Special Issue "Gynecological Cancer"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Women's Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 April 2020.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Peng-Hui Wang
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan;School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University Taiwan, Taipei, Taiwan
Interests: gynecological cancer; minimally invasive surgery; glycobiology; endometriosis

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Cancer of the female genital organs is specifically known as gynaecological cancer, including primary peritoneal cancer, tubo-ovarian cancer, uterine and cervical cancer, vaginal cancer, and vulvar cancer. Although surgery is the main treatment for gynaecological cancer patients, except in cases of late-stage cervix, vulvar, and vagina cancers, some might need further treatment (adjuvant therapy and/or maintenance therapy). In addition, for those patients with far-advanced or recurrent diseases, the outcome after treatment is often disappointing. Recently, with advances in modern technology, the use of next-generation whole genomic sequences and some small molecules and antibodies has become much plausible in the treatment of these patients. Many clinical trials, including various kinds of targeted therapy and immunotherapy, are ongoing. I believe that this new approach may provide a better chance of controlling these lethal diseases. Eventually, patients with different categories of the same disease may benefit from this individualized therapy (precise medicine). This Special Issue welcomes articles on these and other themes focusing on the treatment of various kinds of gynaecological cancers.

Prof. Dr. Peng-Hui Wang
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Consensus
  • Individualized therapy
  • Gynecologic cancer
  • Precise medicine
  • Targeted therapy

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Radical Hysterectomy After Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy for Locally Bulky-Size Cervical Cancer: A Retrospective Comparative Analysis between the Robotic and Abdominal Approaches
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(20), 3833; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16203833 - 11 Oct 2019
Abstract
Radical hysterectomy (RH) is the standard treatment for early stage cervical cancer, but the surgical approach for locally bulky-size cervical cancer (LBS-CC) is still unclear. We retrospectively compared the outcomes of women with LBS-CC treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) and subsequent RH between [...] Read more.
Radical hysterectomy (RH) is the standard treatment for early stage cervical cancer, but the surgical approach for locally bulky-size cervical cancer (LBS-CC) is still unclear. We retrospectively compared the outcomes of women with LBS-CC treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) and subsequent RH between the robotic (R-RH) and abdominal approaches (A-RH). Between 2012 and 2014, 39 women with LBS-CC FIGO (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics) stage IB2–IIB were treated with NACT-R-RH (n = 18) or NACT-A-RH (n = 21). Surgical parameters and prognosis were compared. Patient characteristics were not significantly different between the groups, but the NACT-R-RH group had significantly more patients with FIGO stage IIB disease, received multi-agent-based NACT, and had a lower percentage of deep stromal invasion than the NACT-A-RH group. After NACT-R-RH, surgical parameters were better, but survival outcomes, such as disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS), were significantly worse. On multivariate analysis, FIGO stage IIB contributed to worse DFS (p = 0.003) and worse OS (p = 0.012) in the NACT-A-RH group. Women with LBS-CC treated with NACT-R-RH have better perioperative outcomes but poorer survival outcomes compared with those treated with NACT-A-RH. Thus, patients with FIGO stage IIB LBS-CC disease might not be suitable for surgery after multi-agent-based NACT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gynecological Cancer)
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Open AccessArticle
Predicting Behavioral Intentions Related to Cervical Cancer Screening Using a Three-Level Model for the TPB and SCT in Nanjing, China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(19), 3575; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16193575 - 24 Sep 2019
Abstract
Objective: Exploring how the theory of planned behavior (TPB), social capital theory (SCT), cervical cancer knowledge (CCK), and demographic variables predict behavioral intentions (BI) related to cervical cancer screening among Chinese women. Methods: Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to 496 women, followed by a [...] Read more.
Objective: Exploring how the theory of planned behavior (TPB), social capital theory (SCT), cervical cancer knowledge (CCK), and demographic variables predict behavioral intentions (BI) related to cervical cancer screening among Chinese women. Methods: Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to 496 women, followed by a path analysis. Results: The three-level model was acceptable, χ2(26, 470) = 26.93, p > 0.05. Subjectively overcoming difficulties, support from significant others, screening necessity, and the objective promotion factor promoted BI, with effect sizes of 0.424, 0.354, 0.199, and 0.124. SCT and CCK promoted BI through TPB, with effect sizes of 0.262 and 0.208. Monthly income, education, age, and childbearing condition affected BI through TPB, SCT, and CCK, with effect sizes of 0.269, 0.105, 0.065, and −0.029. Conclusion: The three-level model systematically predicted behavioral intentions relating to cervical cancer screening. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gynecological Cancer)
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Open AccessArticle
Impact of Adjuvant Modalities on Survival in Patients with Advanced Stage Endometrial Carcinoma: A Retrospective Analysis from a Tertiary Medical Center
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(14), 2561; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16142561 - 18 Jul 2019
Abstract
Adjuvant treatment in advanced-stage (stages III /IV) endometrial carcinomas in terms of tumor grades has not yet been explored. We retrospectively analyzed 194 patients with advanced-stage endometrioid endometrial carcinoma who received surgery, followed by adjuvant therapy, at National Taiwan University Hospital between January [...] Read more.
