Special Issue "Consequences of Stroke"

A special issue of Healthcare (ISSN 2227-9032).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2022) | Viewed by 7082

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Raúl Soto-Cámara
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Health Sciences, University of Burgos, Burgos, Spain
Interests: ischemic stroke; prehospital delay; time factors; admission delay; early arrival

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Stroke is a global public health problem in developed countries—a situation which will be aggravated by the progressive population aging. Stroke is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality, dependency, and disability. Up to half of all patients who survive an acute stroke fail to regain independence and need long-term health care, which is translated into significant costs for the patient, their family, and the health services. The functional prognosis depends on multiple variables, such as prehospital delay, type of medical treatment, and post-stroke rehabilitation, which have to be approached and studied extensively. This Special Issue aims to delve into the different variables that influence residual functional capacities. Therefore, we invite you to send manuscripts that address any of these variables, to promote greater autonomy in stroke patients.

Dr. Jerónimo González-Bernal
Prof. Dr. Raúl Soto-Cámara
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • stroke
  • prehospital delay
  • symptoms onset
  • severity, disability
  • thrombolysis
  • thrombectomy
  • rehabilitation therapy
  • functional prognosis

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Article
A Combination of Aspirin and Clopidogrel Predict More Favorable Dynamics of Platelet Reactivity versus Clopidogrel Alone in the Acute Phase of Minor Stroke
Healthcare 2021, 9(6), 628; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9060628 - 25 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 794
Abstract
Background: The combined use of clopidogrel and aspirin is recommended for the short-term (21 days) therapy of minor stroke or transient ischemic attack. Previous studies have demonstrated its efficacy and superiority over treatment with a single antiplatelet agent. However, there is insufficient support [...] Read more.
Background: The combined use of clopidogrel and aspirin is recommended for the short-term (21 days) therapy of minor stroke or transient ischemic attack. Previous studies have demonstrated its efficacy and superiority over treatment with a single antiplatelet agent. However, there is insufficient support for the advantages of such therapy based on platelet function testing. We aimed to compare the effect of the concomitant use of clopidogrel and aspirin versus clopidogrel alone on the dynamics of platelet reactivity over time to determine the appropriate antiplatelet treatment strategy for minor strokes. Methods: We enrolled 74 ischemic stroke subjects, including 38 minor strokes. Platelet reactivity was assessed by impedance aggregometry (Multiplate Analyzer) 48 and 96 h after a first 75 mg dose of clopidogrel, using the acetylsalicylic acid platelet inhibition (ASPI) test and the adenosine diphosphate (ADP) test. Dual antiplatelet therapy was strictly reserved only to minor strokes, as the other strokes received clopidogrel alone in the secondary prevention. The dynamics of platelet reactivity refer to the difference between two assessments, and a decrease in values over time was considered favorable. Results: The incidence of clopidogrel non-responsiveness was 64.8%, and this was similar in the group of minor strokes and the group of more disabling strokes. We indicated diabetes mellitus as an independent predictor of high on-clopidogrel platelet reactivity (Odds ratio OR 5.69 95% Confidence Interval CI 1.13–41.26, p = 0.0386). Among minor strokes treated with dual antiplatelet therapy, in relation to clopidogrel, we reported a trend toward more favorable dynamics of platelet reactivity over time compared to the group using clopidogrel alone (p = 0.0652 vs. p = 0.3384, respectively). We identified five predictors (sex, female; small-vessel disease; no diabetes; no hyperlipidemia; and no alcohol abuse) related to a significant decrease in platelet reactivity over time with respect to clopidogrel. No significant dynamics of platelet reactivity when using aspirin were found. Conclusions: Our findings, based on the favorable dynamics of platelet reactivity over time in relation to clopidogrel, confirm the usefulness of dual antiplatelet therapy in minor strokes and support the continuation of the secondary prevention with clopidogrel alone rather than aspirin, particularly among identified beneficiaries of such a strategy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Consequences of Stroke)
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Article
Temporal Changes in Electromyographic Activity and Gait Ability during Extended Walking in Individuals Post-Stroke: A Pilot Study
Healthcare 2021, 9(4), 444; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9040444 - 10 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 630
Abstract
Abnormal gait, particularly in patients with stroke, causes neuromuscular fatigue. We aimed to clarify temporal changes in gait performance and lower limb muscle activity during extended walking in people with stroke hemiplegia. Twelve adults with stroke and eleven healthy controls performed an extended [...] Read more.
