New Challenges in Seismic Hazard Assessment

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Earth Sciences and Geography".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 June 2024 | Viewed by 5096

Special Issue Editors

National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology, Via Diocleziano, 328, 80124 Napoli, Italy
Interests: seismotectonics; earthquake geology and paleoseismology; seismic hazard; tectonic geomorphology; active tectonics; historical and recent seismicity; geological mapping; volcanic geomorphology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Department of Earth, Environment and Resources Science, University Federico II, Complesso di Monte S. Angelo, Via Cintia, Edifice L, 80126 Naples, Italy
Interests: applied geophysics; potential field data analysis and modeling; remote sensing
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

With the development of society, the rapid urbanization of the population, and the competition for the construction of large-scale projects, the risk of seismic hazards is intensifying. Simultaneously, seismic hazard assessments also face more challenges.

This Special Issue focusses on advances in the understanding of seismic hazards from geological records (e.g., paleoearthquakes and palaeotsunamis, coseismic ruptures pattern), macroseismic investigations of the evolution of damage throughout seismic sequences (e.g., Esi scale, MCS) and geophysical approaches (e.g., seismic and electrical 2D tomography; gravity/magnetic imaging methods). New geologic coseismic data and macroseismic data evaluated by the ESI scale to understand the surface-faulting mechanism due to small-size or moderate earthquakes in volcano-tectonic settings are very useful to complete the gap in the available database, as these are significantly lacking in information for the magnitude range 3.0 < M < 5.0.

This Special Issue invites contributions from a broad range of research topics (e.g., remote sensing, UAV-Lidar data, field surveys, historical seismology, archeo and paleo-seismology; geophysical modelling). Topics include, but are not limited to:

  • Earthquake hazard assessment;
  • Volcano-tectonic seismic hazard;
  • Geophysical modelling of active faults;
  • Active tectonics correlated to earthquakes;
  • Seismicity and earthquake source parameters;
  • Seismotectonics.

Dr. Rosa Nappi
Prof. Dr. Valeria Paoletti
Guest Editors

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Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

