Special Issue "Inequality in Health Systems"

A special issue of Healthcare (ISSN 2227-9032). This special issue belongs to the section "Health Policy".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 October 2021.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Hossein Zare
Guest Editor
Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, University of Maryland Global Campus, Largo, MD 20774, USA.
Interests: health economics; income inequality; inequality in health systems; racial/ethnical disparities; health systems; eliminating disparities and inequalities in societies

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

If certain people are making money and becoming richer without actively causing harm to others, is that really a problem? Everyone agrees that poverty is a concerning issue, of course, but is it really concerning that rich people are making more and more money and accumulating more and more wealth? Is income inequality something we actually need to be worried about? These are just some of the questions that mainstream economists, some of whom think we are focusing way too much on inequality, have been asking in the last few years. Income inequality, as we all know, has recently shown alarming signs of increasing sharply, with the poor finding themselves stuck in poverty, which leads to another important question: What are the consequences of large income inequality? Does the discrepancy in incomes harm everyone in society or is it only poor people who suffer from it? Angus Deaton and Joseph Stiglitz —The Nobel Prize Economists—believe that those at the very top level of income “are plundering the poor and the middle classes […] by lobbying, by rewriting the rules […] by rewarding and being rewarded by their cronies in business and in government”. This statement may be true in the “market” as a “general term”, but it does not actually tell us how income inequality impacts the health industries and, most importantly, health outcomes.

The world is certainly a better place to live in today than it used to be, with some previously impoverished parts of world experiencing positive developments that are helping them to escape from income/health inequalities. There is, however, still a long way to go, and the issue of health and income inequality is not one that need only concern poor countries, but also rich and developed ones. The combination of poverty, health inequality, and racism has opened up gaps and led to an urgent need for a plan-to-action to fix an unequal world. In this Special Issue, we would like to examine in depth the several aspects of income/health inequality and their combinations with poverty, racism, and disparities. Some of the main areas to be covered in this issue include:

  • Poverty, income inequality, and health outcome;
  • Market, inequalities, and health outcome;
  • Lobbying, rent–seeking and health inequality;
  • Health inequality, poverty, and access to healthcare;
  • Health inequality in the modern world;
  • How to help those who are left behind.

Prof. Hossein Zare
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Healthcare is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.


  • Income inequality 
  • Health inequality 
  • Racism and racial disparities 
  • Poverty elevation

Published Papers (1 paper)

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Open AccessArticle
Investigating Health Equity and Healthcare Needs among Immigrant Women Using the Association Rule Mining Method
Healthcare 2021, 9(2), 195; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9020195 - 10 Feb 2021
Viewed by 262
Equitable access to healthcare services is a major concern among immigrant women. Thus, this study investigated the relationship between socioeconomic characteristics and healthcare needs among immigrant women in Taiwan. The secondary data was obtained from “Survey of Foreign and Chinese Spouses’ Living Requirements, [...] Read more.
Equitable access to healthcare services is a major concern among immigrant women. Thus, this study investigated the relationship between socioeconomic characteristics and healthcare needs among immigrant women in Taiwan. The secondary data was obtained from “Survey of Foreign and Chinese Spouses’ Living Requirements, 2008”, which was administered to 5848 immigrant women by the Ministry of the Interior, Taiwan. Additionally, descriptive statistics and significance tests were used to analyze the data, after which the association rule mining algorithm was applied to determine the relationship between socioeconomic characteristics and healthcare needs. According to the findings, the top three healthcare needs were providing medical allowances (52.53%), child health checkups (16.74%), and parental knowledge and pre- and post-natal guidance (8.31%). Based on the association analysis, the main barrier to the women’s healthcare needs was “financial pressure”. This study also found that nationality, socioeconomic status, and duration of residence were associated with such needs, while health inequality among aged immigrant women was due to economic and physical factors. Finally, the association analysis found that the women’s healthcare problems included economic, socio-cultural, and gender weakness, while “economic inequality” and “women’s health” were interrelated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inequality in Health Systems)
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