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Impact of Exercise and Sports on Health

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Exercise and Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2022) | Viewed by 97603

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Division of Sports and Exercise Sciences, Abertay University, Dundee DD1 1HG, UK
Interests: ageing; metabolism; physical capacity; kinetics; modifiable disease risk

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Sedentary behaviour is one of the biggest health issues facing society. Inactivity is associated with increased risk for a number of diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and dementia. We are seeking research papers examining the impact that exercise or sport interventions can have on the health and wellbeing of a population, for example, research papers examining general population disease risk, specific disease populations, and ageing. Such research papers should look to explore clinically relevant endpoints and/or impact on quality of life. 

Dr. John Babraj
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Exercise
  • Sport
  • Health
  • Wellbeing
  • Disease risk
  • Quality of life

Published Papers (25 papers)

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13 pages, 582 KiB  
Communication
Utilizing a Team Kinesiology Model to Support Rehabilitative Care in Patients
by Paulette M. Yamada and Joe Priest
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(4), 2079; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19042079 - 13 Feb 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1888
Abstract
An approach that provides a standardized way of continuing rehabilitative care to help patients return to their lives and activities of daily living (ADL) in an economical and efficient manner is the Team Kinesiology Model (TKM). Many patients who are given a life-altering [...] Read more.
An approach that provides a standardized way of continuing rehabilitative care to help patients return to their lives and activities of daily living (ADL) in an economical and efficient manner is the Team Kinesiology Model (TKM). Many patients who are given a life-altering diagnosis (i.e., paralysis due to spinal cord injury, cerebral palsy, or cancer) are unable to return to employment, their family or a pre-diagnosis quality of life (QOL) given the current health care resources. This is a longstanding, and urgent problem as population aging and rising multi-morbidity is projected to negatively impact all regions of the world. Utilization of mid-level rehabilitation services is a proposed method to increase accessibility to all populations, including those of lower socioeconomic status or minority populations. Capitalizing on this idea, we describe two different programs that use the TKM to provide rehabilitative services to patients who were diagnosed with nervous system dysfunction or cancer. This model benefits the patient by improving physical fitness, psychosocial function, and QOL. Furthermore, we provide specific examples that show how this approach could have further-reaching impacts on society, education and research. Integrating kinesiologists and TKM in health care could assist in workflow, long-term health surveillance, rehabilitation and improvement of QOL. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Exercise and Sports on Health)
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13 pages, 2247 KiB  
Article
Football and Zumba Training in Female Hospital Staff: Effects after 12 and 40 Weeks on Self-Reported Health Status, Emotional Wellbeing, General Self-Efficacy and Sleep Problems
by Svein Barene and Peter Krustrup
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(3), 1685; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19031685 - 01 Feb 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2533
Abstract
Background: This 40-weeks intervention study evaluates the effects on self-reported health status, emotional wellbeing, general self-efficacy and sleep problems among female hospital employees. Methods: 107 employees were cluster-randomized into three groups; football (FG), Zumba (ZG) and control (CG). Outcome measurements were conducted at [...] Read more.
Background: This 40-weeks intervention study evaluates the effects on self-reported health status, emotional wellbeing, general self-efficacy and sleep problems among female hospital employees. Methods: 107 employees were cluster-randomized into three groups; football (FG), Zumba (ZG) and control (CG). Outcome measurements were conducted at baseline, 12 and 40 weeks. Weekly training frequencies in the first 12 and next 28 weeks were 2.4 ± 0.3 and 0.8 ± 0.2 in FG and 2.3 ± 0.3 and 0.9 ± 0.2 in ZG. Results: Compared to the CG, the ZG showed significant improvement in self-reported health status (p = 0.025), a reduced frequency of poor and restless sleep (on a 0–4 scale) (p = 0.004), as well as a tendency for reduction in the frequency of problems falling asleep (p = 0.055) and overall sleep problems (p = 0.051). Between baseline and 12 weeks, both the FG (p = 0.017) and the ZG (p = 0.017) showed within-group improvements in emotional wellbeing, whereas this improvement was maintained only in the ZG between baseline and 40 weeks (p = 0.002). The FG showed a significant within-group improvement in general self-efficacy (p = 0.012) between baseline and 12 weeks follow-up, with no such improvements in the other groups. Conclusion: The present findings revealed that a physical activity intervention with Zumba as well as football training may improve mental health and sleep outcomes in female hospital staff. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Exercise and Sports on Health)
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7 pages, 346 KiB  
Article
Effects of Copenhagen Adduction Exercise on the Architectural Characteristics of Adductors in U-17 Male Soccer Players: A Randomized Controlled Trial
by Alejandra Alonso-Calvete, Miguel Lorenzo-Martínez, Alexis Padrón-Cabo and Ezequiel Rey
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(24), 12956; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182412956 - 08 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3326
Abstract
Groin injuries are one of the most prevalent in male soccer players, especially due to the hip adductor muscles’ weakness which is considered as a risk factor in these injuries. The Copenhagen adduction (CA) exercise has been demonstrated to increase the strength of [...] Read more.
Groin injuries are one of the most prevalent in male soccer players, especially due to the hip adductor muscles’ weakness which is considered as a risk factor in these injuries. The Copenhagen adduction (CA) exercise has been demonstrated to increase the strength of adductor muscles, but its effects on the architectural characteristics of adductor muscles have not been studied yet. This study aimed to analyze the effects of the CA exercise on the muscle thickness of the adductors. Twelve male U-17 soccer players were randomized into two groups: the control group with no intervention and the experimental group with an intervention based on an eight-week training with CA exercise. The muscle thickness of adductors was measured before and after the intervention using ultrasound imaging. A significant increase in muscle thickness was found in both control (p = 0.002) and experimental group (p < 0.001), but the experimental group did not show additional effects in comparison with the control group. In conclusion, an 8-week CA exercise intervention does not increase the muscle thickness of adductors in U-17 soccer players more than their regular training. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Exercise and Sports on Health)
12 pages, 1416 KiB  
Article
Impact of Work and Recreational Physical Activity on Prediabetes Condition among U.S. Adults: NHANES 2015–2016
by Lenin Pazmino, Wilmer Esparza, Arian Ramón Aladro-Gonzalvo and Edgar León
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(4), 1378; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18041378 - 03 Feb 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2931
Abstract
More minutes of physical activity (PA) accumulated during a day are associated with a lower risk of diabetes mellitus type 2. However, it is less known if distinct dimensions of PA can produce a different protective effect in the prevention of prediabetes. The [...] Read more.