Adjuvant treatment in advanced-stage (stages III /IV) endometrial carcinomas in terms of tumor grades has not yet been explored. We retrospectively analyzed 194 patients with advanced-stage endometrioid endometrial carcinoma who received surgery, followed by adjuvant therapy, at National Taiwan University Hospital between January 1, 2000 and August 31, 2017. Adjuvant therapies included radiation (RT), chemotherapy alone (CT), and combined modality treatment (CMT: radiation and chemotherapy). The prognostic factors were determined from multivariate survival analyses using Cox regression models. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) times were estimated with the Kaplan–Meier method. The median follow-up was 45.5 months (range: 6.2–207.9). In grade 1/2 endometrioid carcinoma, neither adjuvant CT nor CMT could prolong PFS significantly compared to RT (CT: HR 1.59, 95% CI 0.64–3.97; CMT: HR 2.03, 95% CI 0.72–5.74). Notably, maximal cytoreduction independently improved PFS (HR 0.31, 95% CI 0.10–0.90). No particular adjuvant treatment provided an OS advantage over the others for grade 1/2 endometrioid carcinomas. However, for grade 3 endometrioid carcinoma, CMT showed OS benefits (HR 0.15, 95% CI 0.03–0.89) compared to RT and CT. In conclusion, maximal cytoreduction should be the goal in patients with grade 1/2 advanced-stage endometrioid carcinomas. Based on our results, patients with grade 3 endometrioid carcinomas might benefit from adjuvant CMT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gynecological Cancer)
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Open AccessArticle
Predictors of Lymphoceles in Women Who Underwent Laparotomic Retroperitoneal Lymph Node Dissection for Early Gynecologic Cancer: A Retrospective Cohort Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(6), 936; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16060936 - 15 Mar 2019
Abstract
Background: Lymphoceles could represent a detrimental complication after retroperitoneal lymph node dissection. Our aim was to elucidate predictors of lymphoceles. Methods: Between 2011 and 2017, medical records of consecutive women who underwent laparotomic retroperitoneal lymph node dissection for FIGO stage I or II [...] Read more.
Background: Lymphoceles could represent a detrimental complication after retroperitoneal lymph node dissection. Our aim was to elucidate predictors of lymphoceles. Methods: Between 2011 and 2017, medical records of consecutive women who underwent laparotomic retroperitoneal lymph node dissection for FIGO stage I or II gynecologic cancer were reviewed. Results: A total of 204 women, including those with lymphoceles (n = 31) and symptomatic lymphoceles (n = 7), were reviewed. According to multivariable analysis, parity (odds ratio = 0.59, p = 0.003), adjuvant pelvic radiotherapy (odds ratio = 2.60, p = 0.039), and peritoneal nonclosure without pelvic drainage (odds ratio = 2.31, p = 0.048) were predictors of lymphoceles. In addition, parity (odds ratio = 0.73, p = 0.03), hypertension (odds ratio = 2.62, p = 0.02), and peritoneal partial closure with pelvic drainage (odds ratio = 0.27, p = 0.02) were predictors of complications. Conclusion: Low parity, adjuvant pelvic radiotherapy, and peritoneal nonclosure without pelvic drainage were associated with increased lymphocele formation. In addition, a lower complication rate was found in the peritoneal partial closure with pelvic drainage group; thus, peritoneal partial closure with pelvic drainage might be suggested for women who undergo laparotomic retroperitoneal lymph node dissection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gynecological Cancer)
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Open AccessArticle
Prognostic Factors of Early Stage Epithelial Ovarian Carcinoma
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(4), 637; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16040637 - 21 Feb 2019
Abstract
We aimed to determine prognostic factors of early stage (I/II) epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC) including clinicopathologic and chemotherapeutic regimens. Four hundred and thirty-seven women who underwent primary staging surgery with adjuvant chemotherapy between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2010 were retrospectively reviewed [...] Read more.
