Special Issue "Care for People with Mental Illness in the Community"

A special issue of Healthcare (ISSN 2227-9032). This special issue belongs to the section "Community Care".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Kwisoon Choe
Website
Guest Editor
College of Nursing, Chung-Ang University, Korea
Interests: community-based mental health; qualitative research; nursing ethics; health communication
Prof. Dr. Heejung Kim
Website
Guest Editor
College of Nursing, Gachon University, Korea
Interests: community mental health; qualitative research; motivational interviewing; communication competence

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

As the deinstitutionalization movement progresses, many countries have developed community-based mental health systems to care for people with mental illness in the community. There are many challenges for both health care providers and people with mental illness to live in the community. For their successful integration into the community, health care providers consider employment, housing, marriage, and ethical issues, including the rights of people with mental illness, mental illness stigma, and discrimination.

We welcome papers exploring sociological and historical perspectives of deinstitutionalization, case management, telehealth interventions, supported housing models, and employment, and care for older persons with mental illness in community-based services. Suitable submissions include a variety of article types: original research papers (qualitative research, quantitative research, and mixed methods research), review articles, book reviews, and opinion pieces from researchers interested in this research topic.

Dr. Kwisoon Choe
Prof. Dr. Heejung Kim
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Healthcare is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • community-based mental health service
  • deinstitutionalization
  • case management
  • telehealth intervention
  • ethical issues in community mental health
  • housing
  • employment