More minutes of physical activity (PA) accumulated during a day are associated with a lower risk of diabetes mellitus type 2. However, it is less known if distinct dimensions of PA can produce a different protective effect in the prevention of prediabetes. The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of work and recreational PA on prediabetes among U.S. adults during the period 2015–2016 using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) database. Individuals (n = 4481) with hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) test values of 5.7% to 6.4% were included. A logistic regression multivariate-adjusted analysis was conducted to estimate the association between the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of prediabetes, with work and recreational PA. The prevalence of prediabetes among U.S. adults was lower in physically active individuals both at work (~24%) and recreational (~21%) physical activities compared to individuals who were not physically active (27 to 30%). Individuals lacking practice of recreational PA had a high risk of prediabetes (OR = 1.26, 95% CI: 1.080 to 1.466). PA may be a protective factor for prediabetes conditions depending on gender, age, ethnic group, waist circumference, and thyroid disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Exercise and Sports on Health)
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14 pages, 378 KiB  
Article
Ethnic Disparities in Social Capital and Health among Jewish and Arab Participants in the Israeli Mamanet Cachibol League
by Yuval Paldi, Daniel S. Moran, Orna Baron-Epel, Shiran Bord and Riki Tesler
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(1), 295; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18010295 - 03 Jan 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2463
Abstract
The Israeli Mamanet Cachibol League (MCL) serves as a community model that incorporates physical activity and amateur team sports among women. Team sports have been shown to bridge gaps and build positive relationships between communities. There is a paucity of data regarding the [...] Read more.
The Israeli Mamanet Cachibol League (MCL) serves as a community model that incorporates physical activity and amateur team sports among women. Team sports have been shown to bridge gaps and build positive relationships between communities. There is a paucity of data regarding the advantages of team sports to promote the health and well-being of women from different ethnic backgrounds. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of participation in MCL with social capital, health, and well-being across two ethnic groups: Jewish and Arab women. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among women aged 25–64: 102 Jewish and 96 Arab MCL participants, and 102 Jewish and 81 Arab non-MCL participants. Data regarding social capital (trust, social support and social involvement) and well-being (self-reported health and psychosomatic and depressive symptoms) were analyzed using two-way analyses of covariance and multiple regression models with sequential entry of the variables. MCL participants from both ethnic groups reported higher social capital (p < 0.001), better self-reported health (p < 0.001), and lower psychosomatic symptoms (p < 0.001) compared to non-participants. Jewish MCL participants reported lower depressive symptoms (p < 0.001) than non-participants, however no difference was found between Arab MCL participants and non-participants (p < 0.160). Amateur team sports such as MCL are related with higher levels of well-being and social capital. Future research should focus on longitudinal studies that examine the change in social capital and well-being over time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Exercise and Sports on Health)
10 pages, 470 KiB  
Article
Analysis of the Local Health-Enhancing Physical Activity Policies on the French Riviera
by Antoine Noël Racine, Jean-Marie Garbarino, Bernard Massiera and Anne Vuillemin
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(1), 156; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18010156 - 28 Dec 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2432
Abstract
Policy is a lever for initiating the structural and environmental changes that foster health-enhancing physical activity (HEPA) promotion. However, little is known about the evidence in support of local governments regarding their HEPA-promoting policies. The aim of this study was to collect comprehensive [...] Read more.
Policy is a lever for initiating the structural and environmental changes that foster health-enhancing physical activity (HEPA) promotion. However, little is known about the evidence in support of local governments regarding their HEPA-promoting policies. The aim of this study was to collect comprehensive information on municipal HEPA policies on the French Riviera (Alpes-Maritimes and Var counties) to provide an overview of the development of these policies in this territory. Mid-sized cities from the two counties constituting the French Riviera were targeted (n = 17). In each city, a local tool for HEPA policy analysis, CAPLA-Santé, was used to gain information from key informants heading the departments of sports, health services, and social services. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews and document analysis. Ten mid-sized cities volunteered to participate. Key informants from the sports (n = 10), health services (n = 5), and social services (n = 6) departments were interviewed. Written HEPA policy documents were formalized in six cities. These documents (n = 14) were mainly from the sports (n = 8) and health services (n = 4) sectors. The key informants reported that support from national policy, the commitment of elected officials, and large local stakeholder networks facilitated HEPA promotion, whereas the lack of intersectoral collaboration and limited resources were limitations. The results provide insight into the development of municipal HEPA policies, highlighting some of the barriers, facilitators, and perspectives. These findings could be valuable to scale up HEPA promotion at the local level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Exercise and Sports on Health)
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14 pages, 397 KiB  
Article
Are Reallocations between Sedentary Behaviour and Physical Activity Associated with Better Sleep in Adults Aged 55+ Years? An Isotemporal Substitution Analysis
by Julie Vanderlinden, Gregory J. H. Biddle, Filip Boen and Jannique G. Z. van Uffelen
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(24), 9579; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17249579 - 21 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2920
Abstract
Physical activity has been proposed as an effective alternative treatment option for the increasing occurrence of sleep problems in older adults. Although higher physical activity levels are associated with better sleep, the association between specific physical activity intensities and sedentary behaviour (SB) with [...] Read more.
