Special Issue "Isotope Geochemistry of Meteoric Waters"

A special issue of Geosciences (ISSN 2076-3263). This special issue belongs to the section "Geochemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 November 2018).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Zoltán Kern
Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Research Centre for Astronomy and Earth Sciences, Hungary
Interests: quaternary climate and environmental changes; environmental isotopes; dendroclimatology; dendrochemistry; cave ice; time series analysis; geomorphology
Dr. István Fórizs
Website SciProfiles
Guest Editor
Institute for Geological and Geochemical Research, Research Centre for Astronomy and Earth Sciences, MTA, Hungary
Interests: hydrogeology; isotope hydrogeochemistry; stable isotopes; mixing processes; origin of mineral waters

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Water is a vital substance for life and both its quality and quantity are crucial issues.

Environmental isotopes have been extensively used for decades to address key aspects of the water cycle, such as the study of the origin, dynamics and interconnections of, for example, groundwater, surface water, and the atmosphere. This Special Issue aims to gather high-quality original research articles and reviews on recent advances in the understanding of isotope geochemistry of meteoric waters, including stable water isotope characteristics (δ18O, δ2H, d-excess, 17O-excess) of both precipitation and waters with clear meteoric origin (such as infiltrated waters and surface waters), wide spectra of light stable isotopes of dissolved species (such as sulfate, nitrate, carbonate, etc.). Regarding of the crucial information of age in water cycles contributions dealing with radioactive isotopes (3H, 14C, 81Kr, etc.) and radiogenic (4He, etc.) isotopes are also welcomed. This Special Issue invites contributions from all areas where isotope geochemical methods have been applied recently to hydrological/hydrogeological/hydrometeorological problems.

It is recommended that potentially-interested contributors approach the Guest Editors at an early stage about possible submissions in order to verify the appropriateness of their proposed study. If appropriate, an abstract will be requested, and the corresponding author required to submit the full manuscript online by the deadline of 15 November 2018.

Dr. Zoltán Kern
Dr. István Fórizs
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Geosciences is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • environmental isotopes
  • precipitation
  • residence time and transit time
  • dating of water bodies
  • tracing the water cycle
  • recharge and discharge processes
  • mixing processes
  • water pools with different origin
  • hydrogeochemisty

