Special Issue "The November 23rd, 1980 Irpinia-Lucania, Southern Italy Earthquake: Insights and Reviews 40 Years Later"

A special issue of Geosciences (ISSN 2076-3263). This special issue belongs to the section "Natural Hazards".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 October 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Sabina Porfido
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
National Research Council (CNR), Institute of Food Sciences (ISA) Via Roma, 64-83100 Avellino, Italy
Interests: natural hazards; active tectonics; historical and recent seismicity; seismic risk; seismic hazard; environment; paleoseismology; floods; historical floods; disasters induced by earthquakes; cultural heritage; resilience
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Giuliana Alessio
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology, Via Diocleziano, 328, 80124 Napoli, Italy
Interests: seismotectonics; earthquake geology; natural hazard; geoheritage
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Germana Gaudiosi
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia Sezione di Napoli, Osservatorio Vesuviano Italy Naples, Italy
Interests: tectonics; structural geology; geology; exploration geophysics; plate tectonics; seismics; quaternary geology; geodynamics; geophysics; applied geophysics; seismology; earthquake
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Rosa Nappi
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology, Via Diocleziano, 328, 80124 Napoli, Italy
Interests: seismotectonics; earthquake geology and paleoseismology; seismic hazard; tectonic geomorphology; active tectonics; historical and recent seismicity; geological mapping; volcanic geomorphology
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Alessandro Maria Michetti
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Dipartimento di Scienza e Alta Tecnologia, Università degli Studi dell’Insubria, Via Valleggio 11, 22100 Como, Italy
Interests: structural geology; quaternary geology; paleoseismology; active tectonics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The November 23rd, 1980 Irpinia-Lucania, Southern Italy earthquake: insights and reviews 40 years later.

Soon, 40 years will have passed since the earthquake that struck Irpinia-Lucania (Southern Italy) on 23 November 1980 (MS 6,9 I Max X MCS).

This earthquake, besides being remembered as the most devastating seismic event in Italy in terms of loss of human life and destruction of cultural heritage in the last 100 years, is still considered to be a key event for the study of seismicity in Italy, marking the development of modern seismology, quaternary geology, and active tectonic studies, including the growth of the emerging methodology of paleoseismology in Italy. In this Special Issue, we want to collect key contributions that will help the scientific community to update the results obtained from the study of this earthquake after 40 years. In fact, the time has come to reconsider the many, still open, fundamental research issues so richly illustrated during the Irpinia-Lucania event.

Our goal is to gather several contributions from researchers with different expertise, encouraging a multidisciplinary approach that highlights the most important aspects of the earthquake from a seismological and geological point of view, without neglecting the reconstruction of cultural heritage, the resilience of the population, and the socioeconomic development of the internal areas of the Southern Apennines after the earthquake. No doubt, lessons learned from the Irpinia-Lucania event are relevant at the local level, for the whole Mediterranean region, and in similar seismotectonic and cultural environments around the world.

Dr. Sabina Porfido
Dr. Giuliana Alessio
Dr. Germana Gaudiosi
Dr. Rosa Nappi
Prof. Alessandro Maria Michetti
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • 1980 post-earthquake emergency phase—the response of the scientific community
  • Focal parameters of the 1980 earthquake
  • Macroseismic studies: a historical and modern perspective
  • Primary and secondary environmental effects induced by the 1980 earthquake
  • Cultural heritage, damage, and reconstruction of small towns and cities
  • Geology, active tectonics, and paleoseismology of the areas affected by the 1980 earthquake
  • New perspective on seismic hazard evaluation

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

Article
Assessing Current Seismic Hazards in Irpinia Forty Years after the 1980 Earthquake: Merging Historical Seismicity and Satellite Data about Recent Ground Movements
Geosciences 2021, 11(4), 168; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences11040168 - 07 Apr 2021
Viewed by 683
Abstract
Recently, a new strain rate map of Italy and the surrounding areas has been obtained by processing data acquired by the persistent scatterers (PS) of the synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR) satellites—ERS and ENVISAT—between 1990 and 2012. This map clearly shows that there [...] Read more.