Physical activity has been proposed as an effective alternative treatment option for the increasing occurrence of sleep problems in older adults. Although higher physical activity levels are associated with better sleep, the association between specific physical activity intensities and sedentary behaviour (SB) with sleep remains unclear. This study examines the associations of statistically modelled time reallocations between sedentary time and different physical activity intensities with sleep outcomes using isotemporal substitution analysis. Device-measured physical activity data and both objective and subjective sleep data were collected from 439 adults aged 55+ years. Replacing 30 min of SB with moderate to vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) was significantly associated with an increased number of awakenings. Moreover, a reallocation of 30 min between light physical activity (LPA) and MVPA was significantly associated with increased sleep efficiency. Furthermore, reallocating 30 min of SB to LPA showed a significant association with decreased sleep efficiency. There were no significant associations of time reallocations for wake time after sleep onset, length of awakenings, and sleep quality. These results improve our understanding of the interrelationships between different intensities of movement behaviours and several aspects of sleep in older adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Exercise and Sports on Health)
14 pages, 513 KiB  
Article
Adiposity and High Blood Pressure during Childhood: A Prospective Analysis of the Role of Physical Activity Intensity and Sedentary Time in the GECKO Drenthe Cohort
by Rikstje Wiersma, Esther Hartman, Hendrika Marike Boezen and Eva Corpeleijn
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(24), 9526; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17249526 - 19 Dec 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 4542
Abstract
Whereas in adults, physical inactivity is strongly related to obesity and hypertension, in young children the evidence is inconsistent and scarce. We examined the association between physical activity (PA) behaviours at 5–6 years of age and adiposity and blood pressure (BP) at 10–11 [...] Read more.
Whereas in adults, physical inactivity is strongly related to obesity and hypertension, in young children the evidence is inconsistent and scarce. We examined the association between physical activity (PA) behaviours at 5–6 years of age and adiposity and blood pressure (BP) at 10–11 years in 947 children (51% boys) from the Groningen Expert Center for Kids with Obesity (GECKO) Drenthe cohort. Sedentary time (ST) and light, moderate, and vigorous PA were assessed using accelerometry (ActiGraph GT3X, wear time > 600 min/day, ≥3 days). Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and systolic and diastolic BP were measured at 5–6 and 10–11 years of age and standardized as age- and sex-adjusted (and height-adjusted, for BP) z-scores. Adjusted linear and logistic regression models showed that most PA behaviours were not related to standardized BMI or WC, overweightness/obesity, abdominal overweightness/obesity, standardized systolic or diastolic BP, pulse pressure, or prehypertension at 10–11 years of age. Only if children spent more time in vigorous PA was WC slightly lower (B (95% CI) = −0.08 (−0.16, −0.01) SD, stdβ = −0.068) and the increase in WC over the years was less (B (95% CI) = −0.10 (−0.18, −0.01) SD; stdβ = −0.083). To conclude, at this very young age, PA behaviours are not a strong predictor for overweightness/obesity or hypertension later in childhood. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Exercise and Sports on Health)
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12 pages, 3580 KiB  
Article
Cardiorespiratory, Metabolic and Muscular Responses during a Video-Recorded Aerobic Dance Session on an Air Dissipation Platform
by Alessandra Moreira-Reis, José Luis Maté-Muñoz, Juan Hernández-Lougedo, Pablo García-Fernández, Eulogio Pleguezuelos-Cobo, Teresa Carbonell, Norma Alva and Manuel Vicente Garnacho-Castaño
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(24), 9511; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17249511 - 18 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3022
Abstract
Background: Aerobic dance (AD) is an appropriate physical activity for improving cardiorespiratory fitness. This study aimed to compare cardiorespiratory and metabolic responses, and muscle fatigue between an air dissipation platform (ADP) and a hard surface during a video-recorded AD session. Methods: 25 healthy [...] Read more.
Background: Aerobic dance (AD) is an appropriate physical activity for improving cardiorespiratory fitness. This study aimed to compare cardiorespiratory and metabolic responses, and muscle fatigue between an air dissipation platform (ADP) and a hard surface during a video-recorded AD session. Methods: 25 healthy young women (23.3 ± 2.5 years) completed three sessions. In session 1, participants performed an incremental test to exhaustion on a treadmill. One week after session 1, participants were randomly assigned in a crossover design to perform video-recorded AD sessions on an ADP and on a hard surface (sessions 2 and 3). Cardiorespiratory and metabolic responses were assessed during AD sessions. Muscular fatigue was measured before and after AD sessions by a countermovement jump test. Results: Significantly higher heart rate, respiratory exchange ratio, pulmonary ventilation, ventilatory oxygen equivalent, and ventilatory carbon dioxide equivalent were observed on an ADP than on a hard surface (p < 0.05). Despite a significant increase in lactate levels on an ADP (p ≤ 0.01), muscular fatigue and perceived exertion rating were similar on both surfaces (p > 0.05). Conclusions: Video-recorded AD on an ADP increased the cardioventilatory and metabolic responses compared to a hard surface, preventing further muscle fatigue. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Exercise and Sports on Health)
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12 pages, 1413 KiB  
Article
Mandatory Physical Education Classes of Two Hours per Week Can Be Comparable to Losing More than Five Kilograms for Chinese College Students
by Dawei Bao, Zixiang Xiao, Yuanyuan Zhang, Gang Chen, Xinyu Miao, Bo Wang, Jing Li, Chi Xu and Shuqing N. Teng
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(24), 9182; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17249182 - 08 Dec 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2411
Abstract
Despite releases of governmental guidelines for promoting physical fitness among the youth in China, the performance of college students in fitness tests has been declining over the past three decades. Obesity and physical inactivity have been proposed as two main causes. However, their [...] Read more.