32 pages, 14708 KiB  
Article
Applying Geostatistics to Understand Seismic Activity Patterns in the Northern Red Sea Boundary Zone
Appl. Sci. 2024, 14(4), 1455; https://doi.org/10.3390/app14041455 - 10 Feb 2024
Viewed by 389
Abstract
A comprehensive geostatistical analysis was conducted on a dataset comprising 24,321 seismic events in the Red Sea region, spanning from 1997 to 2020. This analysis involved the creation of a new seismic activity database, incorporating data from both Egyptian and Saudi Seismic Networks. [...] Read more.
A comprehensive geostatistical analysis was conducted on a dataset comprising 24,321 seismic events in the Red Sea region, spanning from 1997 to 2020. This analysis involved the creation of a new seismic activity database, incorporating data from both Egyptian and Saudi Seismic Networks. This enriched database provided a robust foundation for a detailed examination of the seismic patterns and activities in the region. Utilizing geographic information systems and various spatial analytic methods, it identifies seismic patterns and tectonic influences. The findings reveal significant seismic clustering along the Central Red Sea axis, indicative of active rifting between the Nubian and Arabian plates. The study demonstrates spatial autocorrelation in seismic activities, with high-high clusters marking zones of elevated seismicity. Kernel Density Estimator analyses highlight concentrated seismic activity in the Gulfs of Aqaba and Suez. Higher magnitude events are shown to localize in areas of greater tectonic stress, aligning with known geological features. This research provides critical insights into the seismic dynamics of the Red Sea, showcasing the effectiveness of geostatistical techniques in analyzing seismic data in tectonically active regions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Challenges in Seismic Hazard Assessment)
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29 pages, 3749 KiB  
Article
Shear-Wave Velocity Model from Site Amplification Using Microtremors on Jeju Island
Appl. Sci. 2024, 14(2), 795; https://doi.org/10.3390/app14020795 - 17 Jan 2024
Viewed by 394
Abstract
This study examines shear-wave velocity structures in the Jeju region utilizing horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratios (HVSRs) of environmental noise, focusing on identifying significant low-velocity layers (LVLs). Although conventional methodologies predominantly involve borehole and active seismic exploration, recent advancements in the diffuse-field theory of seismic [...] Read more.
This study examines shear-wave velocity structures in the Jeju region utilizing horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratios (HVSRs) of environmental noise, focusing on identifying significant low-velocity layers (LVLs). Although conventional methodologies predominantly involve borehole and active seismic exploration, recent advancements in the diffuse-field theory of seismic waves have offered a theoretical foundation for this approach. In the volcanic region of Jeju Island characterized by unique geological features, a pervasive LVL composed of quaternary marine sediments and the Seoguipo sedimentary layer has been observed. These components are crucial for site amplification and attenuation in seismic microzonation. The present study introduces a novel discovery of a distinct LVL, specifically at the UDO site, suggesting that its origin may be attributable to a local magmatic intrusion event. Advanced algorithms and HVSR curve analysis have enabled reliable inversion processes, enhancing the comprehension of the subsurface geology of Jeju. These insights are essential for seismic microzonation practices and contribute significantly to the development of seismic design standards in the Jeju region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Challenges in Seismic Hazard Assessment)
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11 pages, 3299 KiB  
Article
Feasibility Study on Earthquake Prediction Based on Impending Geomagnetic Anomalies
Appl. Sci. 2024, 14(1), 263; https://doi.org/10.3390/app14010263 - 28 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1074
Abstract
By deploying a magnetic monitoring network in the earthquake-prone areas of Sichuan, China, and conducting long-term observations, processing, and analysis of real-time geomagnetic data, it can be observed that the pre-earthquake geomagnetic anomalies are highly correlated with the occurrence time of earthquakes. We [...] Read more.
By deploying a magnetic monitoring network in the earthquake-prone areas of Sichuan, China, and conducting long-term observations, processing, and analysis of real-time geomagnetic data, it can be observed that the pre-earthquake geomagnetic anomalies are highly correlated with the occurrence time of earthquakes. We propose a novel algorithm that obtains a new quantity by accumulating geomagnetic anomaly energy to eliminate external environmental interference and take its gradient as a measure for predicting the occurrence time of an earthquake. Through observations of a large amount of geomagnetic data, it is confirmed that the proposed method can be used to predict the occurrence time of earthquakes with about 75% to 85% accuracy. Conclusions: The geomagnetic anomaly phenomenon can be accurately observed and recorded before an impending earthquake, and it has been confirmed by data that using this observation makes imminent earthquake prediction a practical prediction method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Challenges in Seismic Hazard Assessment)
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10 pages, 3992 KiB  
Article
Atmospheric Charge Separation Mechanism Due to Gas Release from the Crust before an Earthquake
Appl. Sci. 2024, 14(1), 245; https://doi.org/10.3390/app14010245 - 27 Dec 2023
Viewed by 457
Abstract
In fair weather, the vertical atmospheric electric field is oriented downward (positive in the earth surface ordinate system) in the global atmospheric circuit. Some researchers have revealed the unique phenomenon whereby once an upward vertical atmospheric electric field is observed in fair weather, [...] Read more.