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Addiction Problems, Aggression, and Quality of Life in People with Different Occupations in South Korea
Healthcare 2021, 9(2), 141; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9020141 - 01 Feb 2021
Viewed by 230
Abstract
Addiction is related to aggression and quality of life. This study examined the relationship between these three factors according to occupation group in a mixed urban/rural area to better understand adult addiction problems. This study was a secondary data analysis of cross-sectional data [...] Read more.
Addiction is related to aggression and quality of life. This study examined the relationship between these three factors according to occupation group in a mixed urban/rural area to better understand adult addiction problems. This study was a secondary data analysis of cross-sectional data collected by a 2017 regional survey of adults living in Gunsan City, South Korea. The survey included 500 people split into the unemployed (Group1), full-time homemakers (Group2), and primary (Group3), secondary (Group4), and tertiary (Group5) industry workers. Addiction problems and aggression were positively correlated (p < 0.01). Aggression and alcohol use disorder were correlated in Group3 (r = 0.31), Group4 (r = 0.34), and Group5 (r = 0.32), and aggression and smartphone addiction were correlated in Group2 (r = 0.39) and Group4 (r = 0.31). Problem gambling was correlated with aggression in Group5 (r = 0.39). A negative relationship between quality of life and alcohol use disorder occurred in Group1 (r = −0.36). According to the occupation group, the relationships between addiction problems, aggression, and quality of life were different. These findings suggest that addiction management for adults should be implemented in consideration of occupation groups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Care for People with Mental Illness in the Community)
Open AccessArticle
Do High Psychopaths Care More about Moral Consequences than Low Psychopaths in Chinese Culture? An Exploration Using the CNI Model
Healthcare 2020, 8(4), 505; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare8040505 - 21 Nov 2020
Viewed by 431
Abstract
Purpose: Fewer studies are about the influence of psychopath traits on moral judgment and the underlying psychological mechanism in Chinese cultural background. In this paper, we use the creative CNI (Consequences, Norms, Inaction versus action) model to quantify the subject’s reaction to moral [...] Read more.
Purpose: Fewer studies are about the influence of psychopath traits on moral judgment and the underlying psychological mechanism in Chinese cultural background. In this paper, we use the creative CNI (Consequences, Norms, Inaction versus action) model to quantify the subject’s reaction to moral dilemmas. Method: In this research, the Chinese version of the Levenson Psychopathic Scale, CNI model materials, and a multinomial model to further analyze the associations among the psychopathy characteristics and utilitarian moral judgment are applied. The CNI model is proposed by Gawronski et al., which can quantify the subjects’ sensitivity to moral consequence, sensitivity to moral norms, and the general preference for inaction or action in moral dilemmas. Result: This study finds that there were significant differences in the utilitarian moral judgment between the groups, t (360) = 3.24, p = 0.001, and Cohen’s d = 0.36. The analysis results of the CNI model show that the high psychopathy group on the N parameter was significantly lower than the group of low psychopathy, ΔG2 (2) = 79.70, p = 0.001. In terms of the C parameter, we found no significant distinctions between the two groups, ΔG2 (2) = 1.356, p = 0.244. For the I parameter, the two groups also have no significant differences, ΔG2 (2) = 0.093, p = 0.76. Conclusion: Persons with high psychopathy traits prefer to make more utilitarian moral judgments and have a weak sensitivity to moral norms (N). The sensitivity to consequences (C) of the two groups is no significant difference. The general preference for inaction versus action (I) also has no significant differences between those two groups. Moreover, the CNI model fits well in Chinese subjects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Care for People with Mental Illness in the Community)
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Open AccessArticle
Anticipated Social and Healthcare Economic Burden of People with Alzheimer’s Disease in Two Selected Regions of the Czech Republic
Healthcare 2020, 8(4), 433; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare8040433 - 26 Oct 2020
Viewed by 442
Abstract
Increasing life expectancy in modern society is undoubtedly due to improved healthcare, scientific advances in medicine, and the overall healthy lifestyle of the general population. However, this positive trend has led to an increase in the number of older people with a growing [...] Read more.
Increasing life expectancy in modern society is undoubtedly due to improved healthcare, scientific advances in medicine, and the overall healthy lifestyle of the general population. However, this positive trend has led to an increase in the number of older people with a growing need for a sustainable system for the long-term care of this part of the population, which includes social and health services that are essential for a high quality of life. Longevity also brings challenges in the form of a polymorbid geriatric population that places financial pressure on healthcare systems. Regardless, one disease dominates the debate about financial sustainability due to the increasing numbers of people diagnosed, and that is Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The presented paper aims to demonstrate the economic burden of social and healthcare services. Data from two regions in the Czech Republic were selected to demonstrate the potential scope of the problem. The future costs connected with AD are calculated by a prediction model, which is based on a population model for predicting the number of people with AD between 2020 and 2070. Based on the presented data from the two regions in the Czech Republic and the prediction model, several trends emerged. There appears to be a significant difference in the annual direct costs per person diagnosed with AD depending on the region in which they reside. This may lead to a significant inequality of the services a person can acquire followed by subsequent social issues that can manifest as a lower quality of life. Furthermore, given the prediction of the growing AD population, the costs expressed in constant prices based on the year 2020 will increase almost threefold during the period 2020–2070. The predicted threefold increase will place additional financial pressure on all stakeholders responsible for social and healthcare services, as the current situation is already challenging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Care for People with Mental Illness in the Community)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Food Art Therapy on the Self-Esteem, Self-Expression, and Social Skills of Persons with Mental Illness in Community Rehabilitation Facilities
Healthcare 2020, 8(4), 428; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare8040428 - 24 Oct 2020
Viewed by 581
Abstract
Persons with mental illness often have low self-esteem, a lack of self-expression, and poor social skills. This study used a quasi-experimental two-group pre-test-post-test design to investigate the effects of food art therapy on the self-esteem, self-expression, and social skills of persons with mental [...] Read more.
