Special Issue "Hydrogeochemistry and Groundwater Management"

A special issue of Geosciences (ISSN 2076-3263). This special issue belongs to the section "Geochemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2018)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Brindha Karthikeyan

Freie Universität Berlin, Germany
Website | E-Mail
Interests: hydrogeology; hydrogeochemistry; managed aquifer recharge; climate change; groundwater management

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The goal of this Special Issue of Geosciences is to invite research articles and reviews on recent advances in the understanding of geochemistry of groundwater. Groundwater is undeniably an important source of fresh water for the world. Many aquifers serve as a significant source of water supply to the urban and rural population. Increased reliance on the groundwater resources and the negligence in its management has led to deterioration of its quality. Anthropogenic contamination had led to discovery of new hazardous pollutants in groundwater. Only through systematic monitoring, occurrence of pollutants in groundwater can be determined and the sources/processes can be identified. This understanding is essential to protect, manage and prevent the regional aquifers from further deterioration. Therefore, research in hydrogeochemistry is necessary to ensure that adequate groundwater resources of good quality are available for future generations.

On the wake of the greater importance given to managing the groundwater resources, this Special Issue invites papers on the current status of regional and global groundwater geochemistry and management issues. New methods and indices developed to monitor and map the water quality are also welcome. This Special Issue aims to cover, but is not limited to the following:

  • Natural processes: geology, arsenic, fluoride, salinisation, etc.
  • Anthropogenic pollution: nitrate, heavy metals, organic pollutants, emerging contaminants, seawater intrusion, etc.
  • Methods: spatial and temporal monitoring, isotopes, geochemical models, numerical models, geospatial techniques, statistical methods, water quality indices, mapping, etc.
  • Management: monitoring, treatment, remediation, aquifer recharge, sustainable development, etc.

Dr. Brindha Karthikeyan
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • groundwater quality
  • geochemical processes
  • geogenic contamination
  • anthropogenic contamination
  • fluoride
  • arsenic
  • nitrate
  • microbial contamination
  • isotopes
  • geochemical modelling
  • floods and droughts

