Special Issue "Gluten-Free Foods"

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2016).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Manuela Mariotti
E-Mail
Guest Editor
Department of Food, Environmental and Nutritional Sciences (DeFENS), Università degli Studi di Milano, via G. Celoria 2, 20133 Milan, Italy
Interests: food science and technology; cereal science and technology; cereals; minor cereals; pseudocereals; baked foods; bread; pasta

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

All those involved in the consumption or production of gluten-free foods know how challenging and demanding this topic is. Celiac disease (CD) has been identified to be one of the most common lifelong disorders on a worldwide basis, and it affects about 1% of the world population. It is an immune-mediated enteropathy triggered by the ingestion of gluten (and similar proteins from wheat, rye, barley, triticale, and possibly oats) in genetically susceptible individuals, which results in immunologically mediated inflammatory damage to the small intestinal mucosa. Currently, the total lifelong avoidance of gluten ingestion remains the cornerstone treatment for CD. In addition, a significant percentage of the general population report problems caused by wheat and/or gluten ingestion, even though they do not have CD. Because gluten is the essential building structure of many foods, and largely contributes to the appearance and structure of several products, finding alternatives to gluten’s unique properties is a great challenge, not only for consumers suffering from gluten-related disorders, but also for food scientists and industries as well. Several studies focus on the examination of alternative ingredients, and novel processing techniques (e.g., the enzymatic approach, high hydrostatic pressure, extrusion, etc.) are being investigated as promising alternatives for improving gluten-free foods properties. This Special Issue of Foods will focus on these topics. We look forward to your valuable contributions.

Dr. Manuela Mariotti
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • celiac disease
  • non-celiac gluten sensitivity
  • wheat allergy
  • gluten-free foods rheology, structure, and texture
  • nutritional aspects of gluten-free foods
  • sensory aspects of gluten-free foods
  • novel approaches in the production of gluten-free foods
  • gluten-free foods marketing and labeling