Persons with mental illness often have low self-esteem, a lack of self-expression, and poor social skills. This study used a quasi-experimental two-group pre-test-post-test design to investigate the effects of food art therapy on the self-esteem, self-expression, and social skills of persons with mental illness attending community rehabilitation facilities. The authors recruited persons with mental illness aged 18 years or older attending three community rehabilitation facilities. Participants in two rehabilitation facilities participated in food art therapy (experimental groups 1 and 2; n = 15 for each group), and participants in the third rehabilitation facility participated in regular programs of the facility (control group, n = 30). Participants in the experimental groups attended a total of eight sessions of food art therapy twice per week for four weeks. The Korean versions of the Rosenberg self-esteem scale, self-expression scale, and social skill rating system were administered at pre- and post-test in both the experimental and control groups. The self-esteem, self-expression, and social skills of the experimental group improved significantly compared to the control group. The findings suggested that food art therapy would be an excellent psychosocial intervention to help persons with mental illness to rehabilitate in the community. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Care for People with Mental Illness in the Community)
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Open AccessArticle
Relationship between Basic Neurological Cognition and Social Cognition among Allen Cognitive Disability Levels of Acquired Brain Injury
Healthcare 2020, 8(4), 412; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare8040412 - 20 Oct 2020
Viewed by 483
Abstract
(1) Background: There are various cognitive, perceptual, and social problems associated with acquired brain injury (ABI). The Allen cognitive impairment level indicates the degree of cognitive function required for everyday activities. Until recently, there have been no studies on the relationship between [...] Read more.
(1) Background: There are various cognitive, perceptual, and social problems associated with acquired brain injury (ABI). The Allen cognitive impairment level indicates the degree of cognitive function required for everyday activities. Until recently, there have been no studies on the relationship between basic neurological cognition and social cognitive function according to the Allen cognitive level (ACL). The aim of this study is to identify the relationship between basic neurological and social cognition among Allen cognitive disability levels of ABI. (2) Methods: Thirty-four patients with ABI were identified. Cartoon Intention Inference Task (CIIT), Social Behavior Sequence Task (SBST), Korean version Mimi-Mental Status Examination (K-MMSE), and Lowenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment (LOTCA)-tests were administered to examine the differences in neurological and social cognitive functions according to each participant’s Allen Cognitive Level Screening (ACLS). (3) Results: There were significant differences between K-MMSE, LOTCA, CIIT and SBST results among Allen cognitive levels (p < 0.05). There was a linear correlation between K-MMSE (r = 0.778, p < 0.01), LOTCA-total score (r = 0.627, p < 0.01), LOTCA-orientation (r = 0.470, p = 0.01), LOTCA-thinking operation (r = 0.341, p < 0.05), CIIT (r = 0.817, p < 0.05), and SBST (r = 0.376, p < 0.05) and ACL. Stepwise multivariate regression showed that the subscales affecting the ACLS score were SBST (β = 0.239, p = 0.000) and K-MMSE (β = 0.068, p = 0.001). The explanatory power of this regression equation, R2, was 0.767. (4) Conclusions: A significant difference was found in neurological and social cognitive function according to the ACL level of the ABI patient. In addition, there was a linear correlation between the ACLS scores of the ABI patients and the underlying neurological cognitive function and social cognition. The higher the overall functional cognitive level (i.e., the group with higher ACLS scores), and the lower the degree of help required in daily life, the higher both the neurological cognition level and social cognitive level were determined to be. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Care for People with Mental Illness in the Community)
Open AccessArticle
Anxiety of Older Persons Living Alone in the Community
Healthcare 2020, 8(3), 287; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare8030287 - 22 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 869
Abstract
Anxiety is a common mental health problem among older persons, and the prevalence is higher in those who live alone than those who live with others. This study aimed to explore the experiences of anxiety in older persons living alone. A descriptive phenomenological [...] Read more.
Anxiety is a common mental health problem among older persons, and the prevalence is higher in those who live alone than those who live with others. This study aimed to explore the experiences of anxiety in older persons living alone. A descriptive phenomenological approach was used to collect and analyze the interview data from 15 older persons (5 males, 10 females) living alone in Seoul, South Korea. Four main themes emerged from the data analysis: fear of being alone, concern about having an aged body, apprehension mixed with depression and loneliness, and fear of economic difficulties. These findings indicate that older persons living alone should receive continuous attention to prevent them from being neglected and their anxiety from worsening. Above all, it is vital to ensure comprehensive support for older persons living alone to alleviate their anxiety. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Care for People with Mental Illness in the Community)
Open AccessArticle
Mental Health Patients’ Expectations about the Non-Medical Care They Receive in Primary Care: A Cross-Sectional Descriptive Study
Healthcare 2020, 8(3), 235; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare8030235 - 27 Jul 2020
Viewed by 747
Abstract
A health system’s responsiveness is the result of patient expectations for the non-medical care they receive. The objective of this study was to assess mental patients’ responsiveness to the health system in primary care, as related to the domains of dignity, autonomy, confidentiality, [...] Read more.
A health system’s responsiveness is the result of patient expectations for the non-medical care they receive. The objective of this study was to assess mental patients’ responsiveness to the health system in primary care, as related to the domains of dignity, autonomy, confidentiality, and communication. Data were collected from 215 people over the age of 18 with mental disorders, using the Multi-Country Survey Study (MCSS) developed by the World Health Organization. Of them, 95% reported a good experience regarding the dignity, confidentiality, communication, and autonomy domains. Regarding responsiveness, patients valued the dignity domain as the most important one (25.1%). Among the patients who experienced poor confidentiality, five out of seven earned less than 900 euros per month (Χ2 = 10.8, p = 0.004). Among those who experienced good autonomy, 85 out of 156 belonged to the working social class (90.4%), and among those who valued it as poor (16.1%), the highest proportion was for middle class people (Χ2 = 13.1, p = 0.028). The two students and 87.5% of retirees experienced this dimension as good, and most patients who valued it as poor were unemployed (43.5%) (Χ2 = 13.0, p = 0.011). Patients with a household income higher than 900 euros more frequently valued responsiveness as good, regarding those domains related to communication, with OR = 3.84, 95% CI = 1.05–14.09, and confidentiality, with OR = 10.48, 95% CI = 1.94–56.59. To conclude, as regards responsiveness in primary care, the dignity domain always obtained the best scores by people with mental disorders. Low economic income is related to a poor assessment of confidentiality. Working class patients, students, and retirees value autonomy as good. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Care for People with Mental Illness in the Community)