Despite releases of governmental guidelines for promoting physical fitness among the youth in China, the performance of college students in fitness tests has been declining over the past three decades. Obesity and physical inactivity have been proposed as two main causes. However, their relative importance for improving physical fitness remains unclear. To address this knowledge gap, we collected longitudinal data spanning four consecutive years on the physical fitness test for students from Nanjing University, China. Physical education classes of two hours per week were mandatory for the first two years. Using mixed effects models, we quantify the within-subject effects of weight, muscular endurance, sex, and mandatory physical education courses, among other variables, on physical fitness total score. We found that, in spite of the dominance of normal weight among the students, losing weight was positively associated with the total score, with significant sex differences in the associations. Compulsory exercise provided by physical education classes per week had strong positive impacts on the total score, comparable to losing weight of roughly 15–17 kg for males and 5–10 kg for females. Half sex difference in the total score was explained by male students’ poor performance in the muscular endurance represented by pull-ups. Our results suggest that college students in China should engage in physical activity of higher levels to improve their physical fitness, with a heightened awareness of extra fat under normal weight and insufficient muscular endurance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Exercise and Sports on Health)
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9 pages, 825 KiB  
Article
Posture and Time Arrangement Influence Shank Circumference Reduction When Performing Leg Raising Exercise
by Yi-Lang Chen, Ya-Ting Cheng, Jia-Ning Ye, Tzu-Ling Huang and Wen-Ning Chen
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(16), 5735; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17165735 - 08 Aug 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3758
Abstract
This study recruited nine young women who performed a leg raising exercise under six test combinations of three holding postures (lying supine, placing the shanks on a yoga ball, and elevating the legs at 60° against the wall) and two time arrangements (continuous [...] Read more.
This study recruited nine young women who performed a leg raising exercise under six test combinations of three holding postures (lying supine, placing the shanks on a yoga ball, and elevating the legs at 60° against the wall) and two time arrangements (continuous vs. intermittent) for a period of 15 min. The intermittent arrangement included an additional 1-min rest set in the middle of the 15 min test. The participants’ shank circumference (SC) reductions and discomfort ratings were measured after each test combination was performed. Results indicated that the most efficient method for SC reduction was the yoga ball (5.4 mm), followed by the supine lying posture (4.6 mm) and wall-supported leg raising (3.1 mm). A significant interaction of posture × time arrangement (p < 0.01) implied that the yoga ball method combined with a 1-min rest produced the greatest SC reduction (6.7 mm). Our results also showed that participants experienced the greatest discomfort (score: 4.96) when performing wall-supported leg raising, compared with both lying supine (score: 1.34) and the yoga ball (score: 1.32). This study suggests that the effectiveness of leg raising as conventionally practiced for eliminating leg fatigue or swelling requires further consideration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Exercise and Sports on Health)
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11 pages, 610 KiB  
Article
Association between Allergic Rhinitis and Regular Physical Activity in Adults: A Nationwide Cross-Sectional Study
by Jewel Park, Joo Hee Park, Jaehyung Park, Jimi Choi and Tae Hoon Kim
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(16), 5662; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17165662 - 05 Aug 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3061
Abstract
Evidence regarding the association between allergic rhinitis (AR) and physical activity (PA) is conflicting. Previous studies have mostly relied only on self-reported symptoms to define AR, did not classify AR by severity or persistence, and included only children or athletes. The present cross-sectional [...] Read more.
Evidence regarding the association between allergic rhinitis (AR) and physical activity (PA) is conflicting. Previous studies have mostly relied only on self-reported symptoms to define AR, did not classify AR by severity or persistence, and included only children or athletes. The present cross-sectional study evaluated the association between PA and objectively-defined AR and its subtypes in the general adult population using data for 1932 eligible participants aged 19 years or older in the 2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate the relationship between three types of PA and overall AR, AR subtypes, and rhinoscopy findings showed that moderate-severe AR was positively associated with vigorous (odds ratio [OR] = 3.392, p = 0.002) and moderate (OR = 3.623, p = 0.007) PA compared to mild AR, while persistent AR was associated with vigorous (OR = 3.954, p = 0.004) and moderate (OR = 3.411, p = 0.022) PA compared to intermittent AR. On rhinoscopy, vigorous PA was significantly associated with watery rhinorrhea (OR = 2.203, p = 0.048) but not pale mucosa. Total immunoglobulin E (IgE) and three allergen-specific IgE were not significantly elevated in participants who performed PA. Therefore, regular vigorous PA is associated with subjective and objective aggravation of AR symptoms, which may not necessarily manifest as increased serum IgE levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Exercise and Sports on Health)
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10 pages, 2069 KiB  
Article
Impact of Exercises and Chair Massage on Musculoskeletal Pain of Young Musicians
by Anna Cygańska, Aleksandra Truszczyńska-Baszak and Paweł Tomaszewski
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(14), 5128; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17145128 - 16 Jul 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 4242
Abstract
Due to the occurrence among musicians of musculoskeletal problems associated with playing a musical instrument, it is necessary to use prophylaxis. The aim of the study was to compare the effectiveness of two physioprophylaxis methods: chair massage and an original set of exercises. [...] Read more.
Due to the occurrence among musicians of musculoskeletal problems associated with playing a musical instrument, it is necessary to use prophylaxis. The aim of the study was to compare the effectiveness of two physioprophylaxis methods: chair massage and an original set of exercises. The study lasted four weeks and consisted of eight 15-min meetings (chair massage/exercises). The study was conducted on 44 music students assigned to three groups (chair massage/exercise program/control group). The algometric measurements and questionnaire were conducted. Health problems associated with playing an instrument was reported by 86.4% of the participants. The largest changes in pain threshold concerned the trigger points of the muscles with the highest pain sensitivity, i.e., upper part of trapezius ones, and reached 25–34% in relation to the initial values. For the trigger points of the levator scapulae and lower part of trapezius, the increase in the pain threshold was between 20 and 28%. Raising the pain threshold was observed both after each session and meeting by meeting, and these differences were most visible in the massage group. This effect was particularly visible from the fourth treatment. Chair massage and exercise should be used regularly, and significant results can be obtained after two weeks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Exercise and Sports on Health)
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9 pages, 811 KiB  
Article
Effect of Exercising with Others on Incident Functional Disability and All-Cause Mortality in Community-Dwelling Older Adults: A Five-Year Follow-Up Survey
by Yuya Fujii, Keisuke Fujii, Takashi Jindo, Naruki Kitano, Jaehoon Seol, Kenji Tsunoda and Tomohiro Okura
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(12), 4329; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17124329 - 17 Jun 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2999
Abstract
We clarified the effect of exercising with others on the risks of incident functional disability and all-cause mortality among community-dwelling adults. We used an inventory mail survey with a five-year follow-up for 1520 independently living older adults (mean age: 73.4 ± 6.3 years) [...] Read more.
