YOCOCU2022 We’ve Got Questions, You’ve Got Answers

A special issue of Heritage (ISSN 2571-9408).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2023) | Viewed by 15037

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
1. YOCOCU APS, Rome, Italy
2. Sapienza, University of Rome, Rome, Italy
Interests: green chemistry; chemistry applied to the cultural heritage; environmental chemistry and monitoring; molecular spectroscopy (Raman and FTIR)
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
CNR-ISAC (National Research Council, Institute of Atmospheric Sciences and Climate), Area della Ricerca di Tor Vergata, Via Fosso del Cavaliere, 100, 00133 Rome, Italy
Interests: conservation of cultural heritage; non-destructive techniques for diagnostics on cultural heritage; microclimatic monitoring; preventive conservation
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Class of Conservation and Restoration, University of Applied Sciences Berlin, Wilhelminenhofstraße 75a, 12459 Berlin, Germany
Interests: archaeological objects conservation; preventive measurements; climate and pollution control for museums; risk management applications; teaching

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue of Heritage, following the 2018 and 2020 Youth in Conservation and Cultural Heritage (YOCOCU) Conference  editions, encourages the submission of contributions presented at the 8th YOCOCU, 2022, subtitled "We've got questions, you've got answers ", held in Frankfurt from 8th to 9th December 2022, during the magic of an authentic German Christmas.

The YOCOCU 2022 Conference aims to bring together leading academic scientists, researchers and research scholars to exchange and share their experiences and research results on multiple subjects related to Cultural Heritage. 

We decided to subtitle this edition “we’ve got questions, you’ve got answers”. It will be devoted to talking about the current “open questions” in the Cultural Heritage sector. Participants will answer the conference‘s provocative questions by presenting their activities, research, and projects to provide suitable solutions! Provocative questions encourage everyone to think creatively and laterally, eliminating perceived constraints to a real exchange. If your activity/research cannot answer the specific questions, please refer to the conference topics.

Therefore, research articles addressing the following list of Open questions and Conference topics are welcomed:

Open Questions

  • Are you applying any green strategy or product?
  • Cultural services and culture for inclusive cities: is it a challenge or trend?
  • What is the weight of analytical investigations on the restoration and citizen enjoyment of Cultural Heritage?
  • Conservation of Urban Art: does it still make sense?
  • Virtual restoration and virtual reconstruction of Cultural Heritage vs. restoration of the artwork. Is treatment still necessary or can it be replaced by virtual reconstructions?
  • Conservation of Digital Art: who has to take care of it? Is the restorer the most appropriate professional for this task?
  • Analytical investigation applied to Cultural Heritage: secondary surplus or a guide for the conservation process?
  • Can Cultural Heritage professionals help promote recognition of its potential to improve society?

Conference Topics

The questions fall into the following topics:

  • Experiences in the museum.
  • Traditional and innovative products: methodologies and materials for the conservation of Cultural Heritage.
  • New strategies in the conservation and valorization of archaeological sites and buildings.
  • Conservation of Urban Art and other modern materials through specific chemical products.
  • Strategies for the conservation of Digital Art.
  • Interpretation and presentation of Cultural Heritage (exhibition design).
  • Entertainment for education, storytelling, and Cultural Heritage.
  • Analytical strategies to guide the conservation about Cultural Heritage.
  • Risk assessment for the protection of Cultural Heritage from anthropogenic and disasters.

Dr. Andrea Macchia
Dr. Fernanda Prestileo
Prof. Dr. Alexandra Jeberien
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Heritage is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • conservation and restoration of cultural heritage
  • preservation of museum collections
  • investigations for cultural heritage
  • green conservation of cultural heritage
  • conservation of urban art
  • virtual restoration
  • conservation of digital art
  • risk assessment of cultural heritage and landscapes
  • entertainment for education
  • risk management for cultural heritage

