Special Issue "Advancing Primary Prevention of Breast Cancer"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Global Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (29 February 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Deborah J. Bowen
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
University of Washington, Seattle, Seattle, United States
Interests: cancer prevention; community intervention; health behavior change
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Nicholas Anthis
E-Mail
Co-Guest Editor
California Breast Cancer Research Program, University of California, USA

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue will examine cutting-edge ideas for future research on methods of prevention of breast cancer through social and environmental interventions. Each manuscript in this Special Issue will examine an innovative method by which we could alter the trajectory of social and environmental exposures that impact the population incidence of breast cancer.

Prof. Dr. Marion Kavanaugh-Lynch
Prof. Dr. Deborah J. Bowen
Dr. Nicholas Anthis
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
The Global Challenge to Prevent Breast Cancer: Surfacing New Ideas to Accelerate Prevention Research
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(4), 1394; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17041394 - 21 Feb 2020
Abstract
Despite increases in screening and advances in treatment, breast cancer continues to be the most common cancer and cause of cancer deaths among women worldwide, and breast cancer rates have remained steady for decades. A new focus on population-level primary prevention is needed [...] Read more.
Despite increases in screening and advances in treatment, breast cancer continues to be the most common cancer and cause of cancer deaths among women worldwide, and breast cancer rates have remained steady for decades. A new focus on population-level primary prevention is needed to tackle this disease at the most fundamental level. Unfortunately, only a small fraction of breast cancer research funds currently go to prevention. The California Breast Cancer Research Program (CBCRP) seeks to change this. In order to accelerate breast cancer primary prevention efforts, in 2018, CBCRP launched the Global Challenge to Prevent Breast Cancer, a prize competition to foster and disseminate new and innovative prevention research ideas. This Special Issue highlights the results of the Global Challenge and other CBCRP primary prevention efforts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advancing Primary Prevention of Breast Cancer)
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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Epigenetic Biomarkers for Environmental Exposures and Personalized Breast Cancer Prevention
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(4), 1181; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17041181 - 13 Feb 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Environmental and lifestyle factors are believed to account for >80% of breast cancers; however, it is not well understood how and when these factors affect risk and which exposed individuals will actually develop the disease. While alcohol consumption, obesity, and hormone therapy are [...] Read more.
Environmental and lifestyle factors are believed to account for >80% of breast cancers; however, it is not well understood how and when these factors affect risk and which exposed individuals will actually develop the disease. While alcohol consumption, obesity, and hormone therapy are some known risk factors for breast cancer, other exposures associated with breast cancer risk have not yet been identified or well characterized. In this paper, it is proposed that the identification of blood epigenetic markers for personal, in utero, and ancestral environmental exposures can help researchers better understand known and potential relationships between exposures and breast cancer risk and may enable personalized prevention strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advancing Primary Prevention of Breast Cancer)
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Open AccessCommunication
Environmental Influences on Mammographic Breast Density in California: A Strategy to Reduce Breast Cancer Risk
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(23), 4731; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16234731 - 27 Nov 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
State legislation in many U.S. states, including California, mandates informing women if they have dense breasts on screening mammography, meaning over half of their breast tissue is comprised of non-adipose tissue. Breast density is important to interpret screening sensitivity and is an established [...] Read more.
State legislation in many U.S. states, including California, mandates informing women if they have dense breasts on screening mammography, meaning over half of their breast tissue is comprised of non-adipose tissue. Breast density is important to interpret screening sensitivity and is an established breast cancer risk factor. Environmental chemical exposures may play an important role in this, especially during key windows of susceptibility for breast development: in utero, during puberty, pregnancy, lactation, and the peri-menopause. There is a paucity of research, however, examining whether environmental chemical exposures are associated with mammographic breast density, and even less is known about environmental exposures during windows of susceptibility. Now, with clinical breast density scoring being reported routinely for mammograms, it is possible to find out, especially in California, where there are large study populations that can link environmental exposures during windows of susceptibility to breast density. Density scores are now available throughout the state through electronic medical records. We can link these with environmental chemical exposures via state-wide monitoring. Studying the effects of environmental exposure on breast density may provide valuable monitoring and etiologic data to inform strategies to reduce breast cancer risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advancing Primary Prevention of Breast Cancer)

Review

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Open AccessReview
Environmental Exposures during Puberty: Window of Breast Cancer Risk and Epigenetic Damage
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(2), 493; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17020493 - 13 Jan 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
During puberty, a woman’s breasts are vulnerable to environmental damage (“window of vulnerability”). Early exposure to environmental carcinogens, endocrine disruptors, and unhealthy foods (refined sugar, processed fats, food additives) are hypothesized to promote molecular damage that increases breast cancer risk. However, prospective human [...] Read more.
During puberty, a woman’s breasts are vulnerable to environmental damage (“window of vulnerability”). Early exposure to environmental carcinogens, endocrine disruptors, and unhealthy foods (refined sugar, processed fats, food additives) are hypothesized to promote molecular damage that increases breast cancer risk. However, prospective human studies are difficult to perform and effective interventions to prevent these early exposures are lacking. It is difficult to prevent environmental exposures during puberty. Specifically, young women are repeatedly exposed to media messaging that promotes unhealthy foods. Young women living in disadvantaged neighborhoods experience additional challenges including a lack of access to healthy food and exposure to contaminated air, water, and soil. The purpose of this review is to gather information on potential exposures during puberty. In future directions, this information will be used to help elementary/middle-school girls to identify and quantitate environmental exposures and develop cost-effective strategies to reduce exposures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advancing Primary Prevention of Breast Cancer)
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Open AccessReview
Breast Cancer Gone Viral? Review of Possible Role of Bovine Leukemia Virus in Breast Cancer, and Related Opportunities for Cancer Prevention
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(1), 209; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17010209 - 27 Dec 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
This article is a literature review of research that explored the association of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection in humans with breast cancer. It summarizes and evaluates these publications. This review does not provide absolute proof that BLV is a cause of breast [...] Read more.
This article is a literature review of research that explored the association of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection in humans with breast cancer. It summarizes and evaluates these publications. This review does not provide absolute proof that BLV is a cause of breast cancer, but, based on well-respected epidemiologic criteria for causation, it does suggest that BLV infection could be a breast cancer risk factor. Any expansion of the current understanding of breast cancer risk factors may increase possibilities to implement primary prevention strategies. The environmental role that BLV-infected cattle may play as a reservoir for infectious BLV offers possibilities for reducing or eliminating potential transmission of BLV from cattle to humans, and/or eliminating the reservoir. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advancing Primary Prevention of Breast Cancer)
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Other