We clarified the effect of exercising with others on the risks of incident functional disability and all-cause mortality among community-dwelling adults. We used an inventory mail survey with a five-year follow-up for 1520 independently living older adults (mean age: 73.4 ± 6.3 years) in Kasama City, Japan. Subjects responded to a self-reported questionnaire in June 2014. Exercise habits and the presence of exercise partners were assessed. Subjects were classified into three groups: Non-exercise, exercising alone, and exercising with others. Follow-up information and date of incident functional disability and death during the five-year follow-up were collected from the database. To compare the association between exercise habits and functional disability and mortality, Cox regression analysis was conducted. Compared with the non-exercise group, exercising with others had significantly lower hazard ratios (HRs) for functional disability (0.59, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.40–0.88) and mortality (0.40, 95% CI 0.24–0.66) in the covariate models. Compared with exercising alone, exercising with others decreased the HRs for incident functional disability (0.53, 95% CI: 0.36–0.80) and mortality (0.50, 95% CI 0.29–0.85) rates in the unadjusted model; these associations were not significant in the covariate models. Exercising with others can contribute to functional disability prevention and longevity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Exercise and Sports on Health)
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5 pages, 459 KiB  
Communication
Counteracting Physical Inactivity during the COVID-19 Pandemic: Evidence-Based Recommendations for Home-Based Exercise
by Fabian Schwendinger and Elena Pocecco
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(11), 3909; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17113909 - 01 Jun 2020
Cited by 75 | Viewed by 9833
Abstract
To reduce transmission of the coronavirus, from its initial outbreak in 2019 up to now, various safety measures have been enacted worldwide by the authorities that have likely led to reduced physical activity levels in the general population. This short communication aims to [...] Read more.
To reduce transmission of the coronavirus, from its initial outbreak in 2019 up to now, various safety measures have been enacted worldwide by the authorities that have likely led to reduced physical activity levels in the general population. This short communication aims to briefly outline the deteriorative consequences of physical inactivity on parameters of physical fitness and ultimately to highlight associated increases of cardiovascular disease risk and mortality. Finally, evidence-based practical recommendations for exercise that can be performed at home are introduced, to help avoid physical inactivity and therefore maintain or achieve good physical health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Exercise and Sports on Health)
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15 pages, 1319 KiB  
Article
Social-Ecological Correlates of Regular Leisure-Time Physical Activity Practice among Adults
by Timothy Gustavo Cavazzotto, Enio Ricardo Vaz Ronque, Edgar Ramos Vieira, Marcos Roberto Queiroga and Helio Serassuelo Junior
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(10), 3619; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17103619 - 21 May 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3559
Abstract
This study calculated the exposure-response rates of social-ecological correlates of practicing regular (>150 min/week) leisure-time physical activity (PA) in 393,648 adults from the 27 Brazilian state capitals who participated in a national survey between 2006 and 2016. Regular PA encouraging factors were inputted [...] Read more.
This study calculated the exposure-response rates of social-ecological correlates of practicing regular (>150 min/week) leisure-time physical activity (PA) in 393,648 adults from the 27 Brazilian state capitals who participated in a national survey between 2006 and 2016. Regular PA encouraging factors were inputted into an exposure-response model. Growth rates for the odds ratio and prevalence of regular PA were calculated for each increase of one encouraging factor. Regular PA was reported by 22% of the participants (25% of men and 20% of women). More than 40% of men and 30% of women with higher intra-personal encouraging conditions reported practicing regular PA. There was a 3% (ages 18–32 years) to 5% (ages 46–60 years) increase in regular PA practice in men for each increase in an encouraging climate factor (temperature from 21 °C to 31 °C, humidity from 65% to 85%, 2430 to 3250 h of sun/year, and from 1560 to 1910 mm of rain/year). Encouraging intra-personal factors and favorable climate conditions had larger effects on regular PA practice than the built environment and socio-political conditions; the latter two had independent effects, but did not have a cumulative effect on PA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Exercise and Sports on Health)
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10 pages, 740 KiB  
Article
Effects of Small-Sided Recreational Volleyball on Health Markers and Physical Fitness in Middle-Aged Men
by Nebojša Trajković, Goran Sporiš, Tomislav Krističević and Špela Bogataj
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(9), 3021; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17093021 - 27 Apr 2020
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3773
Abstract
The present study aimed to investigate whether recreational volleyball organized as small-sided games could improve fitness and health profiles of middle-aged men after 10 weeks of training. Twenty-four healthy men aged 35–55 were randomized in a small-sided recreational volleyball group (RV = 12; [...] Read more.
The present study aimed to investigate whether recreational volleyball organized as small-sided games could improve fitness and health profiles of middle-aged men after 10 weeks of training. Twenty-four healthy men aged 35–55 were randomized in a small-sided recreational volleyball group (RV = 12; age: 44.7 ± 6.34 years; body mass index: 25.85 ± 1.74) and control group (CON = 12; age: 42.9 ± 8.72 years; body mass index: 25.62 ± 1.48). The RV group carried out a volleyball training program, whereas the CON group continued their daily life activities during this period. The participants in the RV group performed 2/3 training sessions of 90 min per week. Results from a repeated measure ANOVA indicated a significant group × time interaction for low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (F = 6.776, p = 0.016, partial ƞ2 = 0.235) and for resting heart rate (F = 11.647, p = 0.002, partial ƞ2 = 0.346) in favor of the RV group. No significant changes were observed for body weight, body mass index, and diastolic blood pressure. Results for physical fitness indicated a significant interaction for Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test–level 2 (F = 11.648, p = 0.003, partial ƞ2 = 0.380), with no significant changes in both groups for handgrip strength. Recreational small-sided volleyball can be an effective training modality to stimulate a decrease in LDL cholesterol and resting HR with small improvements in cardiovascular fitness. Recreational volleyball played only two times per week shows positive cardiovascular fitness and health-related adaptations, which may contribute to the reduction of the risk of developing lifestyle diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Exercise and Sports on Health)
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15 pages, 1983 KiB  
Article
The Relationship of IL-8 and IL-10 Myokines and Performance in Male Marathon Runners Presenting Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction
by Juliana de Melo Batista dos Santos, André Luis Lacerda Bachi, Luiz Antonio Luna Junior, Roberta Foster, Ana Paula Renno Sierra, Marino Benetti, José Roberto Araújo, Nabil Ghorayeb, Maria Augusta Peduti Dal’Molim Kiss, Rodolfo P. Vieira, Dominique M. A. Bullens and Mauro Vaisberg
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(8), 2622; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17082622 - 11 Apr 2020
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2791
Abstract
At present, it is unclear which exercise-induced factors, such as myokines, could diminish the negative impact of the reduction in pulmonary function imposed by the exercise in question. In this study, we aim to evaluate the prevalence of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) and also [...] Read more.