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

26 pages, 15620 KiB  
Article
Preserving Intangible Heritage through Tangible Finds: The “Skull with Ears”—St. Luciella ai Librai’s Church (Naples, Italy)
by Andrea Macchia, Stefania Montorsi, Giorgia Salatino, Romana Albini, Eugenio Cerilli, Chiara Biribicchi, Massimo Faella, Angela Rogliani, Tilde de Caro, Carmine Lubritto, Carmela Vetromile, Maria Rosa Di Cicco, Andrea Ambrosini and Alessandra Sperduti
Heritage 2023, 6(4), 3541-3566; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6040188 - 4 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1745
Abstract
The present study reports the conservative first aid concerning the human cranium known as the “Skull with Ears”, which is conserved in the crypt of Santa Luciella ai Librai’s church in Naples, Italy. These remains have historically been worshipped by devotees within the [...] Read more.
The present study reports the conservative first aid concerning the human cranium known as the “Skull with Ears”, which is conserved in the crypt of Santa Luciella ai Librai’s church in Naples, Italy. These remains have historically been worshipped by devotees within the cult of the “abandoned souls”. The skulls were “adopted” by the Neapolitan population and treated with particular care in exchange for divine favors. The critical preservation status of the “Skull with ears” required a multidisciplinary approach aimed at defining the taphonomy and anthropological features of the cranium, while determining the state of its conservation by using a multi-analytical approach. Multispectral imaging, 3D modeling, X-ray imaging, microscopical observations, and microbiological tests enabled the documentation of the cranium while assessing this state of conservation. Electron scanning microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) in the attenuated total reflectance (ATR) mode, and radiocarbon dating allowed for essential data to be obtained on the cranium’s history and constituent components. The results that were obtained from both the analysis of the cranium and the environmental monitoring of the crypt showed the advanced degradation of the bones due to a significant bacterial attack, which was facilitated by the inadequate environmental conditions at the site of conservation. The acquired data enabled the definition of the most suitable conservation strategy and the securing of the cranium. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue YOCOCU2022 We’ve Got Questions, You’ve Got Answers)
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15 pages, 12316 KiB  
Article
Multianalytical Non-Invasive Characterization of ‘Mater Boni Consilii’ Iconography Oil Painting
by Federica Valentini, Sara De Angelis, Livia Marinelli, Camilla Zaratti, Marcello Colapietro, Ombretta Tarquini and Andrea Macchia
Heritage 2023, 6(4), 3499-3513; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6040186 - 4 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1690
Abstract
This paper presents the results of non-invasive diagnostic investigations performed on the canvas oil painting depicting the Marian iconography “Mater Boni Consilii”. The painting, whose author and origin are unknown, was found in an old shop in Florence following the overflowing [...] Read more.
This paper presents the results of non-invasive diagnostic investigations performed on the canvas oil painting depicting the Marian iconography “Mater Boni Consilii”. The painting, whose author and origin are unknown, was found in an old shop in Florence following the overflowing of the Arno River in 1966. In order to define the importance of the artwork, a multianalytical analysis was performed on the painting, using multispectral imaging, X-ray fluorescence (XRF), and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR-ATR) for the definition of materials, with a particular focus on the identification of pigments. The results allowed for the drawing up of a color palette, composed mainly of ochre and earth pigments, cinnabar, lithopone, lead white, and ultramarine pigments. After cross-referencing the acquired information with other findings, it was possible to place the painting in the period between the end of the XIXth and the beginning of the XXth centuries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue YOCOCU2022 We’ve Got Questions, You’ve Got Answers)
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12 pages, 3566 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Green Solvents’ Applicability for Chromatic Reintegration of Polychrome Artworks
by Andrea Macchia, Camilla Zaratti, Chiara Biribicchi, Irene Angela Colasanti, Francesca Irene Barbaccia and Gabriele Favero
Heritage 2023, 6(3), 3353-3364; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6030177 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1312
Abstract
Organic solvents are commonly used in restoration treatments, including chromatic reintegration on polychrome artworks. They are often toxic, and their vapors have a high impact on the environment and restorers, possibly causing pathological conditions. Therefore, this study aims at defining a new green [...] Read more.
