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Preventive Medicine and Community Health

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Global Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 August 2024 | Viewed by 15658

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Medicine of Community, Information and Health Decision Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, 4200-319 Porto, Portugal
Interests: preventive medicine; primary health care; ethics
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In the fight against disease, the medicine always searched the way to change the natural history of the diseases. We call it treatment if the disease is already settled and prevention if we are anticipating its occurrence. Prevention means therefore the capacity to intervene for health promotion. It encompasses several dimensions, from the medical care to education, food, environment, shelter, adequate income, social justice, and a stable and peaceful eco-system.

In this special issue, we want to expand the way we see preventive medicine, including the health promotion with protection of health and diseases’ prevention, and the all other biopsychosocial determinants of health. We look forward the original research able to mix these factors and to bring new knowledge about the way they adjust each other and they impact on the patients individually or in group. Case reports of health education efforts are also welcome.

You may choose our Joint Special Issue in Healthcare.

Dr. Paulo Santos
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • health promotion
  • preventive health services
  • primary prevention
  • secondary prevention
  • tertiary prevention
  • quaternary prevention
  • literacy for health
  • health education
  • healthy people programs
  • screening
  • immunization

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

16 pages, 406 KiB  
Article
Child-Owned Poultry Intervention Effects on Hemoglobin, Anemia, Concurrent Anemia and Stunting, and Morbidity Status of Young Children in Southern Ethiopia: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Community Trial
by Anteneh Omer, Dejene Hailu and Susan Joyce Whiting
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(7), 5406; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20075406 - 5 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1885
Abstract
Cereal-based diets contribute to anemia in Ethiopian children. Eggs have nutrients to boost hemoglobin levels as well as counter concurrent anemia and stunting (CAS) and morbidity status. A community trial, targeting 6–18 months old children, was conducted in Halaba. Two clusters were randomly [...] Read more.
Cereal-based diets contribute to anemia in Ethiopian children. Eggs have nutrients to boost hemoglobin levels as well as counter concurrent anemia and stunting (CAS) and morbidity status. A community trial, targeting 6–18 months old children, was conducted in Halaba. Two clusters were randomly selected and allocated to intervention (N = 122) and control (N = 121) arms. Intervention group (IG) children received egg-laying hens with caging in a cultural ceremony declaring child ownership of the chickens. Parents promised to feed eggs to the child. Health and agriculture extension workers promoted egg feeding, poultry husbandry, and sanitation to IG families. Control group (CG) had standard health and agriculture education. At baseline, groups were not different by hemoglobin, anemia, CAS, and morbidity status. Mean hemoglobin was 11.0 mg/dl and anemia prevalence was 41.6%. About 11.9% of children had CAS and 52.3% were sick. Using generalized estimating equations, the intervention increased hemoglobin by 0.53 g/dl (ß:0.53; p < 0.001; 95%CI: 0.28–0.79). IG children were 64% (p < 0.001; odds ratio [OR]:0.36; 95%CI: 0.24–0.54) and 57% (p = 0.007; OR: 0.43; 95%CI: 0.21–0.73) less likely to be anemic and have CAS, respectively, than CG, with no difference in morbidity. Child-owned poultry intervention is recommended in settings where anemia is high and animal-source food intake is low. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preventive Medicine and Community Health)
15 pages, 1662 KiB  
Article
Design and Development of Tools for Risk Evaluation of Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease in Community Pharmacy
by Sarah Rondeaux, Tessa Braeckman, Mieke Beckwé, Dounia El Oueriaghli El Ghammaz, Dirk Devroey and Carine De Vriese
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(4), 2819; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20042819 - 5 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1434
Abstract
There is an increasing motivation to implement pharmacist-led screening services in community pharmacies. This study aims to develop tools to support the pharmacist in the context of a diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk assessment service. Our development involved a multistep process using a [...] Read more.