At present, it is unclear which exercise-induced factors, such as myokines, could diminish the negative impact of the reduction in pulmonary function imposed by the exercise in question. In this study, we aim to evaluate the prevalence of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) and also to investigate the effect of myokines in the performance of marathon runners presenting EIB or not. Thirty-eight male recreational marathon runners (age 38.8 [33–44], height 175.7 [172.0–180.3]; weight 74.7 [69.3–81.6]) participated in this study, and through spirometry tests, a prevalence of 23.6% of EIB was found, which is in agreement with the literature. The volunteers who tested positive to EIB (EIB+) presented lower maximum aerobic capacity compared to those who tested negative (EIB−) (EIB+ 44.02 [39.56–47.02] and EIB− 47.62 [44.11–51.18] p = 0.03). The comparison of plasma levels of IL-1β (EIB+ p = 0.296, EIB− p = 0.176, EIB+ vs. EIB− baseline p = 0.190 immediately after p = 0.106), IL-4 (undetectable), IL-6 (EIB+ p = 0.003, EIB− p ≤ 0.001, EIB+ vs. EIB− baseline p = 0.301 immediately after p = 0.614), IL-8 (EIB+ p = 0.003, EIB− p ≤ 0.001, EIB+ vs. EIB− baseline p = 0.110 immediately after p = 0.453), IL-10 (EIB+ p = 0.003, EIB− p ≤ 0.001, EIB+ vs. EIB− baseline p = 0.424 immediately after p = 0.876) and TNF-α (EIB+ p = 0.003, EIB− p ≤ 0.001, EIB+ vs. EIB− baseline p = 0.141 immediately after p = 0.898) were similar in both groups 24 h before and immediately after the marathon. However, negative correlations were found between the marathon finishing time and the levels of IL-8 (r = −0.81, p = 0.022), and IL-10 (r = −0.97, p ≤ 0.001) immediately after completing the marathon. In conclusion, for the first time, it is shown that the myokines IL-8 and IL-10 are related to improvement of the performance of marathon runners presenting EIB. Full article
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11 pages, 322 KiB  
Article
Association between Reallocation Behaviors and Subjective Health and Stress in South Korean Adults: An Isotemporal Substitution Model
by Saengryeol Park, So-Youn Park, Gapjin Oh, Eun Jung Yoon and In-Hwan Oh
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(7), 2488; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072488 - 05 Apr 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2578
Abstract
This study used an isotemporal substitution (IS) model to determine the potential reallocation effects of sedentary behavior (SB) and physical activity (PA) on subjective health and stress in South Koreans with data from the Sixth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2015. [...] Read more.
This study used an isotemporal substitution (IS) model to determine the potential reallocation effects of sedentary behavior (SB) and physical activity (PA) on subjective health and stress in South Koreans with data from the Sixth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2015. The analysis included 791 participants whose accelerometer-measured PA was available, divided into three age groups (young adults = 151; mid-age adults = 334; older adults = 306). We adopted SB, light PA (LPA), and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) to determine how time was allocated to each activity level, then examined the effects of reallocation on subjective health and stress across age groups. The analyses were performed in three steps: single-activity, partition, and IS model. An additional ANCOVA was conducted on statistically significant outcomes (i.e., subjective health of young and older adults). We found that among young adults, reallocating 30 min/week of SB to LPA and to MVPA was linked to high levels of subjective health. In older adults, reallocating 30 min/week of SB and LPA to MVPA was associated with high subjective health. However, this relationship was not observed in mid-age adults. None of the age groups showed a relationship between any activity reallocation and stress. Our findings provide the first insight on the development of interventions aimed at promoting active, healthier lifestyles on the basis of behavior reallocation in South Koreans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Exercise and Sports on Health)
10 pages, 352 KiB  
Article
Associations between Physical Activity and Comorbidities in People with COPD Residing in Spain: A Cross-Sectional Analysis
by Sheila Sánchez Castillo, Lee Smith, Arturo Díaz Suárez and Guillermo Felipe López Sánchez
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(2), 594; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17020594 - 16 Jan 2020
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 3369
Abstract
There is a high prevalence of comorbidities among patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Comorbidities are likely common in patients with any COPD degree and are associated with increased mortality. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of thirty-one [...] Read more.