Abnormal gait, particularly in patients with stroke, causes neuromuscular fatigue. We aimed to clarify temporal changes in gait performance and lower limb muscle activity during extended walking in people with stroke hemiplegia. Twelve adults with stroke and eleven healthy controls performed an extended trial involving 20-min continuous walk at a comfortable speed. The primary outcome was electromyography amplitude during the trial and secondary outcomes were walking performance and the instantaneous mean frequency of electromyography during the trial. Data at 1, 6, 12, and 18 min after initiating walking were compared. Performance during extended walking in people with stroke was maintained over time. The electromyography amplitude decreased in the tibialis anterior during the pre-swing phase and increased in the rectus femoris during the single-support phase over time; these changes were similar on the paretic and nonparetic sides. Instantaneous mean frequency decreased over time on the nonparetic side in the tibialis anterior and on the paretic side in the rectus femoris. Healthy subjects did not show any changes over time. The changes in muscle activity in patients with stroke differed between the paretic and nonparetic sides, muscle type, and gait phase; walking performance was maintained despite being affected by neuromuscular fatigue. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Consequences of Stroke)
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Article
Prevalence of Balance Impairment and Factors Associated with Balance among Patients with Stroke. A Cross Sectional Retrospective Case Control Study
Healthcare 2021, 9(3), 320; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9030320 - 13 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 732
Abstract
Stroke is a major cause of disability worldwide, and balance impairments are common disabling factors in patients with stroke, leading to falls. Thus, the study objectives were as follows: (i) To find the prevalence of balance impairment among patients with stroke. (ii) To [...] Read more.
Stroke is a major cause of disability worldwide, and balance impairments are common disabling factors in patients with stroke, leading to falls. Thus, the study objectives were as follows: (i) To find the prevalence of balance impairment among patients with stroke. (ii) To find out the factors associated with balance impairment in patients with stroke. This cross-sectional retrospective case control study involved eighty-one post stroke patients with a mean age of 58.36 ± 14.06, recruited from six hospitals, who underwent an assessment of balance, walking speed, depression and isometric strength of the ankle and knee. These patients were later categorized into subjects with good balance (<45) in the Berg balance scale (BBS) and those with poor balance (≥45), as cases and controls, to assess the factors associated with balance impairment using binary logistic regression. The prevalence of balance impairment among patients with stroke was 48.1%. The reduction in power of knee flexors (OR = 0.858), knee extensors (OR = 0.880) and ankle dorsiflexors (OR = 0.820) was found to be significantly associated with balance impairment, along with speed (OR = 1.187 (95% CI = 1.100, 1.280)), depression (OR = 1.331 (95% CI = 1.055–1.679)) and activities of daily living (OR = 0.313 (95% CI = 0.150–0.650)). In summary, around half of the patients with stroke exhibited balance impairments, with females being more prone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Consequences of Stroke)
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Article
Effect of Dysphagia Rehabilitation Using Kinesiology Taping on Oropharyngeal Muscle Hypertrophy in Post-Stroke Patients: A Double Blind Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial
Healthcare 2020, 8(4), 411; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare8040411 - 19 Oct 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1841
Abstract
Background: It has recently been shown that suprahyoid muscle exercise using kinesiology taping (KT) increases the activation of the suprahyoid muscle in healthy adults, suggesting a potential therapeutic clinical exercise for dysphagia rehabilitation. This study investigated the effect of dysphagia rehabilitation using KT [...] Read more.
Background: It has recently been shown that suprahyoid muscle exercise using kinesiology taping (KT) increases the activation of the suprahyoid muscle in healthy adults, suggesting a potential therapeutic clinical exercise for dysphagia rehabilitation. This study investigated the effect of dysphagia rehabilitation using KT in stroke patients with dysphagia. Methods: Thirty subjects in South Korea were enrolled in this prospective placebo-controlled double-blind study. Participants were randomly assigned to the experimental and sham groups. In the experimental group, the tape was attached to the hyolaryngeal complex, pulled downward with approximately 70% tension, and then attached to the sternum and the clavicle bilaterally. In the sham group, the tape was applied similarly but without the tension. Both groups performed voluntary swallowing 50 times (10 times swallowing per set, times 5 sets) a day for 4 weeks with KT applied. Outcome measures were assessed using portable ultrasound equipment. The parameter measured was the change in thickness of the tongue muscle, mylohyoid muscle, and the anterior belly of the digastric muscle. Results: The experimental group showed statistically significant changes in the thickness of the tongue muscle, mylohyoid muscle, and anterior belly of the digastric muscle than the sham group (p = 0.007, 0.002, and 0.001). Conclusion: Dysphagia rehabilitation using KT is a technique that may promote oropharyngeal muscle thickness in patients with dysphagia after stroke. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Consequences of Stroke)
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Review

