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Open AccessReview

The Role and Impact of Extracellular Vesicles in the Modulation and Delivery of Cytokines during Autoimmunity

1
William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and the London School of Medicine, Queen Mary University of London, London E1 4NS, UK
2
The Institute of Cardiovascular Sciences, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
3
Centre for Inflammation and Therapeutic Innovation, Queen Mary University of London, London E1 4NS, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(19), 7096; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21197096
Received: 28 August 2020 / Revised: 24 September 2020 / Accepted: 24 September 2020 / Published: 26 September 2020
Cytokines and extracellular vesicles are two methods of initiating and maintaining cellular crosstalk. The role of cytokines in the initiation, progression, and resolution of inflammation has been well studied and more so, their pathophysiological role in the development of autoimmune disease. In recent years, the impact of extracellular vesicles on the progression of autoimmunity has become more widely appreciated. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms that allow extracellular vesicles of various sources to modulate cytokine production, and release, and how extracellular vesicles might be involved in the direct delivery and modulation of cytokine levels. Moreover, we explore what challenges are faced by current therapies and the promising future for extracellular vesicles as therapeutic agents in conditions driven by immune dysregulation. View Full-Text
Keywords: extracellular vesicles; exosomes; inflammation; autoimmunity; cytokines extracellular vesicles; exosomes; inflammation; autoimmunity; cytokines
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Hussain, M.T.; Iqbal, A.J.; Norling, L.V. The Role and Impact of Extracellular Vesicles in the Modulation and Delivery of Cytokines during Autoimmunity. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 7096.

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