There is a high prevalence of comorbidities among patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Comorbidities are likely common in patients with any COPD degree and are associated with increased mortality. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of thirty-one different COPD comorbidities and to evaluate the association between physical activity (PA) levels in people with COPD residing in Spain. Cross-sectional data from the Spanish National Health Survey 2017 were analysed. A total of 601 adults (52.2% females) with COPD aged 15 to 69 participated in this study. PA (exposure) was measured with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) short form and comorbidities (outcomes) were self-reported in response to the question “Have you ever been diagnosed with…?” Multivariable logistic regression, in three different models, was used to assess this association. Results showed a high prevalence of comorbidities (94%), these being chronic lumbar back pain (38.9%), chronic allergy (34.8%), arthrosis (34.1%), chronic cervical back pain (33.3%), asthma (32.9%) and hypertension (32.8%) the most prevalent. Low PA level was significantly associated with urinary incontinence (2.115[1.213–3.689]), chronic constipation (1.970[1.119–3.459]), cataracts (1.840[1.074–3.153]), chronic anxiety (1.508[1.002–2.269]) and chronic lumbar back pain (1.489[1.044–2.125]). Therefore, people with COPD should increase their PA levels in order to reduce their risk of comorbidities and increase their quality of life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Exercise and Sports on Health)

Review

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19 pages, 465 KiB  
Review
A Narrative Review of Motor Competence in Children and Adolescents: What We Know and What We Need to Find Out
by Luís Lopes, Rute Santos, Manuel Coelho-e-Silva, Catherine Draper, Jorge Mota, Boris Jidovtseff, Cain Clark, Mirko Schmidt, Philip Morgan, Michael Duncan, Wesley O’Brien, Peter Bentsen, Eva D’Hondt, Suzanne Houwen, Gareth Stratton, Kristine De Martelaer, Claude Scheuer, Christian Herrmann, António García-Hermoso, Robinson Ramírez-Vélez, António Palmeira, Erin Gerlach, Rafaela Rosário, Johann Issartel, Irene Esteban-Cornejo, Jonatan Ruiz, Sanne Veldman, Zhiguang Zhang, Dario Colella, Susana Póvoas, Pamela Haibach-Beach, João Pereira, Bronagh McGrane, João Saraiva, Viviene Temple, Pedro Silva, Erik Sigmund, Eduarda Sousa-Sá, Manolis Adamakis, Carla Moreira, Till Utesch, Larissa True, Peggy Cheung, Jaime Carcamo-Oyarzun, Sophia Charitou, Palma Chillón, Claudio Robazza, Ana Silva, Danilo Silva, Rodrigo Lima, Isabel Mourão-Carvalhal, Zeinab Khodaverdi, Marcela Zequinão, Beatriz Pereira, António Prista and César Agostinis-Sobrinhoadd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18010018 - 22 Dec 2020
Cited by 69 | Viewed by 10913
Abstract
Lack of physical activity is a global public health problem causing not only morbidity and premature mortality, but it is also a major economic burden worldwide. One of the cornerstones of a physically active lifestyle is Motor Competence (MC). MC is a complex [...] Read more.
Lack of physical activity is a global public health problem causing not only morbidity and premature mortality, but it is also a major economic burden worldwide. One of the cornerstones of a physically active lifestyle is Motor Competence (MC). MC is a complex biocultural attribute and therefore, its study requires a multi-sectoral, multi-, inter- and transdisciplinary approach. MC is a growing area of research, especially in children and adolescents due to its positive association with a plethora of health and developmental outcomes. Many questions, however, remain to be answered in this field of research, with regard to: (i) Health and Developmental-related Associations of MC; (ii) Assessment of MC; (iii) Prevalence and Trends of MC; (iv) Correlates and Determinants of MC; (v) MC Interventions, and (vi) Translating MC Research into Practice and Policy. This paper presents a narrative review of the literature, summarizing current knowledge, identifying key research gaps and presenting questions for future investigation on MC in children and adolescents. This is a collaborative effort from the International Motor Competence Network (IMCNetwork) a network of academics and researchers aiming to promote international collaborative research and knowledge translation in the expansive field of MC. The knowledge and deliverables generated by addressing and answering the aforementioned research questions on MC presented in this review have the potential to shape the ways in which researchers and practitioners promote MC and physical activity in children and adolescents across the world. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Exercise and Sports on Health)
18 pages, 4816 KiB  
Review
Chronic Effect of Fatmax Training on Body Weight, Fat Mass, and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Obese Subjects: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials
by Isaac A. Chávez-Guevara, René Urquidez-Romero, Jorge A. Pérez-León, Everardo González-Rodríguez, Verónica Moreno-Brito and Arnulfo Ramos-Jiménez
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(21), 7888; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17217888 - 28 Oct 2020
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 4313
Abstract
Exercise training performed at the maximal fat oxidation intensity (FMT) stands out as a potential treatment of overweight and obesity. This work is a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials of studies about the effect of FMT on fat mass and maximal oxygen consumption [...] Read more.
Exercise training performed at the maximal fat oxidation intensity (FMT) stands out as a potential treatment of overweight and obesity. This work is a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials of studies about the effect of FMT on fat mass and maximal oxygen consumption using PubMed, SCOPUS, EBSCOhost, and ScienceDirect as databases. Two independent reviewers selected 11 trials from 356 publications identified by the following keywords: fatmax, lipoxmax, maximal fat oxidation, peak of fat oxidation, physical training, physical exercise, body fat (BF), fat mass, overweight, and obesity. The risk of bias was assessed following the Cochrane Guidelines. The pooled mean difference was computed for each outcome with the random-effects model and the inverse-variance method. The meta-analysis was performed with the RevMan software v 5.3, and the heterogeneity across studies by the I2. The statistical significance was accepted at p < 0.05. Results showed that the FMT reduced body weight (MD = −4.30 kg, p < 0.01, I2 = 0%), fat mass (MD = −4.03 kg, p < 0.01, I2 = 0%), and waist circumference (MD = −3.34 cm, p < 0.01). Fat-free mass remains unchanged (MD = 0.08 kg, p = 0.85), but maximal oxygen consumption increased (MD = 2.96 mL∙kg−1∙min−1, p < 0.01, I2 = 0%). We conclude that FMT at short and medium-term (eight to twenty weeks) reduces body weight and BF, increasing cardiovascular fitness in low physical fitness people with obesity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Exercise and Sports on Health)
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22 pages, 4902 KiB  
Review
Effects of Mind–Body Interventions Involving Meditative Movements on Quality of Life, Depressive Symptoms, Fear of Falling and Sleep Quality in Older Adults: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis
by Manuel Weber, Thiemo Schnorr, Mareike Morat, Tobias Morat and Lars Donath
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(18), 6556; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186556 - 09 Sep 2020
Cited by 35 | Viewed by 8084
Abstract
Background: The aim of the present systematic meta-analytical review was to quantify the effects of different mind–body interventions (MBI) involving meditative movements on relevant psychological health outcomes (i.e., quality of life (QoL), depressive symptoms, fear of falling (FoF) and sleep quality) in [...] Read more.