We aimed to determine prognostic factors of early stage (I/II) epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC) including clinicopathologic and chemotherapeutic regimens. Four hundred and thirty-seven women who underwent primary staging surgery with adjuvant chemotherapy between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2010 were retrospectively reviewed and analyzed from two medical centers. The prognostic factors were determined from multivariate survival analyses using Cox regression models. The majority of women were diagnosed with stage Ic (244/437, 55.8%). The histopathologic types were clear cell (37.5%), endometrioid (27.2%), serous (14.0%), and mucinous (13.3%). Fifty-seven percent (249/437) of the women received taxane-based (platinum plus paclitaxel) regimens and 43.0% received non-taxane (platinum plus cyclophosphamide) regimens as frontline adjuvant chemotherapy. Clear cell tumors (adjusted Hazard ratio (aHR) 0.37, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.21–0.73, p = 0.001) showed better 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) than serous tumors. Women diagnosed at FIGO (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics) stage II (aHR 5.97, 95% CI = 2.47–14.39, p < 0.001), grade 3 tumor without clear cell (aHR 2.28, 95% CI = 1.02–5.07, p = 0.004) and who received 3–5 cycles of non-taxane regimens (aHR 3.29, 95% CI = 1.47–7.34, p = 0.004) had worse 5-year overall survival (OS). Clear cell histology treated with taxane-based regimens showed significantly higher 5-year DFS (91.2% vs. 82.0%, aHR = 0.45, 95% CI = 0.21–0.93, p = 0.043) and 5-year OS (93.5% vs. 79.0%, aHR = 0.30, 95% CI = 0.13–0.70, p = 0.005) than those treated with non-taxane-based regimens. We conclude that stage, tumor grade, and chemotherapeutic regimens/cycles are independent prognostic factors for early stage ovarian cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gynecological Cancer)
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Open AccessArticle
Clear Cell Carcinoma of the Abdominal Wall as a Rare Complication of General Obstetric and Gynecologic Surgeries: 15 Years of Experience at a Large Academic Institution
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(4), 552; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16040552 - 14 Feb 2019
Abstract
The objective of this article was to report the clinicopathological characteristics, treatment modalities, and outcomes of patients with clear cell carcinoma (CCC) of the abdominal wall. Medical records of six patients diagnosed with CCC of the abdominal wall between May 2003 and May [...] Read more.
The objective of this article was to report the clinicopathological characteristics, treatment modalities, and outcomes of patients with clear cell carcinoma (CCC) of the abdominal wall. Medical records of six patients diagnosed with CCC of the abdominal wall between May 2003 and May 2018 at the National Taiwan University Hospital were reviewed. All patients had prior obstetric or gynecologic surgeries. The primary clinical presentation was enlarging abdominal masses at previous surgical scars. Four patients underwent initial/primary surgeries with/without adjuvant chemotherapy. One patient received neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgical intervention and adjuvant chemotherapy, the other received chemotherapy and sequential radiotherapy without any surgical intervention. Two of four patients undergoing initial/primary surgeries had disease recurrence and the remaining two cases without initial surgery experienced disease progression during primary treatment. Inguinal lymph nodes were the most frequent sites of recurrence. In conclusion, previous obstetric or gynecologic surgery can be a risk factor for CCC of the abdominal wall. Complete resection of abdominal wall tumor and suspected intra-abdominal lesions with hysterectomy and bilateral inguinal lymph nodes dissection may be the primary treatment. Adjuvant chemotherapy would be considered for potential benefits. For patients without bilateral inguinal lymph nodes dissection, careful inguinal lymph node palpation during postoperative surveillance is necessary. More cases are still needed to elucidate the clinical management of this disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gynecological Cancer)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
MicroRNA in Ovarian Cancer: Biology, Pathogenesis, and Therapeutic Opportunities
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(9), 1510; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16091510 - 29 Apr 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Ovarian cancer comprises one of the three major malignant tumor types in the female reproductive system. The mortality rate of this cancer is the highest among all gynecological tumors, with ovarian cancer metastasis constituting an important cause of death. Therefore, markers for disease [...] Read more.
Ovarian cancer comprises one of the three major malignant tumor types in the female reproductive system. The mortality rate of this cancer is the highest among all gynecological tumors, with ovarian cancer metastasis constituting an important cause of death. Therefore, markers for disease prediction and prognosis are highly desirable for early diagnosis as well as for helping optimize and personalize treatment. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs), which consist of short-sequence RNAs that do not encode a protein, have emerged as new biomarkers in the clinical diagnosis and treatment of ovarian cancer. By pairing with bases specific to the target messenger RNA (mRNA), miRNAs cause degradation of the target mRNA or inhibit its translation, thereby regulating various cellular processes including cell proliferation and adhesion. Increasing numbers of studies have shown that miRNA expression abnormality plays an important role in the development of ovarian cancer. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms of miRNA action, current research regarding their role in the suppression or promotion of ovarian cancer, and their use as markers for diagnosis of prognosis or as therapeutic targets for this disease. Finally, we present future perspectives regarding the clinical management of ovarian cancer and the role for miRNAs therein. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gynecological Cancer)
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