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Review
Analysis of Research Directions on the Rehabilitation of Patients with Stroke and Diabetes Using Scientometric Methods
Healthcare 2022, 10(5), 773; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10050773 - 21 Apr 2022
Viewed by 446
Abstract
The multidisciplinary approach to the rehabilitation of patients with stroke and diabetes has been followed in this article by a review of the literature published in the Web of Science in the last ten years. A review of the literature was performed using [...] Read more.
The multidisciplinary approach to the rehabilitation of patients with stroke and diabetes has been followed in this article by a review of the literature published in the Web of Science in the last ten years. A review of the literature was performed using scientometric methods. VOS Viewer software was used to determine the research directions in this area. Scientometric analysis has extracted relevant published scientific output that treats diabetes and stroke. Studies based on qualitative research and the conclusions of these studies were analyzed. The clusters with the keywords used in the title and abstract by the authors who published in the Web of Science were reviewed and research directions in the field were formulated. The proper care of diabetes and its numerous consequences, including stroke and its neurologic complications, necessitates the fast identification of research findings in various types of medicines and their efficacy when applied to various patient groups, such as diabetic patients, whose recovery after a stroke is similar to that of a nondiabetic patient following hemodynamic stabilization, although it takes longer and has poorer outcomes. The limitations of the study refer to the fact that the data reviewed are from the Web of Science only. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Consequences of Stroke)
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Review
The Preventive Effect of Dysphagia Screening on Pneumonia in Acute Stroke Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Healthcare 2021, 9(12), 1764; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9121764 - 20 Dec 2021
Viewed by 977
Abstract
(1) Background: Dysphagia is common in acute stroke patients and is a major risk factor for aspiration pneumonia. We investigated whether the early detection of dysphagia in stroke patients through screening could prevent the development of pneumonia and reduce mortality; (2) Methods: We [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Dysphagia is common in acute stroke patients and is a major risk factor for aspiration pneumonia. We investigated whether the early detection of dysphagia in stroke patients through screening could prevent the development of pneumonia and reduce mortality; (2) Methods: We searched the PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Scopus databases for relevant studies published up to November 2021. We included studies that performed dysphagia screening in acute stroke patients and evaluated whether it could prevent pneumonia and reduce mortality rates. The methodological quality of individual studies was evaluated using the Risk Of Bias In Non-randomized Studies of Interventions tool, and publication bias was evaluated by the funnel plot and Egger’s test; (3) Results: Of the 6593 identified studies, six studies met the inclusion criteria for analysis. The screening group had a significantly lower incidence of pneumonia than the nonscreening group did (odds ratio (OR), 0.60; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.42 to 0.84; p = 0.003; I2, 66%). There was no significant difference in mortality rate between the two groups (OR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.33 to 1.13; p = 0.11; I2, 93%); (4) Conclusions: Early screening for dysphagia in acute stroke patients can prevent the development of pneumonia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Consequences of Stroke)
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Other

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Case Report
Smart Protocols for Physical Therapy of Foot Drop Based on Functional Electrical Stimulation: A Case Study
Healthcare 2021, 9(5), 502; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9050502 - 26 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1081
Abstract
Functional electrical stimulation (FES) is used for treating foot drop by delivering electrical pulses to the anterior tibialis muscle during the swing phase of gait. This treatment requires that a patient can walk, which is mostly possible in the later phases of rehabilitation. [...] Read more.
Functional electrical stimulation (FES) is used for treating foot drop by delivering electrical pulses to the anterior tibialis muscle during the swing phase of gait. This treatment requires that a patient can walk, which is mostly possible in the later phases of rehabilitation. In the early phase of recovery, the therapy conventionally consists of stretching exercises, and less commonly of FES delivered cyclically. Nevertheless, both approaches minimize patient engagement, which is inconsistent with recent findings that the full rehabilitation potential could be achieved by an active psycho-physical engagement of the patient during physical therapy. Following this notion, we proposed smart protocols whereby the patient sits and ankle movements are FES-induced by self-control. In six smart protocols, movements of the paretic ankle were governed by the non-paretic ankle with different control strategies, while in the seventh voluntary movements of the paretic ankle were used for stimulation triggering. One stroke survivor in the acute phase of recovery participated in the study. During the therapy, the patient’s voluntary ankle range of motion increased and reached the value of normal gait after 15 sessions. Statistical analysis did not reveal the differences between the protocols in FES-induced movements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Consequences of Stroke)
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