Recently, a new strain rate map of Italy and the surrounding areas has been obtained by processing data acquired by the persistent scatterers (PS) of the synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR) satellites—ERS and ENVISAT—between 1990 and 2012. This map clearly shows that there is a link between the strain rate and all the shallow earthquakes (less than 15 km deep) that occurred from 1990 to today, with their epicenters being placed only in high strain rate areas (e.g., Emilia plain, NW Tuscany, Central Apennines). However, the map also presents various regions with high strain rates but in which no damaging earthquakes have occurred since 1990. One of these regions is the Apennine sector, formed by Sannio and Irpinia. This area represents one of the most important seismic districts with a well-known and recorded seismicity from Roman times up to the present day. In our study, we merged historical records with new satellite techniques that allow for the precise determination of ground movements, and then derived physical dimensions, such as strain rate. In this way, we verified that in Irpinia, the occurrence of new strong shocks—forty years after one of the strongest known seismic events in the district that occurred on the 23 November 1980, measuring Mw 6.8—is still a realistic possibility. The reason for this is that, from 1990, only areas characterized by high strain rates have hosted significant earthquakes. This picture has been also confirmed by analyzing the historical catalog of events with seismic completeness for magnitude M ≥ 6 over the last four centuries. It is easy to see that strong seismic events with magnitude M ≥ 6 generally occurred at a relatively short time distance between one another, with a period of 200 years without strong earthquakes between the years 1732 and 1930. This aspect must be considered as very important from various points of view, particularly for civil protection plans, as well as civil engineering and urban planning development. Full article
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Article
Irpinia Earthquake and History: A Nexus as a Problem
Geosciences 2021, 11(2), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences11020050 - 27 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 642
Abstract
Forty years from the 23 November 1980, Irpinia-Basilicata earthquake date represents much more than a commemoration. It has been a fracture for the history of Italy. Important for many reasons, this earthquake has been a watershed for the studies and the public role [...] Read more.
Forty years from the 23 November 1980, Irpinia-Basilicata earthquake date represents much more than a commemoration. It has been a fracture for the history of Italy. Important for many reasons, this earthquake has been a watershed for the studies and the public role of research. Historians have been solicited to work on the topic by scholars of the geological and seismological sciences: in the face of the repetition of disastrous seismic events in Italy, earthquakes remained ‘outside the history’. However, the real difficulty of socio-historical science is not neglecting seismic events and their consequences, but rather the reluctance to think of ‘earthquake’ as a specific interpretative context. This means to deal with the discipline ‘statute’ as well as the public commitment of scholars. In this way, the circle earthquake-history-memory requires broad interdisciplinarity, which offers insights to work on historical consciousness and cultural memory: important aspects to understand the past as well as to favour a seismic risk awareness. Full article
Article
Insights into Mechanical Properties of the 1980 Irpinia Fault System from the Analysis of a Seismic Sequence
Geosciences 2021, 11(1), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences11010028 - 05 Jan 2021
Viewed by 925
Abstract
Seismic sequences are a powerful tool to locally infer geometrical and mechanical properties of faults and fault systems. In this study, we provided detailed location and characterization of events of the 3–7 July 2020 Irpinia sequence (southern Italy) that occurred at the northern [...] Read more.
Seismic sequences are a powerful tool to locally infer geometrical and mechanical properties of faults and fault systems. In this study, we provided detailed location and characterization of events of the 3–7 July 2020 Irpinia sequence (southern Italy) that occurred at the northern tip of the main segment that ruptured during the 1980 Irpinia earthquake. Using an autocorrelation technique, we detected more than 340 events within the sequence, with local magnitude ranging between −0.5 and 3.0. We thus provided double difference locations, source parameter estimation, and focal mechanisms determination for the largest quality events. We found that the sequence ruptured an asperity with a size of about 800 m, along a fault structure having a strike compatible with the one of the main segments of the 1980 Irpinia earthquake, and a dip of 50–55° at depth of 10.5–12 km and 60–65° at shallower depths (7.5–9 km). Low stress drop release (average of 0.64 MPa) indicates a fluid-driven initiation mechanism of the sequence. We also evaluated the performance of the earthquake early warning systems running in real-time during the sequence, retrieving a minimum size for the blind zone in the area of about 15 km. Full article
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Communication
Photographic Reportage on the Rebuilding after the Irpinia-Basilicata 1980 Earthquake (Southern Italy)
Geosciences 2021, 11(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences11010006 - 25 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1317
Abstract
This paper aims to present, through a photographic reportage, the current state of rebuilding of the most devastated villages by the earthquake that hit the Southern Italy on 23 November 1980, in Irpinia-Basilicata. The earthquake was characterized by magnitude Ml = 6.9 and [...] Read more.