Open AccessPerspective
An Expanded Agenda for the Primary Prevention of Breast Cancer: Charting a Course for the Future
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(3), 714; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17030714 - 22 Jan 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Advances in breast cancer science, early detection, and treatment have resulted in improvements in breast cancer survival but not in breast cancer incidence. After skin cancer, breast cancer is the most common cancer diagnosis in the United States. Each year, nearly a quarter [...] Read more.
Advances in breast cancer science, early detection, and treatment have resulted in improvements in breast cancer survival but not in breast cancer incidence. After skin cancer, breast cancer is the most common cancer diagnosis in the United States. Each year, nearly a quarter million U.S. women receive a breast cancer diagnosis, and the number continues to rise each year with the growth in the population of older women. Although much remains to be understood about breast cancer origins and prevention, action can be taken on the existing scientific knowledge to address the systemic factors that drive breast cancer risk at the population level. The California Breast Cancer Research Program funded a team at Breast Cancer Prevention Partners (BCPP) to convene leaders in advocacy, policy, and research related to breast cancer prevention from across the state of California. The objective was the development of a strategic plan to direct collective efforts toward specific and measurable objectives to reduce the incidence of breast cancer. The structured, innovative approach used by BCPP to integrate scientific evidence with community perspectives provides a model for other states to consider, to potentially change the future trajectory of breast cancer incidence in the United States. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advancing Primary Prevention of Breast Cancer)
Open AccessConcept Paper
Mapping the Human Exposome to Uncover the Causes of Breast Cancer
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(1), 189; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17010189 - 27 Dec 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Breast cancer is an important cause of morbidity and mortality for women, yet a significant proportion of variation in individual risk is unexplained. It is reasonable to infer that unexplained breast cancer risks are caused by a myriad of exposures and their interactions [...] Read more.
Breast cancer is an important cause of morbidity and mortality for women, yet a significant proportion of variation in individual risk is unexplained. It is reasonable to infer that unexplained breast cancer risks are caused by a myriad of exposures and their interactions with genetic factors. Most epidemiological studies investigating environmental contribution to breast cancer risk have focused on a limited set of exposures and outcomes based on a priori knowledge. We hypothesize that by measuring a rich set of molecular information with omics (e.g., metabolomics and adductomics) and comparing these profiles using a case-control design we can pinpoint novel environmental risk factors. Specifically, exposome-wide association study approaches can be used to compare molecular profiles between controls and either breast cancer cases or participants with phenotypic measures associated with breast cancer (e.g., high breast density, chronic inflammation). Current challenges in annotating compound peaks from biological samples can be addressed by creating libraries of environmental chemicals that are breast cancer relevant using publicly available high throughput exposure and toxicity data, and by mass spectra fragmentation. This line of discovery and innovation will extend understanding of how environmental exposures interact with genetics to affect health, and provide evidence to support new breast cancer prevention strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advancing Primary Prevention of Breast Cancer)
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Open AccessConcept Paper
Targeted Transdermal Delivery of Curcumin for Breast Cancer Prevention
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(24), 4949; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16244949 - 06 Dec 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
N.B. This manuscript is based on the research concept submitted to the “Global Challenge to Prevent Breast Cancer” idea showcase and competition, launched in 2018 by the California Breast Cancer Research Program (CBCRP), which was subsequently selected for publication. The hypothesis, methods, and [...] Read more.
N.B. This manuscript is based on the research concept submitted to the “Global Challenge to Prevent Breast Cancer” idea showcase and competition, launched in 2018 by the California Breast Cancer Research Program (CBCRP), which was subsequently selected for publication. The hypothesis, methods, and discussion put forth here are thus proposed concept studies, which could eventually be elucidated in the future. Curcumin is an herbal supplement, shown in preclinical studies to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antitumoral properties that we believe can be harnessed for breast cancer prevention. However, due to its poor absorption when consumed orally, curcumin’s anticancer effects have not yet been exploited to their full therapeutic potential. Incorporating existing research that focuses on the optimization of curcumin’s bioavailability and the latest transdermal delivery technology, we propose, below, a hypothetical in vivo study to test whether a targeted daily dose of bioavailable curcumin has a cytotoxic effect on cancer cells, potentially reducing the incidence of breast cancer over time. Our ultimate objective is to adopt innovative methods to create curcumin-infused bio-textiles offering transdermal, targeted drug delivery, simply through contact with the skin. We would use this fabric to create disposable bra inserts for an effortless, daily breast cancer prevention regimen for healthy women. It would be essential that the cost of these inserts remain reasonable, but if successful, curcumin is readily available, affordable and non-toxic, and could thus be a preventive measure that would be beneficial for women from all socio-economic backgrounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advancing Primary Prevention of Breast Cancer)
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