There is an increasing motivation to implement pharmacist-led screening services in community pharmacies. This study aims to develop tools to support the pharmacist in the context of a diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk assessment service. Our development involved a multistep process using a user-centred approach, including a need assessment phase (14 patients, 17 pharmacists) and a creative design phase, followed by the evaluation of the materials (10 patients, 16 pharmacists). Three following themes covering educational needs emerged from stakeholders’ discussions: “content”, “layout”, and “form”, with three additional themes regarding the practical organisation: “software”, “awareness”, and “referral”. Based on the need assessment, tools for patient education purposes and awareness campaigns were created. During the development, special attention was paid to the writing style and structure with less text and more graphical colourful elements to suit patients with different health literacy and educational levels. The evaluation phase allowed researchers to observe participants engaging with the materials. Overall, participants were satisfied with the tools. The contents were considered valuable and relevant. However, adaptations were necessary to ensure their understanding and long-term usability. Finally, future research is required to evaluate the materials’ impact on patients’ behaviour towards their identified risk factors and ensure their effectiveness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preventive Medicine and Community Health)
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13 pages, 755 KiB  
Article
Translation and Validation of the Motivation to Change Lifestyle and Health Behaviours for Dementia Risk Reduction (MCLHB-DRR) Questionnaire among the General Israeli Population
by Anastasia V. Shvedko, Yuval Versolker and Offer E. Edelstein
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(3), 2622; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20032622 - 1 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1529
Abstract
Objective: The need to promote awareness of dementia prevention is broadly emphasized in Israel. Currently, there is no valid version of a Hebrew questionnaire to assess attitudes and beliefs related to dementia prevention. This study aimed to translate and validate the MCLHB-DRR questionnaire [...] Read more.
Objective: The need to promote awareness of dementia prevention is broadly emphasized in Israel. Currently, there is no valid version of a Hebrew questionnaire to assess attitudes and beliefs related to dementia prevention. This study aimed to translate and validate the MCLHB-DRR questionnaire among the general Israeli population. Methods: A total sample of 328 participants between the ages of 50–83 years (mean = 58.7, SD = 6.9) were included in this study. Participants completed the online translated MCLHB-DRR questionnaire. Exploratory factor analyses (EFA) and confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) were conducted to assess the questionnaire’s validity. Internal consistency was assessed using Cronbach’s alpha. Results: The EFA analysis revealed a seven-factor model with 27 items. One item related to perceived barriers and two items related to perceived severity were deleted. The CFA analysis confirmed a good model fit with the deleted items (χ2/df = 2.146, CFI = 0.930, TLI = 0.916, RMSEA = 0.049). Cronbach’s alpha values ranged from 0.61 to 0.92. Conclusions: The Hebrew MCLHB-DRR questionnaire is a valid and reliable measurement tool for assessing attitudes and beliefs related to health behaviours and lifestyle changes for dementia risk reduction in Israeli adults over the age of 50. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preventive Medicine and Community Health)
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12 pages, 1346 KiB  
Article
A Pilot Colorectal Cancer Study Using Fecal Occult Blood Tests and Colonoscopy to Identify the Weaknesses of the Romanian Public Healthcare System before Implementing National Screening
by Linda-Nicoleta Bărbulescu, Stelian-Ștefăniță Mogoantă, Lucian-Florentin Bărbulescu, Constantin Kamal, Didi-Liliana Popa and Radu-Teodoru Popa
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(3), 2531; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20032531 - 31 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1852
Abstract
The objective of this study is to investigate the feasibility of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening in the absence of a national screening program using the resources provided by the Romanian healthcare system. Study participants were recruited from adult patients (over 18 years old) [...] Read more.