This paper aims to present, through a photographic reportage, the current state of rebuilding of the most devastated villages by the earthquake that hit the Southern Italy on 23 November 1980, in Irpinia-Basilicata. The earthquake was characterized by magnitude Ml = 6.9 and epicentral intensity I0 = X MCS. It was felt throughout Italy with the epicenter in the Southern Apennines, between the regions of Campania and Basilicata that were the most damaged areas. About 800 localities were serious damaged; 7,500 houses were completely destroyed and 27,500 seriously damaged. The photographic survey has been done in 23 towns during the last five years: Castelnuovo di Conza, Conza della Campania, Laviano, Lioni, Santomenna, Sant’Angelo dei Lombardi, Balvano, Caposele, Calabritto and the hamlet of Quaglietta, San Mango sul Calore, San Michele di Serino, Pescopagano, Guardia dei Lombardi, Torella dei Lombardi, Colliano, Romagnano al Monte, Salvitelle, Senerchia, Teora, Bisaccia, Calitri and Avellino. Forty years after the 1980 earthquake, the photographs show villages almost completely rebuilt with modern techniques where reinforced concrete prevails. Only in few instances, the reconstruction was carried out trying to recover the pre-existing building heritage, without changing the original urban planning, or modifying it. We argue that this photography collection allows to assess the real understanding of the geological information for urban planning after a major destructive seismic event. Even more than this, documenting the rebuilding process in a large epicentral area reveals the human legacy to the natural landscape, and our ability, or failure, to properly interpret the environmental fate of a site. Full article
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Article
Ground Response and Historical Buildings in Avellino (Campania, Southern Italy): Clues from a Retrospective View Concerning the 1980 Irpinia-Basilicata Earthquake
Geosciences 2020, 10(12), 503; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences10120503 - 18 Dec 2020
Viewed by 798
Abstract
Cultural heritage represents our legacy with the past and our identity. However, to assure heritage can be passed on to future generations, it is required to put into the field knowledge as well as preventive and safeguard actions, especially for heritage located in [...] Read more.
Cultural heritage represents our legacy with the past and our identity. However, to assure heritage can be passed on to future generations, it is required to put into the field knowledge as well as preventive and safeguard actions, especially for heritage located in seismic hazard-prone areas. With this in mind, the article deals with the analysis of ground response in the Avellino town (Campania, Southern Italy) and its correlation with the effects caused by the 23rd November 1980 Irpinia earthquake on the historical buildings. The aim is to get some clues about the earthquake damage cause-effect relationship. To estimate the ground motion response for Avellino, where strong-motion recordings are not available, we made use of the seismic hazard disaggregation. Then, we made extensive use of borehole data to build the lithological model so being able to assess the seismic ground response. Overall, results indicate that the complex subsoil layers influence the ground motion, particularly in the lowest period (0.1–0.5 s). The comparison with the observed damage of the selected historical buildings and the maximum acceleration expected indicates that the damage distribution cannot be explained by the surface geology effects alone. Full article
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Article
The MS 6.9, 1980 Irpinia Earthquake from the Basement to the Surface: A Review of Tectonic Geomorphology and Geophysical Constraints, and New Data on Postseismic Deformation
Geosciences 2020, 10(12), 493; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences10120493 - 09 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 853
Abstract
The MS 6.9, 1980 Irpinia earthquake occurred in the southern Apennines, a fold and thrust belt that has been undergoing post-orogenic extension since ca. 400 kyr. The strongly anisotropic structure of fold and thrust belts like the Apennines, including late-orogenic low-angle normal [...] Read more.