Background: The aim of the present systematic meta-analytical review was to quantify the effects of different mind–body interventions (MBI) involving meditative movements on relevant psychological health outcomes (i.e., quality of life (QoL), depressive symptoms, fear of falling (FoF) and sleep quality) in older adults without mental disorders. Methods: A structured literature search was conducted in five databases (Ovid, PsycINFO, PubMed, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science). Inclusion criteria were: (i) the study was a (cluster) randomized controlled trial, (ii) the subjects were aged ≥59 years without mental illnesses, (iii) an intervention arm performing MBI compared to a non-exercise control group (e.g., wait-list or usual care), (iv) psychological health outcomes related to QoL, depressive symptoms, FoF or sleep quality were assessed and (v) a PEDro score of ≥5. The interventions of the included studies were sub-grouped into Tai Chi/Qigong (TCQ) and Yoga/Pilates (YP). Statistical analyses were conducted using a random-effects inverse-variance model. Results: Thirty-seven randomized controlled trials (RCTs) (comprising 3224 participants) were included. Small to moderate-but-significant overall effect sizes favoring experimental groups (Hedges’ g: 0.25 to 0.71) compared to non-exercise control groups were observed in all outcomes (all p values ≤ 0.007), apart from one subdomain of quality of life (i.e., social functioning, p = 0.15). Interestingly, a significant larger effect on QoL and depressive symptoms with increasing training frequency was found for TCQ (p = 0.03; p = 0.004). Conclusions: MBI involving meditative movements may serve as a promising opportunity to improve psychological health domains such as QoL, depressive symptoms, FoF and sleep quality in older adults. Hence, these forms of exercise may represent potential preventive measures regarding the increase of late-life mental disorders, which need to be further confirmed by future research. Full article
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Other

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12 pages, 393 KiB  
Case Report
768-km Multi-Stage Ultra-Trail Case Study-Muscle Damage, Biochemical Alterations and Strength Loss on Lower Limbs
by Miguel Lecina, Carlos Castellar, Francisco Pradas and Isaac López-Laval
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(2), 876; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19020876 - 13 Jan 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1577
Abstract
A series of case studies aimed to evaluate muscular fatigue in running a 768-km ultra-trail race in 11 days. Four non-professional athletes (four males) were enrolled. Muscle damage blood biomarkers (creatine kinase (CK), lactodeshydrogenase (LDH), aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and [...] Read more.
A series of case studies aimed to evaluate muscular fatigue in running a 768-km ultra-trail race in 11 days. Four non-professional athletes (four males) were enrolled. Muscle damage blood biomarkers (creatine kinase (CK), lactodeshydrogenase (LDH), aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and lower limb strength were evaluated by using Bosco jumps test; squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CMJ) and Abalakov jump (ABA) were assessed before (pre), after the race (post) and for two and nine days during the recovery period (rec2 and rec9), respectively. Results showed: pre-post SJ = −28%, CMJ = −36% and ABA = −21%. Values returned to basal during rec9: SJ = −1%, CMJ = −2% or even exceeded pre-values ABA = +3%. On the contrary, muscle damage blood biomarkers values increased at post; CK = +888%, LDH = +172%, AST = +167% and ALT = +159% and the values returned gradually to baseline at rec9 except for AST = +226% and ALT = +103% which remained higher. Nonparametric bivariate Spearman’s test showed strong correlations (Rs ≥ 0.8) between some jumps and muscle damage biomarkers at post (SJ-LDH Rs = 0.80, SJ-AST Rs = 0.8, ABA-LD H Rs = 0.80 and ABA-AST Rs = 0.80), at rec2 (SJ-CK Rs = 0.80 and SJ-ALT Rs = 0.80) and even during rec9 (ABA-CK). Similarly, some parameters such as accumulated elevation and training volume showed a strong correlation with LDH values after finishing the ultra-trail race. The alteration induced by completing an ultra-trail event in the muscle affects lower limb strength and may in some circumstances result in serious medical conditions including post- exertional rhabdomyolysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Exercise and Sports on Health)
8 pages, 335 KiB  
Case Report
Extreme Ultra-Trail Race Induces Muscular Damage, Risk for Acute Kidney Injury and Hyponatremia: A Case Report
by Miguel Lecina, Isaac López, Carlos Castellar and Francisco Pradas
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(21), 11323; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182111323 - 28 Oct 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1653
Abstract
A case study involving a healthy trained male athlete who completed a 786 km multi-stage ultra-trail race. Several markers were analyzed in blood and urine samples: creatinine (SCR) for kidney damage, sodium ([Na+]) for hyponatremia, creatine kinase (CK) for exertional rhabdomyolysis, [...] Read more.
A case study involving a healthy trained male athlete who completed a 786 km multi-stage ultra-trail race. Several markers were analyzed in blood and urine samples: creatinine (SCR) for kidney damage, sodium ([Na+]) for hyponatremia, creatine kinase (CK) for exertional rhabdomyolysis, as well as other hematological values. Samples were taken before and after the race and during the recovery period (days 2 and 9 after the race). Results showed: SCR = 1.13 mg/dl, [Na+] =139 mmol/l and CK = 1.099 UI/l. Criteria for the determination of acute kidney damage were not met, and [Na+] concentration was above 135 mEq/L, indicating the absence of hyponatremia. Exertional rhabdomyolysis was suffered by the athlete (baseline CK increased fivefold), though this situation was reverted after 9 days of recovery. Ultra-trail races cause biochemical changes in athletes, which should be known about by healthcare professionals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Exercise and Sports on Health)
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