In fair weather, the vertical atmospheric electric field is oriented downward (positive in the earth surface ordinate system) in the global atmospheric circuit. Some researchers have revealed the unique phenomenon whereby once an upward vertical atmospheric electric field is observed in fair weather, an earthquake (EQ) follows within 2–48 h regardless of the EQ magnitude. However, the mechanism has not been explained with a suitable physical model. In this paper, a physical model is presented considering four types of forces acting on charged particles in the air. It is demonstrated that the heavier positive ions and lighter negative ions are rapidly separated. Finally, a reversed fair weather electrostatic field is formed by the above charge separation process. The simulation results have instructive significance for future observations and hazard predictions and still need further research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Challenges in Seismic Hazard Assessment)
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27 pages, 6533 KiB  
Article
Lichenometric Analysis Applied to Bedrock Fault Scarps: The Sencelles Fault and the 1851 CE Mallorca Earthquake (Balearic Islands, Spain)
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(11), 6739; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13116739 - 01 Jun 2023
Viewed by 989
Abstract
The Sencelles Fault constitutes the main extensional structure of Mallorca Island (Spain), holds a NE-SE orientation, and has been identified as the possible seismic source of the 1851 CE Palma earthquake (VII EMS.) The SE termination of the fault (Sta. Eugenia Segment) features [...] Read more.
The Sencelles Fault constitutes the main extensional structure of Mallorca Island (Spain), holds a NE-SE orientation, and has been identified as the possible seismic source of the 1851 CE Palma earthquake (VII EMS.) The SE termination of the fault (Sta. Eugenia Segment) features a linear bedrock fault scarp of a maximum of 3.15 m height. The last 840 m of this rocky scarp display a significant horizontal banding, with up to five differentially weathered ribbons colonized by lichens. The lichenometric analysis is based on the measurement of 155 specimens of Aspicilia calcarea (Ac) and Aspicilia radiosa (Ar) in tombstones and funerary monuments (with inscribed dates) from the nearby cemeteries of Sta. María del Camí, Sta. Eugenia and Sencelles, to obtain the local lichen growth rates (LGR), with the two last graveyards being directly located in the fault zone. Lichens were measured on variously oriented (N, S, NE, SW, etc…) horizontal and vertical surfaces, generating differentially oriented lichen populations (DOLPs) to be compared with the Ac and Ar specimens colonizing the studied fault scarp (38 measured individual specimens). After successive trial and error regression tests, vertical DOLPs resulted in the best appropriate groups for the analysis, with LGR of 0.23–0.31 mm/yr. Horizontal ones reached widths of up to 20 cm, with LGR up to 0.84 mm/yr, which were clearly oversized. The application of the selected LGR points to a human-induced origin for the thin basal lichen ribbon of the scarp (10–13 cm), which should have developed during the middle 20th century (c. 1950–1966) because of documented ground leveling works. However, the second ribbon of the scarp (23–47 cm) shows exposure dates of 1852 ± 40 (Ar) and 1841 ± 59 (Ac), overlapping the date of the 1851 CE earthquake. The study is complemented with data from a fault trench excavated in the year 2002 at the toe of the scarp. The combined data of lichenometry, fault trenching, and the length of the analyzed fault scarp (c. 840 m) indicate that the studied segment of the fault cannot be considered a co-seismic surface faulting related to the 1851 CE event as a whole, but a relevant secondary earthquake effect on a pre-existing fault scarp (e.g., sympathetic ground ruptures). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Challenges in Seismic Hazard Assessment)
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20 pages, 9619 KiB  
Article
Directional Amplification at Rock Sites in Fault Damage Zones
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(10), 6060; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13106060 - 15 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 769
Abstract
Site effects refer to the modification of ground shaking caused by the local geological conditions that can result in the strong amplification of ground motion. The best-known cause for site effects is the presence of superficial soft soil deposits, which are considered in [...] Read more.
Site effects refer to the modification of ground shaking caused by the local geological conditions that can result in the strong amplification of ground motion. The best-known cause for site effects is the presence of superficial soft soil deposits, which are considered in seismic design codes of many countries through the use of scaling factors. Rock sites are assumed to show no local site amplification. However, even at rock sites, seismic waves can be locally amplified at frequencies of engineering interest, with larger motion along one site-specific azimuth on the horizontal plane (the so called “directional site resonance or amplification”). These effects have been related to the presence of large-scale open cracks or microcracks in different geological environments (faults, landslides, volcanic areas) everywhere with a common signature: maximum amplification occurs transverse to the predominant fracture strike. In this paper, we summarize our main results obtained in the last decade with regard to several fault zones with different kinematics, where ground motion is polarized (and amplified) perpendicularly to the predominant fracture field as an effect of the stiffness anisotropy. In order to give a further constraint, we also show some cases where the directional amplification effects were compared with the S-wave splitting analysis method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Challenges in Seismic Hazard Assessment)
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