The MS 6.9, 1980 Irpinia earthquake occurred in the southern Apennines, a fold and thrust belt that has been undergoing post-orogenic extension since ca. 400 kyr. The strongly anisotropic structure of fold and thrust belts like the Apennines, including late-orogenic low-angle normal faults and inherited Mesozoic extensional features besides gently dipping thrusts, result in a complex, overall layered architecture of the orogenic edifice. Effective decoupling between deep and shallow structural levels of this mountain belt is related to the strong rheological contrast produced by a fluid-saturated, shale-dominated mélange zone interposed between buried autochthonous carbonates—continuous with those exposed in the foreland to the east—and the allochthonous units. The presence of fluid reservoirs below the mélange zone is shown by a high VP/VS ratio—which is a proxy for densely fractured fluid-saturated crustal volumes—recorded by seismic tomography within the buried autochthonous carbonates and the top part of the underlying basement. These crustal volumes, in which background seismicity is remarkably concentrated, are fed by fluids migrating along the major active faults. High pore fluid pressures, decreasing the yield stress, are recorded by low stress-drop values associated with the earthquakes. On the other hand, the mountain belt is characterized by substantial gas flow to the surface, recorded as both distributed soil gas emissions and vigorous gas vents. The accumulation of CO2-brine within a reservoir located at hypocentral depths beneath the Irpinia region is not only interpreted to control a multiyear cyclic behavior of microseismicity, but could also play a role in ground motions detected by space-based geodetic measurements in the postseismic period. The analysis carried out in this study of persistent scatterer interferometry synthetic aperture radar (PS-InSAR) data, covering a timespan ranging from 12 to 30 years after the 1980 mainshock, points out that ground deformation has affected the Irpinia earthquake epicentral area in the last decades. These ground motions could be a result of postseismic afterslip, which is well known to occur over years or even decades after a large mainshock such as the 23 November 1980, MS 6.9 earthquake due to cycles of CO2-brine accumulation at depth and its subsequent release by Mw ≥ 3.5 earthquakes, or most likely by a combination of both. Postseismic afterslip controls geomorphology, topography, and surface deformation in seismically active areas such as that of the present study, characterized by ~M 7 earthquakes. Yet, this process has been largely overlooked in the case of the 1980 Irpinia earthquake, and one of the main aims of this study is to fill such the substantial gap of knowledge for the epicentral area of some of the most destructive earthquakes that have ever occurred in Italy. Full article
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Article
Reconstruction as a Long-Term Process. Memory, Experiences and Cultural Heritage in the Irpinia Post-Earthquake (November 23, 1980)
Geosciences 2020, 10(8), 316; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences10080316 - 15 Aug 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1032
Abstract
Reconstruction after an earthquake is often seen as a material issue, which concerns “objects” such as houses, roofs, and streets. This point of view is supported by the mass media showing the work progress in the disaster areas, especially in conjunction with anniversaries. [...] Read more.
Reconstruction after an earthquake is often seen as a material issue, which concerns “objects” such as houses, roofs, and streets. This point of view is supported by the mass media showing the work progress in the disaster areas, especially in conjunction with anniversaries. Rather, we should consider reconstruction as a complex social process in which cultural backgrounds, expectations, and ideas of the future come into play, without neglecting geological, historical, legislative, economic, and political factors. Combining oral history sources and archival records, the article shows the paths taken by two small towns among the most affected by the earthquake of 23rd November 1980 (Mw 6.9). These towns have made opposite reconstruction choices (in situ and ex novo) representing two classical and different ways in which human societies can face their past and think their own future. A careful analysis of these forty-year experiences, with a special focus on cultural heritage, provides useful indications for post-disaster reconstructions in which more attention to the process, and not just to the final product, should be paid. Full article
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Article
Geology of the Epicentral Area of the November 23, 1980 Earthquake (Irpinia, Italy): New Stratigraphical, Structural and Petrological Constrains
Geosciences 2020, 10(6), 247; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences10060247 - 25 Jun 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1217
Abstract
The geology of the epicentral area of the 1980 earthquake (Irpinia-Lucania, Italy) is described with new stratigraphic, petrographic and structural data. Subsurface geological data have been collected during the studies for the excavation works of the Pavoncelli bis hydraulic tunnel, developing between Caposele [...] Read more.
