Special Issue "Impact of Exercise and Sports on Health"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Exercise and Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 November 2020.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. John Babraj
Website
Guest Editor
Division of Sports and Exercise Sciences, Abertay University, Dundee, UK
Interests: ageing; metabolism; physical capacity; kinetics; modifiable disease risk

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Sedentary behaviour is one of the biggest health issues facing society. Inactivity is associated with increased risk for a number of diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and dementia. We are seeking research papers examining the impact that exercise or sport interventions can have on the health and wellbeing of a population, for example, research papers examining general population disease risk, specific disease populations, and ageing. Such research papers should look to explore clinically relevant endpoints and/or impact on quality of life. 

Dr. John Babraj
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2300 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Exercise
  • Sport
  • Health
  • Wellbeing
  • Disease risk
  • Quality of life

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Effect of Exercising with Others on Incident Functional Disability and All-Cause Mortality in Community-Dwelling Older Adults: A Five-Year Follow-Up Survey
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(12), 4329; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17124329 - 17 Jun 2020
Abstract
We clarified the effect of exercising with others on the risks of incident functional disability and all-cause mortality among community-dwelling adults. We used an inventory mail survey with a five-year follow-up for 1520 independently living older adults (mean age: 73.4 ± 6.3 years) [...] Read more.
We clarified the effect of exercising with others on the risks of incident functional disability and all-cause mortality among community-dwelling adults. We used an inventory mail survey with a five-year follow-up for 1520 independently living older adults (mean age: 73.4 ± 6.3 years) in Kasama City, Japan. Subjects responded to a self-reported questionnaire in June 2014. Exercise habits and the presence of exercise partners were assessed. Subjects were classified into three groups: Non-exercise, exercising alone, and exercising with others. Follow-up information and date of incident functional disability and death during the five-year follow-up were collected from the database. To compare the association between exercise habits and functional disability and mortality, Cox regression analysis was conducted. Compared with the non-exercise group, exercising with others had significantly lower hazard ratios (HRs) for functional disability (0.59, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.40–0.88) and mortality (0.40, 95% CI 0.24–0.66) in the covariate models. Compared with exercising alone, exercising with others decreased the HRs for incident functional disability (0.53, 95% CI: 0.36–0.80) and mortality (0.50, 95% CI 0.29–0.85) rates in the unadjusted model; these associations were not significant in the covariate models. Exercising with others can contribute to functional disability prevention and longevity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Exercise and Sports on Health)
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Open AccessCommunication
Counteracting Physical Inactivity during the COVID-19 Pandemic: Evidence-Based Recommendations for Home-Based Exercise
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(11), 3909; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17113909 - 01 Jun 2020
Abstract
To reduce transmission of the coronavirus, from its initial outbreak in 2019 up to now, various safety measures have been enacted worldwide by the authorities that have likely led to reduced physical activity levels in the general population. This short communication aims to [...] Read more.
To reduce transmission of the coronavirus, from its initial outbreak in 2019 up to now, various safety measures have been enacted worldwide by the authorities that have likely led to reduced physical activity levels in the general population. This short communication aims to briefly outline the deteriorative consequences of physical inactivity on parameters of physical fitness and ultimately to highlight associated increases of cardiovascular disease risk and mortality. Finally, evidence-based practical recommendations for exercise that can be performed at home are introduced, to help avoid physical inactivity and therefore maintain or achieve good physical health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Exercise and Sports on Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Social-Ecological Correlates of Regular Leisure-Time Physical Activity Practice among Adults
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(10), 3619; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17103619 - 21 May 2020
Abstract
This study calculated the exposure-response rates of social-ecological correlates of practicing regular (>150 min/week) leisure-time physical activity (PA) in 393,648 adults from the 27 Brazilian state capitals who participated in a national survey between 2006 and 2016. Regular PA encouraging factors were inputted [...] Read more.