The objective of this study is to investigate the feasibility of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening in the absence of a national screening program using the resources provided by the Romanian healthcare system. Study participants were recruited from adult patients (over 18 years old) registered with a general practitioner from an urban area over a period of 3 years (October 2019 to September 2022). Patients were recruited when they came for a consult at their family physician’s office. The study excluded patients with a medical history of colorectal cancer. Written consent was obtained from the patients who agreed to participate. Patients who agreed to participate were recommended to undergo a fecal occult blood test (FOBT). For those with a positive FOBT result, a colonoscopy was recommended. The study identified a need and willingness of patients to participate in CRC screening when they were informed about it, especially when it involved a noninvasive test such as FOB. We did not anticipate the refusal to perform FOBT in the public healthcare system because the recommendation was made by a GP. We identified a deficit of specialists that can perform colonoscopies in the public healthcare system, insufficient health education, and a lack of dedicated pathways for screening. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preventive Medicine and Community Health)
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15 pages, 1392 KiB  
Article
Social and Metabolic Determinants of Prevalent Hypertension in Men and Women: A Cluster Analysis from a Population-Based Study
by Cornelia Bala, Adriana Rusu, Oana Florentina Gheorghe-Fronea, Theodora Benedek, Calin Pop, Aura Elena Vijiiac, Diana Stanciulescu, Dan Darabantiu, Gabriela Roman and Maria Dorobantu
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(3), 1736; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20031736 - 18 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1508
Abstract
Essential hypertension (HTN) has a complex spectrum of pathophysiological determinants and current guidelines provide limited information on high-risk groups that should be targeted for its primary prevention. The objective of our research was to identify clusters of social and metabolic factors associated with [...] Read more.
Essential hypertension (HTN) has a complex spectrum of pathophysiological determinants and current guidelines provide limited information on high-risk groups that should be targeted for its primary prevention. The objective of our research was to identify clusters of social and metabolic factors associated with prevalent HTN in men and women from a population-based survey in Romania. Of the 1477 participants in the main study, 798 with complete data were analyzed here. Using two-step cluster analysis, one high-risk cluster in women and two high and intermediate risk for prevalent HTN in men were identified. Older age, rural area, lower education, and higher burden of metabolic factors characterized clusters with higher risk, while intermediate risk in men was characterized by a more metabolically healthy phenotype in younger individuals. In logistic regression, men in Cluster 1 vs. those in Cluster 3 had an odds ratio (OR) of 9.6 (95%CI: 4.6; 20.0), p < 0.001 for prevalent HTN, while OR for Cluster 2 vs. Cluster 3 was 3.2 (95%CI: 1.4; 7.4), p = 0.005. In women, the OR for HTN was 10.2 (95%CI: 5.7; 18.5) if assigned to Cluster 2 vs. Cluster 1, p < 0.001. These results pointed out the subgroups and communities that the primary prevention of HTN should be prioritized in. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preventive Medicine and Community Health)
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17 pages, 3009 KiB  
Article
The Impact of a Six-Year Existing Screening Programme Using the Faecal Immunochemical Test in Flanders (Belgium) on Colorectal Cancer Incidence, Mortality and Survival: A Population-Based Study
by Thuy Ngan Tran, Sarah Hoeck, Harlinde De Schutter, Sharon Janssens, Marc Peeters and Guido Van Hal
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(2), 1654; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20021654 - 16 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2230
Abstract
The faecal immunochemical test (FIT) has been increasingly used for organised colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. We assessed the impact of a six-year existing FIT screening programme in Flanders (Belgium) on CRC incidence, mortality and survival. The Flemish CRC screening programme started in 2013, [...] Read more.
The faecal immunochemical test (FIT) has been increasingly used for organised colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. We assessed the impact of a six-year existing FIT screening programme in Flanders (Belgium) on CRC incidence, mortality and survival. The Flemish CRC screening programme started in 2013, targeting individuals aged 50–74 years. Joinpoint regression was used to investigate trends of age-standardised CRC incidence and mortality among individuals aged 50–79 years (2004–2019). Their 5-year relative survival was calculated using the Ederer II method. We found that FIT screening significantly reduced CRC incidence, especially that of advanced-stage CRCs (69.8/100,000 in 2012 vs. 51.1/100,000 in 2019), with a greater impact in men. Mortality started to decline in men two years after organised screening implementation (annual reduction of 9.3% after 2015 vs. 2.2% before 2015). The 5-year relative survival was significantly higher in screen-detected (93.8%) and lower in FIT non-participant CRCs (61.9%) vs. FIT interval cancers and CRCs in never-invited cases (67.6% and 66.7%, respectively). Organised FIT screening in Flanders clearly reduced CRC incidence (especially advanced-stage) and mortality (in men, but not yet in women). Survival is significantly better in screen-detected cases vs. CRCs in unscreened people. Our findings support the implementation of FIT organised screening and the continued effort to increase uptake. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preventive Medicine and Community Health)
