Special Issue "Wood Protection and Preservation"

A special issue of Forests (ISSN 1999-4907). This special issue belongs to the section "Forest Ecophysiology and Biology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 November 2019.

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
PD Dr. Christian Brischke Website E-Mail
Wood Biology and Wood Products, University of Goettingen, Buesgenweg 4, D-37077 Goettingen, Germany
Interests: wood properties & forest entomology; forest pathology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Globally, the use of non-renewable resources needs to be reduced. In this respect, wood and wood-based products can play a key role as they are generally low in embodied CO2 and can be gained from sustainable forest resources. Wood has numerous advantages compared to other building materials, such as a high strength–weight ratio, good thermal insulation, easy machinability, and appealing aesthetics. However, its durability against different biological agents is limited and requires consideration when wood is exposed to moisture, and thus to favorable conditions for decay.

In highly hazardous applications, the natural durability of wood can be insufficient, and wooden elements need to be protected by design. Alternatively, wood durability can be enhanced through wood preservatives or modification systems. During recent years, several highly effective wood preservatives have been banned in different countries, as they harm human health and the environment. Innovative approaches for improving wood durability are being sought.

We encourage studies from all fields, including method development, experimental studies, monitoring approaches, and models, to contribute to this Special Issue, in order to promote knowledge about wood durability mechanisms and strategies for the protection and preservation of wooden structures and wood-based building materials.

PD Dr. Christian Brischke
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Forests is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Biological durability
  • Decay Fungi
  • Wood borers
  • Wood protection by design
  • Wood preservatives
  • Chemical wood modification
  • Thermal wood modification
  • Water repellants
  • Test methods
  • Service life planning
  • Performance specification