Organic solvents are commonly used in restoration treatments, including chromatic reintegration on polychrome artworks. They are often toxic, and their vapors have a high impact on the environment and restorers, possibly causing pathological conditions. Therefore, this study aims at defining a new green solvent that can be used for chromatic reintegration, maintaining the volatility and the desired physical–chemical properties. The dispersion forces value (Fd) of ethyl lactate was taken as reference for a comparison with the proposed solvents, since it was found to be the most used solvent for the dilution of Maimeri Restoration Colors (MRC) and Gamblin Conservation Colors (GCC). Based on the Teas fractional parameters, six solutions based on acetals and ethanol have been proposed and tested. They were mixed with both MRC and GCC, and applied on prepared canvases. The difference between the backgrounds made with reference solvent and the one made with the proposed alternatives was evaluated through spectrocolorimetric measurements. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy in the attenuated total reflectance mode (FTIR-ATR) was performed on the applied layers to evaluate the presence of residual solvent inside them, while the volatility of the solvents was assessed by performing gravimetric analysis. The study showed that acetals, acetals’ blends, and acetals–ethanol mixtures represent suitable alternatives for the dilution of Gamblin Conservation Color and Maimeri Restoration Colors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue YOCOCU2022 We’ve Got Questions, You’ve Got Answers)
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22 pages, 62544 KiB  
Article
Environmental Decay of Ignimbrite Patrimonial Monuments in the Dry, Urban, and Non-Industrial Atmosphere of Morelia (México)
by Rosalia Ruiz-Ruiz, Elia Mercedes Alonso-Guzman, Wilfrido Martinez-Molina, Hugo Luis Chavez-Garcia, Mauricio Arreola-Sanchez, Jorge Alberto Borrego-Perez, Marco Antonio Navarrete-Seras, Judith Alejandra Velazquez-Perez and Luis Alberto Morales-Rosales
Heritage 2023, 6(3), 3137-3158; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6030167 - 15 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1864
Abstract
Damage to the rocks of historic built heritage needs to be addressed to facilitate their conservation and restoration; the most serious damage is caused by environmental conditions and human activities. Buildings constructed with ignimbrite blocks bonded with lime mortar in Morelia, México, a [...] Read more.
Damage to the rocks of historic built heritage needs to be addressed to facilitate their conservation and restoration; the most serious damage is caused by environmental conditions and human activities. Buildings constructed with ignimbrite blocks bonded with lime mortar in Morelia, México, a UNESCO World Heritage site, were studied. The damage mainly occurs in the facades, on the surfaces of the rocks and in the mortar of the union exposed to climatic factors such as sun, rain, wind, and temperature changes, due to the actions of humans and vehicles emitting polluting gases; and due to pigeon excrement. This has caused the formation of patinas and flora, reduced the mechanical strength and exfoliation, decreased the density and cohesion in the mortar with rocks, and led to friction damage caused by people. In the facades of five buildings, the mechanical resistance and microstructural characteristics were indirectly determined by XRD, XRF, and SEM. The results were related to the climate, humans, and vehicular pollutant emissions. The damage was due to the environment, the influencing geographic orientation, and prevailing winds, rising capillary water on the facades, pigeon droppings, vehicular pollutant gases, and humans. Potential banks of healthy quarries were analyzed for use in the conservation and restoration of damaged monuments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue YOCOCU2022 We’ve Got Questions, You’ve Got Answers)
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18 pages, 14741 KiB  
Article
Development and Intervention Proposal with Earthen Refurbishments with Vegetal Origin Gel (VOG) for the Preservation of Traditional Adobe Buildings
by B. González-Sánchez, K. Sandoval-Castro, A. Navarro-Ezquerra, J. Ramírez-Casas, A. Sanchez-Calvillo, E. M. Alonso-Guzmán and E. G. Navarro-Mendoza
Heritage 2023, 6(3), 3025-3042; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6030161 - 12 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1401
Abstract
This research focuses on the addition of an ecological, sustainable material to improve the durability of earthen constructions and for use in rehabilitation and restoration processes. Specifically, it studies the mechanical and waterproof performance of an earthen mixture with the addition of a [...] Read more.
This research focuses on the addition of an ecological, sustainable material to improve the durability of earthen constructions and for use in rehabilitation and restoration processes. Specifically, it studies the mechanical and waterproof performance of an earthen mixture with the addition of a vegetal origin gel (VOG) obtained by extracting the starch contained in rice. This solution increases the durability of the mixture and the behavior against water and improves the mechanical resistance of the system. This study is divided into two parts. First, an experimental phase was carried out in the Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya laboratory to design and develop the earthen mixtures stabilized with VOG to obtain an ecological, economical and easily replicable technology that can be transferred to any population group. The second stage consisted of the application of these mixtures and a real intervention in adobe dwellings in the community of Santa Ana Chapitiro, in the State of Michoacan, Mexico. The rehabilitation solutions and dosages were transferred to the residents of the community and applied to local adobe constructions by means of participatory design through an international development cooperation project. Good behavior of the material was found in the early stage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue YOCOCU2022 We’ve Got Questions, You’ve Got Answers)