The geology of the epicentral area of the 1980 earthquake (Irpinia-Lucania, Italy) is described with new stratigraphic, petrographic and structural data. Subsurface geological data have been collected during the studies for the excavation works of the Pavoncelli bis hydraulic tunnel, developing between Caposele and Conza della Campania in an area that was highly damaged during 1980 earthquake. Our approach includes geological, stratigraphic, structural studies, and petrological analyses of rock samples collected along the tunnel profile and in outcropping sections. Stratigraphic studies and detailed geological and structural mapping were carried out in about 200 km2 wide area. The main units cropping out have been studied and correlated in order to document the effects of tectonic changes during the orogenic evolution on the foreland basin systems and the sandstone detrital modes in this sector of the southern Apennines. The multi-disciplinary and updated datasets have allowed getting new insights on the tectono-stratigraphic evolution and stratigraphic architecture of the southern Apennines foreland basin system and on the structural and stratigraphic relations of Apennines tectonic units and timing of their kinematic evolution. They also allowed to better understand the relationships between internal and external basin units within the Apennine thrust belt and its tectonic evolution. Full article
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Article
The Role of the Water Level in the Assessment of Seismic Vulnerability for the 23 November 1980 Irpinia–Basilicata Earthquake
Geosciences 2020, 10(6), 229; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences10060229 - 13 Jun 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 805
Abstract
The seismic vulnerability of structures is closely related to changes in the degree of soil saturation that may cause significant changes in volume and shear strength, and consequently, bearing capacity. This paper aims to consider this issue during the strong earthquake that struck [...] Read more.
The seismic vulnerability of structures is closely related to changes in the degree of soil saturation that may cause significant changes in volume and shear strength, and consequently, bearing capacity. This paper aims to consider this issue during the strong earthquake that struck Southern Italy on 23 November 1980 (Ms = 6.9) and affected the Campania and Basilicata regions. Several 3D numerical finite element models were performed in order to consider the effects of soil–structure interaction (SSI) on a representative benchmark structure. In particular, the role of the water level depth is herein considered as one of the most significant parameters to control the shear deformations inside the soil, and thus the performance of the superstructure. Results show the importance of considering the water level for buildings on shallow foundations in terms of settlements, base shear forces and floor displacements. Full article
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Article
Near-Real-Time Loss Estimates for Future Italian Earthquakes Based on the M6.9 Irpinia Example
Geosciences 2020, 10(5), 165; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences10050165 - 03 May 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 904
Abstract
The number of fatalities and injured was calculated, using the computer code QLARM and its data set and assuming information about the Irpinia 1980 earthquake became available in near-real-time. The casualties calculated for a point source, an approximate line source and a well-defined [...] Read more.
The number of fatalities and injured was calculated, using the computer code QLARM and its data set and assuming information about the Irpinia 1980 earthquake became available in near-real-time. The casualties calculated for a point source, an approximate line source and a well-defined line source would have become available about 30 min, 60 min and years after the main shock, respectively. The first estimate would have been satisfactory, indicating the seriousness of the disaster. The subsequent loss estimate after 60 min would have defined the human losses accurately, and the ultimate estimate was most accurate. In 2009, QLARM issued a correct estimate of the number of fatalities within 22 min of the M6.3 L’Aquila main shock. These two results show that the number of casualties and injuries in large and major earthquakes in Italy can be estimated correctly within less than an hour by using QLARM. Full article
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Article
Soil–Structure Interaction Assessment of the 23 November 1980 Irpinia-Basilicata Earthquake
Geosciences 2020, 10(4), 152; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences10040152 - 22 Apr 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1269
Abstract
This paper aimed to present a systematic study of the effects caused by the strong earthquake that struck southern Italy on 23 November 1980 (Ms = 6.9) and affected the Campania and Basilicata regions. Two aspects are discussed here: The broadening of the [...] Read more.