This study calculated the exposure-response rates of social-ecological correlates of practicing regular (>150 min/week) leisure-time physical activity (PA) in 393,648 adults from the 27 Brazilian state capitals who participated in a national survey between 2006 and 2016. Regular PA encouraging factors were inputted into an exposure-response model. Growth rates for the odds ratio and prevalence of regular PA were calculated for each increase of one encouraging factor. Regular PA was reported by 22% of the participants (25% of men and 20% of women). More than 40% of men and 30% of women with higher intra-personal encouraging conditions reported practicing regular PA. There was a 3% (ages 18–32 years) to 5% (ages 46–60 years) increase in regular PA practice in men for each increase in an encouraging climate factor (temperature from 21 °C to 31 °C, humidity from 65% to 85%, 2430 to 3250 h of sun/year, and from 1560 to 1910 mm of rain/year). Encouraging intra-personal factors and favorable climate conditions had larger effects on regular PA practice than the built environment and socio-political conditions; the latter two had independent effects, but did not have a cumulative effect on PA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Exercise and Sports on Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Small-Sided Recreational Volleyball on Health Markers and Physical Fitness in Middle-Aged Men
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(9), 3021; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17093021 - 27 Apr 2020
Abstract
The present study aimed to investigate whether recreational volleyball organized as small-sided games could improve fitness and health profiles of middle-aged men after 10 weeks of training. Twenty-four healthy men aged 35–55 were randomized in a small-sided recreational volleyball group (RV = 12; [...] Read more.
The present study aimed to investigate whether recreational volleyball organized as small-sided games could improve fitness and health profiles of middle-aged men after 10 weeks of training. Twenty-four healthy men aged 35–55 were randomized in a small-sided recreational volleyball group (RV = 12; age: 44.7 ± 6.34 years; body mass index: 25.85 ± 1.74) and control group (CON = 12; age: 42.9 ± 8.72 years; body mass index: 25.62 ± 1.48). The RV group carried out a volleyball training program, whereas the CON group continued their daily life activities during this period. The participants in the RV group performed 2/3 training sessions of 90 min per week. Results from a repeated measure ANOVA indicated a significant group × time interaction for low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (F = 6.776, p = 0.016, partial ƞ2 = 0.235) and for resting heart rate (F = 11.647, p = 0.002, partial ƞ2 = 0.346) in favor of the RV group. No significant changes were observed for body weight, body mass index, and diastolic blood pressure. Results for physical fitness indicated a significant interaction for Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test–level 2 (F = 11.648, p = 0.003, partial ƞ2 = 0.380), with no significant changes in both groups for handgrip strength. Recreational small-sided volleyball can be an effective training modality to stimulate a decrease in LDL cholesterol and resting HR with small improvements in cardiovascular fitness. Recreational volleyball played only two times per week shows positive cardiovascular fitness and health-related adaptations, which may contribute to the reduction of the risk of developing lifestyle diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Exercise and Sports on Health)
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Open AccessArticle
The Relationship of IL-8 and IL-10 Myokines and Performance in Male Marathon Runners Presenting Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(8), 2622; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17082622 - 11 Apr 2020
Abstract
At present, it is unclear which exercise-induced factors, such as myokines, could diminish the negative impact of the reduction in pulmonary function imposed by the exercise in question. In this study, we aim to evaluate the prevalence of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) and also [...] Read more.
