompanied by other autoimmune diseases with high activation of B lymphocytes and the production of autoantibodies, including the rheumatoid factor. Other cells, such as CD4+ T cells and mast cells (MCs), participate in SS inflammation. MCs are ubiquitous, but are primarily located close to blood vessels and nerves and can be activated early in autoimmune diseases to express a wide variety of cytokines and chemokines. In the SS acute phase, MCs react by generating chemical mediators of inflammation, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and other pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1 and IL-33. IL-33 is the specific ligand for ST2 capable of inducing some adaptive immunity TH2 cytokines but also has pro-inflammatory properties. IL-33 causes impressive pathological changes and inflammatory cell infiltration. IL-1 family members can have paracrine and autocrine effects by exacerbating autoimmune inflammation. IL-37 is an IL-1 family cytokine that binds IL-18Rα receptor and/or Toll-like Receptor (TLR)4, exerting an anti-inflammatory action. IL-37 is a natural inhibitor of innate and acquired immunity, and the level is abnormal in patients with autoimmune disorders. After TLR ligand activation, IL-37 mRNA is generated in the cytoplasm, with the production of pro-IL-37 and later mature IL-37 caspase-1 mediated; both precursor and mature IL-37 are biologically active. Here, we discuss, for the first time, the current knowledge of IL-37 in autoimmune disease SS and propose a new therapeutic role. Full article
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