This paper aimed to present a systematic study of the effects caused by the strong earthquake that struck southern Italy on 23 November 1980 (Ms = 6.9) and affected the Campania and Basilicata regions. Two aspects are discussed here: The broadening of the knowledge of the response site effects by considering several soil free-field conditions and the assessment of the role of the soil–structure interaction (SSI) on a representative benchmark structure. This research study, based on the state-of-the-art knowledge, may be applied to assess future seismic events and to propose new original code provisions. The numerical simulations were herein performed with the advanced platform OpenSees, which can consider non-linear models for both the structure and the soil. The results show the importance of considering the SSI in the seismic assessment of soil amplifications and its consequences on the structural performance. Full article
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Review

Jump to: Research

Review
The Scientific Landscape of November 23rd, 1980 Irpinia-Basilicata Earthquake: Taking Stock of (Almost) 40 Years of Studies
Geosciences 2020, 10(12), 482; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences10120482 - 28 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1648
Abstract
The November 23rd, 1980 Irpinia-Basilicata (Southern Italy) earthquake is one of the strongest earthquakes ever occurred in Italy. The earthquake was a natural laboratory for the scientific community, which was engaged highly and promptly in investigating the event, thus publishing a flood of [...] Read more.
The November 23rd, 1980 Irpinia-Basilicata (Southern Italy) earthquake is one of the strongest earthquakes ever occurred in Italy. The earthquake was a natural laboratory for the scientific community, which was engaged highly and promptly in investigating the event, thus publishing a flood of papers in different research areas over time. Just these research outputs are the focus of the article, which examines, with a tailored methodological approach, the international and national (Italian) studies started and advanced since the occurrence of the earthquake. First, we built and analyzed statistically two bibliographic databanks regarding the earthquake studies: (a) the international version of IRpinia Bibliographic databASE (IR_BASE_ENG), selecting and standardizing the pertinent scientific documents extracted from Scopus, Web of Science, and other databases and (b) the national version of the database (IR_BASE_IT) using the Google Scholar search engine to search for the most relevant papers in Italian. Second, IR_BASE_ENG was analyzed in a bibliometric perspective through the data mining VOSviewer software (Waltman et al., 2010) that builds co-occurrence term maps useful in perspective of investigating the wide-ranging studies on the earthquake. Third, taking a cue from this network analysis, we recognized the main research topics and performed a minireview of the related international studies, integrating in it a quick reference to the literature in Italian. Finally, we associated the scientific outputs to each cluster/topic, also performing the frequency analysis of the published documents for each subject, thus gaining information on the temporal trends of studies and getting a more exhaustive evidence of the scientific landscape on the earthquake over the last 40 years. Full article
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Review
Roman to Middle Age Earthquakes Sourced by the 1980 Irpinia Fault: Historical, Archaeoseismological, and Paleoseismological Hints
Geosciences 2020, 10(8), 286; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences10080286 - 27 Jul 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1014
Abstract
The Italian seismic compilations are among the most complete and back-in time extended worldwide, with earthquakes on record even before the Common Era. However, we have surely lost the memory of dozen strong events of the historical period, mostly in the first millennium [...] Read more.
The Italian seismic compilations are among the most complete and back-in time extended worldwide, with earthquakes on record even before the Common Era. However, we have surely lost the memory of dozen strong events of the historical period, mostly in the first millennium CE. Given the lack of certain or conclusive written sources, besides paleoseismological investigations, a complementary way to infer the occurrence of lost earthquakes is to cross-check archaeoseismic evidence from ancient settlements. This usually happens by investigating collapses/restorations/reconstructions of buildings, the general re-organization of the urban texture, or even the abrupt abandonment of the settlement. Exceptionally, epigraphs mentioning more or less explicitly the effects of the earthquake strengthened the field working hypothesis. Here, I deal with both paleoseismological clues from the Monte Marzano Fault System (the structure responsible for the catastrophic, Mw 6.9 1980 earthquake) and archaeoseismological evidence of settlements founded in its surroundings to cast light on two poorly known earthquakes that occurred at the onset and at the end of the first millennium CE, likely in 62 and in 989 CE. Both should share the same seismogenic structure and the size of the 1980 event (Mw 6.9). Full article
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