At present, it is unclear which exercise-induced factors, such as myokines, could diminish the negative impact of the reduction in pulmonary function imposed by the exercise in question. In this study, we aim to evaluate the prevalence of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) and also to investigate the effect of myokines in the performance of marathon runners presenting EIB or not. Thirty-eight male recreational marathon runners (age 38.8 [33–44], height 175.7 [172.0–180.3]; weight 74.7 [69.3–81.6]) participated in this study, and through spirometry tests, a prevalence of 23.6% of EIB was found, which is in agreement with the literature. The volunteers who tested positive to EIB (EIB+) presented lower maximum aerobic capacity compared to those who tested negative (EIB−) (EIB+ 44.02 [39.56–47.02] and EIB− 47.62 [44.11–51.18] p = 0.03). The comparison of plasma levels of IL-1β (EIB+ p = 0.296, EIB− p = 0.176, EIB+ vs. EIB− baseline p = 0.190 immediately after p = 0.106), IL-4 (undetectable), IL-6 (EIB+ p = 0.003, EIB− p ≤ 0.001, EIB+ vs. EIB− baseline p = 0.301 immediately after p = 0.614), IL-8 (EIB+ p = 0.003, EIB− p ≤ 0.001, EIB+ vs. EIB− baseline p = 0.110 immediately after p = 0.453), IL-10 (EIB+ p = 0.003, EIB− p ≤ 0.001, EIB+ vs. EIB− baseline p = 0.424 immediately after p = 0.876) and TNF-α (EIB+ p = 0.003, EIB− p ≤ 0.001, EIB+ vs. EIB− baseline p = 0.141 immediately after p = 0.898) were similar in both groups 24 h before and immediately after the marathon. However, negative correlations were found between the marathon finishing time and the levels of IL-8 (r = −0.81, p = 0.022), and IL-10 (r = −0.97, p ≤ 0.001) immediately after completing the marathon. In conclusion, for the first time, it is shown that the myokines IL-8 and IL-10 are related to improvement of the performance of marathon runners presenting EIB. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Exercise and Sports on Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Association between Reallocation Behaviors and Subjective Health and Stress in South Korean Adults: An Isotemporal Substitution Model
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(7), 2488; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072488 - 05 Apr 2020
Abstract
This study used an isotemporal substitution (IS) model to determine the potential reallocation effects of sedentary behavior (SB) and physical activity (PA) on subjective health and stress in South Koreans with data from the Sixth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2015. [...] Read more.
This study used an isotemporal substitution (IS) model to determine the potential reallocation effects of sedentary behavior (SB) and physical activity (PA) on subjective health and stress in South Koreans with data from the Sixth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2015. The analysis included 791 participants whose accelerometer-measured PA was available, divided into three age groups (young adults = 151; mid-age adults = 334; older adults = 306). We adopted SB, light PA (LPA), and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) to determine how time was allocated to each activity level, then examined the effects of reallocation on subjective health and stress across age groups. The analyses were performed in three steps: single-activity, partition, and IS model. An additional ANCOVA was conducted on statistically significant outcomes (i.e., subjective health of young and older adults). We found that among young adults, reallocating 30 min/week of SB to LPA and to MVPA was linked to high levels of subjective health. In older adults, reallocating 30 min/week of SB and LPA to MVPA was associated with high subjective health. However, this relationship was not observed in mid-age adults. None of the age groups showed a relationship between any activity reallocation and stress. Our findings provide the first insight on the development of interventions aimed at promoting active, healthier lifestyles on the basis of behavior reallocation in South Koreans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Exercise and Sports on Health)
Open AccessArticle
Associations between Physical Activity and Comorbidities in People with COPD Residing in Spain: A Cross-Sectional Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(2), 594; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17020594 - 16 Jan 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
There is a high prevalence of comorbidities among patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Comorbidities are likely common in patients with any COPD degree and are associated with increased mortality. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of thirty-one [...] Read more.
There is a high prevalence of comorbidities among patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Comorbidities are likely common in patients with any COPD degree and are associated with increased mortality. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of thirty-one different COPD comorbidities and to evaluate the association between physical activity (PA) levels in people with COPD residing in Spain. Cross-sectional data from the Spanish National Health Survey 2017 were analysed. A total of 601 adults (52.2% females) with COPD aged 15 to 69 participated in this study. PA (exposure) was measured with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) short form and comorbidities (outcomes) were self-reported in response to the question “Have you ever been diagnosed with…?” Multivariable logistic regression, in three different models, was used to assess this association. Results showed a high prevalence of comorbidities (94%), these being chronic lumbar back pain (38.9%), chronic allergy (34.8%), arthrosis (34.1%), chronic cervical back pain (33.3%), asthma (32.9%) and hypertension (32.8%) the most prevalent. Low PA level was significantly associated with urinary incontinence (2.115[1.213–3.689]), chronic constipation (1.970[1.119–3.459]), cataracts (1.840[1.074–3.153]), chronic anxiety (1.508[1.002–2.269]) and chronic lumbar back pain (1.489[1.044–2.125]). Therefore, people with COPD should increase their PA levels in order to reduce their risk of comorbidities and increase their quality of life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Exercise and Sports on Health)
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