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Wood Surface Changes of Heat-Treated Cunninghamia lanceolate Following Natural Weathering
Forests 2019, 10(9), 791; https://doi.org/10.3390/f10090791 - 11 Sep 2019
Abstract
To quickly clarify the effect of heat treatment on weatherability of Cunninghamia lanceolate (Lamb.) Hook., we investigated the surface degradation under natural exposure. A comparison between heat-treated and untreated samples was taken based on surface color changes and structural decay at each interval. [...] Read more.
To quickly clarify the effect of heat treatment on weatherability of Cunninghamia lanceolate (Lamb.) Hook., we investigated the surface degradation under natural exposure. A comparison between heat-treated and untreated samples was taken based on surface color changes and structural decay at each interval. Over four weeks of natural exposure, multiple measurements were carried out. Results show that color change decreased in the order of 220 °C heat-treated > untreated > 190 °C heat-treated. The results also indicate that the wood surface color stability was improved via the proper temperature of thermal modification. Low vacuum scanning electron microscopy (LVSEM) results expressed that thermal modification itself had caused shrinking in the wood surface structure. From the beginning of the weathering process, the heat treatment affected the surface structural stability. After natural exposure, the degree of wood structure decay followed the pattern 220 °C heat-treated > 190 °C heat-treated > untreated. Therefore, when considering the impact on the structure, thermal modification treatment as a protective measure to prevent weathering was not an ideal approach and requires further improvement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wood Protection and Preservation)
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Open AccessArticle
Wetting Behavior of Alder (Alnus cordata (Loisel) Duby) Wood Surface: Effect of Thermo-Treatment and Alkyl Ketene Dimer (AKD)
Forests 2019, 10(9), 770; https://doi.org/10.3390/f10090770 - 05 Sep 2019
Abstract
The main purpose of this study was to investigate the hydrophobic effect and chemical changes induced by thermo-treatment and alkyl ketene dimer (AKD) on the surface properties of Alder (Alnus cordata (Loisel) Duby) wood before and after an artificial weathering test. Thermal [...] Read more.
The main purpose of this study was to investigate the hydrophobic effect and chemical changes induced by thermo-treatment and alkyl ketene dimer (AKD) on the surface properties of Alder (Alnus cordata (Loisel) Duby) wood before and after an artificial weathering test. Thermal treatment was conducted at a temperature of 200 °C for 4 h in a thermo-vacuum cylinder. Then, the paper sizing agent, AKD at different concentrations of a solution of 0.1%, 0.5% and 10% was used as a potential hydrophobizing reagent for untreated and thermally treated alder wood surfaces. The contact angle measurement, ATR-FTIR analysis and colour variation were carried out for the samples. The preliminary results revealed that the contact angle values of the wood materials increased with thermal modification. However, the influence of the thermal treatment on hydrophobicity was small when compared to the substantial effect of the AKD application in this respect, and also after the artificial weathering test. The FTIR analysis supported the hypothesis that AKD could make bonds chemically stable even when using a small concentration of AKD. The findings acquired in this work provide important information for future research and the utilization of the AKD on lesser-used wood species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wood Protection and Preservation)
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Open AccessArticle
On the Effect of Heat Treatments on the Adhesion, Finishing and Decay Resistance of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) and Formosa acacia (Acacia confuse Merr.(Leguminosae))
Forests 2019, 10(7), 586; https://doi.org/10.3390/f10070586 - 13 Jul 2019
Abstract
In Taiwan, it is important to maintain sustainable development of the forestry industry in order to raise the self-sufficiency of domestic timber. Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria D. Don and Formosa acacia (Acacia confusa Merr.(Leguminosae)) have abundant storage options and are the potential [...] Read more.
In Taiwan, it is important to maintain sustainable development of the forestry industry in order to raise the self-sufficiency of domestic timber. Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria D. Don and Formosa acacia (Acacia confusa Merr.(Leguminosae)) have abundant storage options and are the potential candidates for this purpose. Heat treatment is a new environment-friendly method used to enhance the dimensional stability and durability of wood. On treatment, a surface with new characteristics is produced because of wood component changes. Consequently, an inactivated surface and a weak boundary layer are generated, and the wettability for adhesives and coatings is reduced. Furthermore, it decreases the pH value of the wood surface, and results in delay or acceleration during the curing of adhesives. This phenomenon must be paid attention to for practical applications of heat-treated wood. Ideal heat-treated conditions of C. japonica and A. confusa woods with productive parameters such as temperature, holding time, heating rate, and thicknesses of wood were identified in our previous study. In this research work, we focus on the normal shear strength of heat-treated wood with adhesives such as urea-formaldehyde resin (UF) and polyvinyl acetate (PVAc), and the finishing performances of heat-treated wood with polyurethane (PU) and nitrocellulose lacquer (NC) coatings as well as assessing the decay-resistance of heat-treated wood. The results show that heat-treated wood had a better decay resistance than untreated wood. The mass decrease of heat-treated wood was only 1/3 or even less than the untreated wood. The normal shear strength of heat-treated wood with UF and PVAc decreased from 99% to 72% compared to the untreated wood, but the wood failure of heat-treated wood was higher than that of the untreated one. Furthermore, the adhesion and impact resistance of wood finished by PU and NC coatings showed no difference between the heat-treated wood and untreated wood. The finished heat-treated wood had a superior durability and better gloss retention and lightfastness than that of the untreated wood. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wood Protection and Preservation)
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Open AccessArticle
Impact of Water Holding Capacity and Moisture Content of Soil Substrates on the Moisture Content of Wood in Terrestrial Microcosms
Forests 2019, 10(6), 485; https://doi.org/10.3390/f10060485 - 04 Jun 2019
Abstract
Terrestrial microcosms (TMCs) are frequently used for testing the durability of wood and wood-based materials, as well as the protective effectiveness of wood preservatives. In contrary to experiments in soil ecology sciences, the experimental setup is usually rather simple. However, for service life [...] Read more.
Terrestrial microcosms (TMCs) are frequently used for testing the durability of wood and wood-based materials, as well as the protective effectiveness of wood preservatives. In contrary to experiments in soil ecology sciences, the experimental setup is usually rather simple. However, for service life prediction of wood exposed in ground, it is of imminent interest to better understand the different parameters defining the boundary conditions in TMCs. This study focused, therefore, on soil–wood–moisture interactions. Terrestrial microcosms were prepared from the same compost substrate with varying water holding capacities (WHCs) and soil moisture contents (MCsoil). Wood specimens were exposed to 48 TMCs with varying WHCs and MCsoil. The wood moisture content (MCwood) was studied as well as its distribution within the specimens. For this purpose, the compost substrate was mixed with sand and peat and its WHC was determined using two methods in comparison, i.e., the “droplet counting method” and the “cylinder sand bath method” in which the latter turned out advantageous over the other. The MCwood increased generally with rising MCsoil, but WHC was often negatively correlated with MCwood. The distance to water saturation Ssoil from which MCwood increased most intensively was found to be wood-species specific and might, therefore, require further consideration in soil-bed durability-testing and service life modelling of wood in soil contact. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wood Protection and Preservation)
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