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14 pages, 4435 KiB  
Article
Treatment of Acid Hydrolysis of a 1900 Large-Scale Composite Artwork by the Artist Roberto Sebastian Matta: Comparison between Traditional and Innovative Deacidifying Methodologies
by Ilaria Partenzi, Martina Marconi, Vittorio Vinciguerra, Claudia Pelosi and Nicoletta Fontani
Heritage 2023, 6(3), 2650-2663; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6030140 - 1 Mar 2023
Viewed by 984
Abstract
This work was carried out for a master’s degree thesis concerning the conservation of a contemporary artwork made by the surrealist artist Roberto Sebastian Matta. The artwork is a large (one central panel 180.3 × 405.1 cm; two side panels 179.1 × 150.6 [...] Read more.
This work was carried out for a master’s degree thesis concerning the conservation of a contemporary artwork made by the surrealist artist Roberto Sebastian Matta. The artwork is a large (one central panel 180.3 × 405.1 cm; two side panels 179.1 × 150.6 cm) triptych created in 1974 with pastels on tracing paper adhered onto canvas as a secondary support. After thoroughly studying the execution technique and conservation status of the artwork, several issues arose, including a strong acid hydrolysis of both the paper and canvas supports. We focused our intervention on deacidification treatments by comparing either traditional substances, such as calcium propionate in an alcoholic solution, or more innovative methods, such as a nanostructured calcium hydroxide in isopropyl alcoholic solution. Acid hydrolysis degradation was the most difficult issue to address because of the size of the artwork and for the different sensitivities to aqueous methods of the materials used to make the artwork. For the first time to our knowledge, we used an innovative deacidification method consisting of nanostructured calcium hydroxide particles. This intervention would allow the homogeneous atomization of the deacidifying agent in alcoholic solvents to be safe and effective for the work as a whole. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue YOCOCU2022 We’ve Got Questions, You’ve Got Answers)
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19 pages, 11472 KiB  
Article
Physical and Mechanical Characterization of Lime Pastes and Mortars for Use in Restoration
by Elena G. Navarro-Mendoza, Elia M. Alonso-Guzman, Adria Sanchez-Calvillo, Juan A. Bedolla-Arroyo, Habid Becerra-Santacruz, Antonia Navarro-Ezquerra, Belén Gonzalez-Sanchez and Wilfrido Martinez-Molina
Heritage 2023, 6(3), 2582-2600; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6030136 - 28 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1170
Abstract
Slaked lime is traditionally a suitable material for use in construction activities in historic and traditional buildings whose constitutive characteristics demand compatible and appropriate material solutions. Therefore, knowing the physical and mechanical characterization of lime pastes and mortars for use in restoration is [...] Read more.
Slaked lime is traditionally a suitable material for use in construction activities in historic and traditional buildings whose constitutive characteristics demand compatible and appropriate material solutions. Therefore, knowing the physical and mechanical characterization of lime pastes and mortars for use in restoration is considered an important step in the process of scientific development of a material that, in the Mexican case, has lacked scientific rigor in its production, use and commercialization. With this in mind, the present article aims to investigate the characteristics of lime pastes and mortars that have been used in the traditional way and the new limes that exist in the market, offering suitable options for restoration, for which an integrated methodology was used consisting of physical tests such as surface area, electrical resistivity, pulse velocity, colorimetry, and mechanical tests such as compressive strength, giving as a result that “traditional slaked” lime is more likely to deteriorate than powdered lime, which leads us to conclude that powdered hydrated lime has optimal characteristics for restoration activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue YOCOCU2022 We’ve Got Questions, You’ve Got Answers)
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34 pages, 10812 KiB  
Article
Dismissed Mines: From the Past to the Future
by Roberta Varriale, Barbara Aldighieri and Laura Genovese
Heritage 2023, 6(2), 2152-2185; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6020115 - 19 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1651
Abstract
Today, dismissed mines are considered significant local tangible and intangible cultural heritage elements and they are more and more often at the core of dedicated enhancement processes, being sometimes inscribed in the UNESCO list; included in geoparks; transformed worldwide into industrial museums; or [...] Read more.