Review

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Open AccessReview
Prevalence of Depression in Retirees: A Meta-Analysis
Healthcare 2020, 8(3), 321; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare8030321 - 04 Sep 2020
Viewed by 690
Abstract
Background: Retirement is a final life stage characterized by the ceasing of work and the loss of a routine, social relations, role, status, accomplishments, and aspirations, etc. Many times it is accompanied by negative feelings and can provoke different psychoemotional reactions such as [...] Read more.
Background: Retirement is a final life stage characterized by the ceasing of work and the loss of a routine, social relations, role, status, accomplishments, and aspirations, etc. Many times it is accompanied by negative feelings and can provoke different psychoemotional reactions such as depression, among others. The aim of this study is to analyze the prevalence of depression, as well as its psychoeducational approach in retirees. Methods: A paired systematic review with meta-analysis was conducted in different databases—Medline, Scopus, CUIDEN, CINAHL, LILACS and PsycINFO. Original studies were included in English, Spanish and French that were published in the last 10 years, and which approached depression in retirees. Results: A total of 11 articles were selected after applying inclusion and exclusion criteria. The mean value of the prevalence levels of depression in retirees obtained in the meta-analysis was 28%. Depression is more frequent in retirees, with mandatory retirement, retirement due to illness, and anticipated retirement presenting higher levels of this disease. The health role in the psychoeducational approach is highlighted in 41.6% (n = 5). Conclusions: With almost one-third of retirees suffering from depression, it is necessary to implement prevention and early detection measures to approach a public health problem. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Care for People with Mental Illness in the Community)
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