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Assessment of Heavy Metals Pollution and Stable Isotopic Signatures in Hard Rock Aquifers of Krishnagiri District, South India
Geosciences 2019, 9(5), 200; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences9050200
Received: 28 February 2019 / Revised: 27 April 2019 / Accepted: 29 April 2019 / Published: 5 May 2019
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Abstract
The area chosen for study, Krishnagiri district, has a hard rock terrain and the aquifers located there are sparsely recharged by limited rainfall. The study area has a complex geology with hard rock aquifers. To have an overall view of the trace metals [...] Read more.
The area chosen for study, Krishnagiri district, has a hard rock terrain and the aquifers located there are sparsely recharged by limited rainfall. The study area has a complex geology with hard rock aquifers. To have an overall view of the trace metals concentration in the groundwater of the study area, 39 groundwater samples were collected during Post Monsoon (POM) representing various lithologies. pH, EC, TDS, major ions and 22 heavy metals were analyzed for all the samples. Ca-Cl is the dominant water facies in the groundwater, which indicates the dissolution of ions by local precipitation. The analysis shows the dominance of trace metal levels in groundwater as follows: Zn > Ba > Sr > Fe > Al > B > Mn > Cu > Pb > Ni > V > Li > Rb > Cr > Mo > Se > As > Co > Cd > Ag > Sb > Be. The pollution indices, namely the heavy metal pollution index (HPI) and degree of contamination (Cd) were calculated to assess the drinking and agriculture water usage. The pollution indices show that 2% of samples are polluted with respect to HPI and 3% with respect to the degree of contamination. The heavy metals (Al-Cr-Mn-Fe-Ni-Co-Zn-Ba-Pb) in groundwater show significant correlations with these indices, suggesting that they are affected by weathering of rock matrix with less anthropogenic impact. Stable isotopes (Oxygen and Hydrogen) were analyzed to identify the possible recharge mechanisms in the groundwater. It has been identified that recharge is mainly due to the local precipitation, which is the result of release metals in the groundwater through weathering. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrogeochemistry and Groundwater Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Subsampling of Regional-Scale Database for improving Multivariate Analysis Interpretation of Groundwater Chemical Evolution and Ion Sources
Geosciences 2019, 9(3), 139; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences9030139
Received: 21 January 2019 / Revised: 6 March 2019 / Accepted: 11 March 2019 / Published: 21 March 2019
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Abstract
Multivariate statistics are widely and routinely used in the field of hydrogeochemistry. Trace elements, for which numerous samples show concentrations below the detection limit (censored data from a truncated dataset), are removed from the dataset in the multivariate treatment. This study now proposes [...] Read more.
Multivariate statistics are widely and routinely used in the field of hydrogeochemistry. Trace elements, for which numerous samples show concentrations below the detection limit (censored data from a truncated dataset), are removed from the dataset in the multivariate treatment. This study now proposes an approach that consists of avoiding the truncation of the dataset of some critical elements, such as those recognized as sensitive elements regarding human health (fluoride, iron, and manganese). The method aims to reduce the dataset to increase the statistical representativeness of critical elements. This method allows a robust statistical comparison between a regional comprehensive dataset and a subset of this regional database. The results from hierarchical Cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were generated and compared with results from the whole dataset. The proposed approach allowed for improvement in the understanding of the chemical evolution pathways of groundwater. Samples from the subset belong to the same flow line from a statistical point of view, and other samples from the database can then be compared with the samples of the subset and discussed according to their stage of evolution. The results obtained after the introduction of fluoride in the multivariate treatment suggest that dissolved fluoride can be gained either from the interaction of groundwater with marine clays or from the interaction of groundwater with Precambrian bedrock aquifers. The results partly explain why the groundwater chemical background of the region is relatively high in fluoride contents, resulting in frequent excess in regards to drinking water standards. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrogeochemistry and Groundwater Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Nitrogen Cycle Dynamics Revealed Through δ18O-NO3 Analysis in California Groundwater
Geosciences 2019, 9(2), 95; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences9020095
Received: 31 December 2018 / Revised: 11 February 2019 / Accepted: 13 February 2019 / Published: 18 February 2019
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Abstract
Nitrate is a significant water-quality issue in California, the United States as a whole, and the world. Critical to addressing nitrate contamination is understanding the presence and extent of denitrification, and further refining the techniques used to identify nitrate sources. The use and [...] Read more.
Nitrate is a significant water-quality issue in California, the United States as a whole, and the world. Critical to addressing nitrate contamination is understanding the presence and extent of denitrification, and further refining the techniques used to identify nitrate sources. The use and understanding of nitrate isotopic signatures to identify nitrate sources have advanced tremendously; however, knowledge gaps remain concerning specific fractionation pathways and the role of denitrification in altering source values. Using a large unique database of California groundwater nitrate isotopic compositions, we explored the utility of nitrate–oxygen isotope ratios in determining specific nitrate origins. Lawrence Livermore National Lab (LLNL) samples were supplemented by United States Geological Society (USGS) data to create a dataset of over 1200 dual-isotope results. Methods used at LLNL allowed for the determination of δ15N-NO3, δ18O-NO3, δ18O-H2O, δ2H-H2O, excess air, major dissolved gases, and excess N2. Results were examined for the degree to which δ18O-NO3 conforms to the model of nitrification in which two atoms of oxygen are sourced from ambient water and one from the atmosphere. Almost 80% of the results fall within one standard deviation of predicted values. However, 19% of samples had significantly higher values, suggesting the preservation of a synthetic nitrate source signature, mixing of sources, or widespread denitrification. Results were examined with respect to general land-use classifications and, while nitrate concentrations followed the expected pattern of being higher in agricultural settings, δ18O-NO3patterns are complicated by application of N-fertilizer in various forms, and subsequent N cycling in the soil zone. We found that the current understanding of oxygen isotope-fractionation mechanisms cannot yet explain the prevalence of oxygen-isotope compositions with higher than predicted δ18O values, but when paired with related data such as land use and indicators of denitrification, oxygen-isotope compositions of nitrate can help to assess nitrogen cycle dynamics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrogeochemistry and Groundwater Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Assessment of the Potential Pollution of the Abidjan Unconfined Aquifer by Hydrocarbons
Geosciences 2019, 9(2), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences9020060
Received: 9 December 2018 / Revised: 17 January 2019 / Accepted: 21 January 2019 / Published: 26 January 2019
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Abstract
A study of the unconfined Continental Terminal aquifer in Abidjan District, located in a coastal sedimentary basin in Southern Côte d’Ivoire (West Africa), is conducted. This aquifer is the principal source of drinking water for the city of Abidjan. The water quality of [...] Read more.
A study of the unconfined Continental Terminal aquifer in Abidjan District, located in a coastal sedimentary basin in Southern Côte d’Ivoire (West Africa), is conducted. This aquifer is the principal source of drinking water for the city of Abidjan. The water quality of the aquifer is affected by anthropogenic sources of pollution, such as scattered deposits of solid and liquid waste of all kinds. Additionally, the proliferation of gas stations, including potential tank leakage, must be considered in the event of an accident. To ensure the effective protection and management of the Abidjan groundwater, this work assesses the groundwater contamination risk of the Abidjan aquifer by hydrocarbons such as benzene. To achieve this objective, a numerical groundwater model that included the geological and hydrogeological data of the Abidjan aquifer was constructed with FEFLOW 7.1. A predictive simulation of groundwater flow coupled with the transport of dissolved benzene deposited on the soil surface at the N’Dotré and Anador gas stations was performed. The initial concentrations of dissolved benzene were 43.12 mg/L and 14.17 mg/L at the N’Dotré and Anador sites, respectively. The results revealed that a threshold concentration of 0.001 mg/L was reached after 44 years and two months at borehole ZE11, which is located four kilometers downgradient from the source. The maximum peak concentration of 0.011 mg/L was reached at this point after 47 years and two months. In this region, 14 other boreholes could be threatened by dissolved benzene pollution based on the simulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrogeochemistry and Groundwater Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Possibility of Groundwater Pollution in Halabja Saidsadiq Hydrogeological Basin, Iraq Using Modified DRASTIC Model Based on AHP and Tritium Isotopes
Geosciences 2018, 8(7), 236; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences8070236
Received: 15 June 2018 / Revised: 25 June 2018 / Accepted: 26 June 2018 / Published: 28 June 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2739 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
An anthropogenic activity is one of the most severe environmental causes for groundwater contamination in the urban area. Groundwater thought to be one of the principal sources of water supply in Halabja Saidsadiq Basin, and therefore its vulnerability evaluation to define areas that [...] Read more.
An anthropogenic activity is one of the most severe environmental causes for groundwater contamination in the urban area. Groundwater thought to be one of the principal sources of water supply in Halabja Saidsadiq Basin, and therefore its vulnerability evaluation to define areas that are more vulnerable to pollution is incredibly vital. The objectives of this paper are to reveal weight modified of DRASTIC model based on the Analytical Hierarchical Process to estimate the proportional likelihood of groundwater resources pollution. Tritium isotopes analysis was chosen and applied as a pollution marker to confirm the result of this adjustment. Based on this modification, vulnerability classes that were achieved for the studied basin were alienated into five classes, including very low, low, medium, high, and very high, with vulnerability index value of (<100, >100–125, >125–150, >150–200, and >200), respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrogeochemistry and Groundwater Management)
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