Today, dismissed mines are considered significant local tangible and intangible cultural heritage elements and they are more and more often at the core of dedicated enhancement processes, being sometimes inscribed in the UNESCO list; included in geoparks; transformed worldwide into industrial museums; or reused. Italy has a peculiar approach to the topic even if it has been underestimated, and research in the field might be improved. Which models should be looked at? Is it possible to identify some basic criteria to look at to obtain positive results? If yes, where should one start? Our proposal is that the application to the newly born class underground built heritage (UBH) can provide instruments for their historical functional classification and introducing several criteria for their interpretation and reuse could eventually support future enhancement projects in this specific sector. This methodology has been already applied worldwide to this category of good, giving positive results and motivating the authors to continue the research following this hypothesis, with the aim of creating a framework of good practices to be used as a reference for new projects. This paper summarizes the authors’ research in this direction. After the introduction of the academic scenario and the UBH theoretical approach, this study proposes the results from applying this new methodology to several worldwide case studies from Greece, Germany, Italy, Japan, and Poland in order to evaluate best practices and/or unsuccessful stories. This study, based on data collected during onsite inspections by the authors within several international financed projects, consists of two steps. In the first, a general overview of all the aspects connected to the historical and contemporary reuses of dismissed mines under analysis was carried out, proposing a reclassification on the basis of the UBH methodology. The second section is dedicated to a new case study: Valle Imperina dismissed mines complex. This section includes an analysis of tangible and intangible values connected to the site and that of the state of the art of the corresponding enhancement. At the end, an evaluation of its potentialities and some critical issues was conducted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue YOCOCU2022 We’ve Got Questions, You’ve Got Answers)
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25 pages, 29079 KiB  
Article
Use of Audiovisual Methods and Documentary Film for the Preservation and Reappraisal of the Vernacular Architectural Heritage of the State of Michoacan, Mexico
by Adria Sanchez-Calvillo, Elia M. Alonso-Guzman, Adrián Solís-Sánchez, Wilfrido Martinez-Molina, Antonia Navarro-Ezquerra, Belen Gonzalez-Sanchez, Mauricio Arreola-Sanchez and Kidzia Sandoval-Castro
Heritage 2023, 6(2), 2101-2125; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6020113 - 18 Feb 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2216
Abstract
The State of Michoacan has a wide and rich architectural heritage which is represented by different vernacular typologies which employ different materials and techniques according to the local resources. However, this wide knowledge and cultural heritage are disappearing, with several monuments and buildings [...] Read more.
The State of Michoacan has a wide and rich architectural heritage which is represented by different vernacular typologies which employ different materials and techniques according to the local resources. However, this wide knowledge and cultural heritage are disappearing, with several monuments and buildings being abandoned due to new dynamics and social changes. The traditional techniques have been substituted for modern and industrial construction systems since they are associated with obsolete ways of life. Through international cooperation for development and research projects, many activities were carried out to analyze the durability of local materials and vernacular constructions of the state. The main ones included the architectural survey and inspection of these buildings, photographic and drone surveys, characterization in the laboratory and oral interviews with local users. During the field work, these interviews with the local population, the creation of multimedia content and the use of audiovisual methods had crucial importance in the documentation of this local knowledge and culture, being great methods for scientific communication and dissemination. The main product is the documentary Xirangua, which means ‘roots’ in the Purépecha language, the main indigenous ethnicity in the state. This documentary explores the traditional architecture and construction of Michoacan, showing the reality within the loss of this vernacular heritage and portraying the importance of its conservation through the perspective of the local population, users and artisans. The use of these audiovisual techniques has demonstrated to be a suitable option to promote and preserve cultural heritage and educate, include the local actors in the process, and make the general public aware of the current issues, with this being one of the first works which explores this approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue YOCOCU2022 We’ve Got Questions, You’ve Got Answers)
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