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Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
The Origin of Dissolved Sulphate in the Thermal Waters of Budapest Inferred from Stable S and O Isotopes
Geosciences 2019, 9(10), 433; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences9100433 - 08 Oct 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The thermal waters produced by wells and springs from the Buda Thermal Karst in Budapest and its surroundings are rich in dissolved sulphate. Radiocarbon ages indicate that waters of T >45 ℃ were infiltrated during the Ice Age (more than 11 thousand years [...] Read more.
The thermal waters produced by wells and springs from the Buda Thermal Karst in Budapest and its surroundings are rich in dissolved sulphate. Radiocarbon ages indicate that waters of T >45 ℃ were infiltrated during the Ice Age (more than 11 thousand years ago), on the higher elevations of the Buda-Pilis Hills, whereas waters of lower temperatures were infiltrated during the Holocene. For the origin of dissolved sulphate, two hypotheses can be set up: (1) the dissolved sulphate originates from the oxidation of the sulphide (pyrite) of Oligocene Clay Formation; (2) it is the dissolution product of the sulphate minerals (gypsum and anhydrite) of older carbonaceous rocks (limestone and dolomite). The isotopically stable sulphur composition of the dissolved sulphate in the thermal water (δ34S = 9.7‰ to 17.7‰) indicates its marine origin, so likely it dissolved from the older Permian evaporites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Isotope Geochemistry of Meteoric Waters)
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Open AccessArticle
Key Factors of Precipitation Stable Isotope Fractionation in Central-Eastern Africa and Central Mediterranean
Geosciences 2019, 9(8), 337; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences9080337 - 31 Jul 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The processes of isotope fractionation in the hydrological cycle naturally occur during vapor formation, vapor condensation, and moisture transportation. These processes are therefore dependent on local and regional surface and atmospheric physical features such as temperature, pressure, wind speed, and land morphology, and [...] Read more.
The processes of isotope fractionation in the hydrological cycle naturally occur during vapor formation, vapor condensation, and moisture transportation. These processes are therefore dependent on local and regional surface and atmospheric physical features such as temperature, pressure, wind speed, and land morphology, and hence on the climate. Because of the strong influence of climate on the isotope fractionation, latitudinal and altitudinal effects on the δ18O and δ2H values of precipitation at a global scale are observed. In this study, we present and compare the processes governing precipitation isotope fractionation from two contrasting climatic regions: Virunga in Central-Eastern Africa and the Central Mediterranean (Stromboli and Sicily, Italy). While Virunga is a forested rainy tropical region located between Central and Eastern Africa, the Mediterranean region is characterized by a rainy mild winter and a dry hot summer. The reported δ18O and δ2H dataset are from precipitation collected on rain gauges sampled either on a monthly or an approximately bimonthly basis and published in previous papers. Both regions show clearly defined temporal and altitudinal variations of δ18O and δ2H, depending on precipitation amounts. The Central Mediterranean shows a clear contribution of local vapor forming at the sea–air interface, and Virunga shows a contribution from both local and regional vapor. The vapor of Virunga is from two competing sources: the first is the continental recycled moisture from soil/plant evaporation that dominates during the rainy season, and the second is from the East African Great Lakes evaporation that dominates during the dry season. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Isotope Geochemistry of Meteoric Waters)
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Open AccessArticle
Tracing the Relationship between Precipitation and River Water in the Northern Carpathians Base on the Evaluation of Water Isotope Data
Geosciences 2019, 9(5), 198; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences9050198 - 02 May 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
The aim of this study is to investigate the stable isotope composition of precipitation and river water from the northeastern part of Romania. For this study, we collected monthly samples (for variable periods of time) of precipitation from six stations, and river water [...] Read more.
The aim of this study is to investigate the stable isotope composition of precipitation and river water from the northeastern part of Romania. For this study, we collected monthly samples (for variable periods of time) of precipitation from six stations, and river water from three stations, between March 2012 and December 2017. The precipitation in the area is sourced mainly from the Atlantic Ocean, and secondarily from the Black Sea, local recycling being important especially in summer. We found that the seasonal δ18O in precipitation is in agreement with the seasonal temperature variability, as shown by the significant correlation coefficient between the two variables (r = 0.77), which indicates that the temperature has an important role in the δ18O variability in precipitation water in this region. The local meteoric water line in the northeastern part of Romania is defined by the equation δ2H = 7.80 × δ18O + 7.47, (r2 = 0.99, n = 121). The results presented in this study emphasize that the δ18O (and δ2H) and d-excess variability are strongly influenced by temperature, precipitation and the prevailing large-scale atmospheric circulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Isotope Geochemistry of Meteoric Waters)
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Open AccessArticle
Glaciochemistry of Cave Ice: Paradana and Snežna Caves, Slovenia
Geosciences 2019, 9(2), 94; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences9020094 - 18 Feb 2019
Abstract
Cave ice samples collected within karstic terrain have major ion and nutrient concentrations showing that the ice originates from local precipitation modified by the addition of Ca2+ and HCO3 from the dissolution of the local bedrock. Isotopic profiles of Paradana [...] Read more.
Cave ice samples collected within karstic terrain have major ion and nutrient concentrations showing that the ice originates from local precipitation modified by the addition of Ca2+ and HCO3 from the dissolution of the local bedrock. Isotopic profiles of Paradana Cave ice are similar to those described in other ice caves in central and eastern Europe, where the profiles are developed through the freezing of cave pool or “lake” waters from the top downward during the onset of the cold portion of the year. Stable isotope data suggest future studies may yield a long-term paleo-environmental record for this location. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Isotope Geochemistry of Meteoric Waters)
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Open AccessArticle
Intrusion of Saline Water into a Coastal Aquifer Containing Palaeogroundwater in the Viimsi Peninsula in Estonia
Geosciences 2019, 9(1), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences9010047 - 17 Jan 2019
Abstract
The Viimsi peninsula is located north-east of Tallinn, capital of Estonia. The Cambrian-Vendian (Cm-V) aquifer system is a sole source of drinking water in the area. Historically, the groundwater exploitation has led to freshening of groundwater in the peninsula, but in recent years [...] Read more.
The Viimsi peninsula is located north-east of Tallinn, capital of Estonia. The Cambrian-Vendian (Cm-V) aquifer system is a sole source of drinking water in the area. Historically, the groundwater exploitation has led to freshening of groundwater in the peninsula, but in recent years an increase in chloride concentrations and enrichment in δ18O values has been detected, but in recent years hydrochemical parameters indicate an increasing influence of a saline water source. The exact origin of this saline water has remained unclear. The aim of the current study is to elucidate whether the increase in Cl concentrations is related to seawater intrusion or to the infiltration of saline water from the underlying crystalline basement. To identify the source of salinity, chemical composition of the groundwater and the isotope tracers (e.g., δ18O and radium isotopes) were studied in the Viimsi peninsula in the period from 1987 to 2018. Our results show that chemical composition of Cm-V groundwater in the peninsula is clearly controlled by three-component mixing between glacial palaeogroundwater, saline water from the underling crystalline basement and modern meteoric water. The concentrations of Ra are also significantly affected by the mixing, but the spatial variation of radium isotopes (226Ra and 228Ra) suggests the widespread occurrence of the U in the surrounding sedimentary sequence. Our hypothesis is that, in addition to U originating from the crystalline basement, some U could be associated with secondary U deposits in sedimentary rocks. The formation of these secondary U deposits could be related to glacial meltwater intrusion in the Pleistocene. Although the results suggest that the infiltration of saline groundwater from the underlying crystalline basement as the main source of salinity in the study area, the risk of seawater intrusion in the future cannot be ruled out. It needs to be highlighted that the present groundwater monitoring networks may not be precise enough to detect the potential seawater intrusion and subsequent changes in water quality of the Cm-V aquifer system in the Viimsi peninsula. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Isotope Geochemistry of Meteoric Waters)
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