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20 pages, 4338 KiB  
Article
Safety Climate Evaluation in Primary Health Care: A Cross-Sectional Study
by Marlene Manuela Moreira Ferreira, Andreia Sofia Costa Teixeira and Tiago Salgado de Magalhães Taveira-Gomes
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(21), 14344; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192114344 - 2 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1886
Abstract
The perception of the existence of deficits in patient safety, the associated costs and the limitation of resources have made it essential to define improvement strategies. Important concepts have emerged, such as safety climate, which evaluates the perceptions of safety status held by [...] Read more.
The perception of the existence of deficits in patient safety, the associated costs and the limitation of resources have made it essential to define improvement strategies. Important concepts have emerged, such as safety climate, which evaluates the perceptions of safety status held by professionals in relation to their organization. The aim of this study is to characterize the safety climate in primary health care (PHC) using the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ)—Short Form 2006 PT and to assess associations between SAQ-Short Form 2006 PT scores and demographic and professional characteristics. A cross-sectional study was conducted in all public PHC units in the northern region of Portugal. Data were collected through an online questionnaire shared via institutional emails and by means of a snowball approach. Descriptive and inferential statistical analysis were performed. Statistical significance set at p ≤ 0.05. A total of 649/7427 (8.7%) responses were included in the analyses. The mean and median total SAQ-Short Form 2006 PT scores were 69.23 (SD = 15.73, range 22.22–100.00) and 71.53 [59.03; 79.86], respectively. This is the first study to assess the safety climate in PHC in Portugal. The median obtained total SAQ-Short Form 2006 PT score was 71.53 [59.03; 79.86], which is below the threshold of ≥75, indicating safety deficits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preventive Medicine and Community Health)
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10 pages, 1157 KiB  
Article
Health-Risk Behaviors, COVID-19 Preventive Behaviors, and the Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on the Working-Age Population of Bangkok, Thailand
by Sutham Nanthamongkolchai, Pimsurang Taechaboonsermsak, Kanasap Tawatting and Wanich Suksatan
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(20), 13394; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192013394 - 17 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1741
Abstract
Although studies have extensively discussed the effects of COVID-19 on global health behaviors, little is known about the extent of COVID-19 preventive behaviors and their negative effects on the working-age population of Bangkok, Thailand. Therefore, this study aimed to examine health-risk behaviors, COVID-19 [...] Read more.
Although studies have extensively discussed the effects of COVID-19 on global health behaviors, little is known about the extent of COVID-19 preventive behaviors and their negative effects on the working-age population of Bangkok, Thailand. Therefore, this study aimed to examine health-risk behaviors, COVID-19 preventive behaviors, and the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic among the Thai working-age population. An online cross-sectional survey was conducted among working-age adults through a self-administered questionnaire. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics and stepwise multiple regression. Of the 313 Thai participants (227 females, 72.5%), 84.0% had high levels of health-risk behaviors for preventing COVID-19 infection, most respondents (89.1%) had high levels of knowledge about COVID-19, and most respondents (61.7%) had high levels of overall COVID-19 preventive behaviors. Stepwise multiple regression revealed that health-risk behaviors (β = 0.445), knowledge of COVID-19 (β = 0.148), gender (β = 0.145), and age (β = 0.133) were predictive of COVID-19 preventive behaviors. Additionally, most respondents (48.9%) had moderate overall effects from COVID-19. Based on our findings, these factors must be considered when implementing public policies to improve COVID-19 preventive behaviors among the currently employed working-age population. In addition, appropriate interventions must be established and evaluated for the pandemic’s long-term effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preventive Medicine and Community Health)
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