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Gluten-Free Bread: Influence of Sourdough and Compressed Yeast on Proofing and Baking Properties
Foods 2016, 5(4), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods5040069 - 23 Oct 2016
Cited by 3
Abstract
The use of sourdough is the oldest biotechnological process to leaven baked goods, and it represents a suitable technology to improve traditional bread texture, aroma, and shelf life. A limited number of studies concerning the use of sourdough in gluten-free (GF) breadmaking have [...] Read more.
The use of sourdough is the oldest biotechnological process to leaven baked goods, and it represents a suitable technology to improve traditional bread texture, aroma, and shelf life. A limited number of studies concerning the use of sourdough in gluten-free (GF) breadmaking have been published in comparison to those on traditional bread. The aim of this study was to compare the properties of GF breads obtained by using a previously in-lab developed GF-sourdough (SD), compressed yeast (CY; Saccharomyces cerevisiae) or their mixture (SDCY) as leavening agents; more specifically, it aims to confirm the findings of a previous studies and to further improve (both in terms of recipe and process) the features of the resulting GF breads. Dough pH and rheological properties were measured. Fresh and stored breads were characterized for weight, height, specific volume, crust and crumb color, moisture, water activity, crumb hardness, and porosity. The combination SDCY was effective in improving bread volume and softness when compared to SD only. Furthermore, SD- and SDCY-crumbs exhibited a less crumbly behavior during storage (69 h, 25 °C, 60% of relative humidity) in comparison to CY-breads. This study confirms the positive effect of SD in GF breadmaking, in particular when used in combination with CY. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gluten-Free Foods)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Two-Step Transamidation of Wheat Semolina on the Technological Properties of Gluten
Foods 2016, 5(3), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods5030049 - 29 Jun 2016
Cited by 1
Abstract
Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated disorder caused by the ingestion of wheat gluten. A lifelong, gluten-free diet is required to alleviate symptoms and to normalize the intestinal mucosa. We previously found that transamidation reaction by microbial transglutaminase (mTG) was effective in down-regulating [...] Read more.
Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated disorder caused by the ingestion of wheat gluten. A lifelong, gluten-free diet is required to alleviate symptoms and to normalize the intestinal mucosa. We previously found that transamidation reaction by microbial transglutaminase (mTG) was effective in down-regulating the gliadin-specific immune response in CD patients. In this study, the two-step transamidation protocol was adopted to treat commercial wheat semolina on a pilot scale. The effectiveness of the enzymatic reaction was tested by means of consolidated biochemical and immunological methods on isolated prolamins. We found that water-insoluble gliadin and glutenin yields decreased in wheat semolina to 5.9% ± 0.3% and 11.6% ± 0.1%, respectively, after a two-step transamidation reaction. Using DQ8 transgenic mice as a model of gluten sensitivity, we observed a dramatic reduction in IFN-γ production in spleen cells challenged in vitro with the residual insoluble gliadin from transamidated semolina (N = 6; median values: 850 vs. 102; control vs. transamidated semolina, p < 0.05). The technological properties of treated wheat semolina were then tested by manufacturing classical pasta (spaghetti). Notably, the spaghetti manufactured with transamidated semolina had only minor changes in its features before and after cooking. In conclusion, the two-step transamidation reaction modified the immunogenic epitopes of gliadins also on a pilot-scale level without influencing the main technological properties of semolina. Our data shed further light on a detoxification strategy alternative to the current gluten-free diet and may have important implications for the management of CD patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gluten-Free Foods)
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Open AccessArticle
Soybean-Enriched Snacks Based on African Rice
Foods 2016, 5(2), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods5020038 - 20 May 2016
Cited by 3
Abstract
Snacks were produced by extruding blends of partially-defatted soybean flour with flours from milled or parboiled African-grown rice. The interplay between composition and processing in producing snacks with a satisfactory sensory profile was addressed by e-sensing, and by molecular and rheological approaches. Soybean [...] Read more.
Snacks were produced by extruding blends of partially-defatted soybean flour with flours from milled or parboiled African-grown rice. The interplay between composition and processing in producing snacks with a satisfactory sensory profile was addressed by e-sensing, and by molecular and rheological approaches. Soybean proteins play a main role in defining the properties of the protein network in the products. At the same content in soybean flour, use of parboiled rice flour increases the snack’s hardness. Electronic nose and electronic tongue discriminated samples containing a higher amount of soybean flour from those with a lower soybean flour content. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gluten-Free Foods)
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Open AccessCommunication
Preparation of a Breadfruit Flour Bar
Foods 2016, 5(2), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods5020037 - 20 May 2016
Cited by 3
Abstract
Breadfruit is a nutritious, high energy food with a low quantity of protein but excellent protein quality. It has the potential to be developed into desired products which will help increase its utilization and add value to the crop. The overall purposes of [...] Read more.
Breadfruit is a nutritious, high energy food with a low quantity of protein but excellent protein quality. It has the potential to be developed into desired products which will help increase its utilization and add value to the crop. The overall purposes of this investigation were to develop a portable, nutritious, ready-to-eat breadfruit product (bar), test the sensory qualities of the product, and evaluate the nutritional properties of the product. Flour made from the Micronesian variety, Meinpadahk (Artocarpus altilis × Artocarpus mariannensis), was utilized for the development of the breadfruit bar. Breadfruit is a rich source of fiber, vitamins such as vitamin C, minerals such as potassium, and phytochemicals such as flavonoids. Nutritional labeling indicates that the breadfruit bar is high in carbohydrates and low in fat, and sensory evaluation indicates that 81% of the panelists found the bar acceptable while 19% disliked the bar. The breadfruit bar can provide an appealing and inexpensive gluten-free food source based on locally available breadfruit. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gluten-Free Foods)
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Open AccessArticle
Fundamental Study on the Impact of Gluten-Free Starches on the Quality of Gluten-Free Model Breads
Foods 2016, 5(2), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods5020030 - 21 Apr 2016
Cited by 22
Abstract
Starch is widely used as an ingredient and significantly contributes to texture, appearance, and overall acceptability of cereal based foods, playing an important role due to its ability to form a matrix, entrapping air bubbles. A detailed characterisation of five gluten-free starches (corn, [...] Read more.
Starch is widely used as an ingredient and significantly contributes to texture, appearance, and overall acceptability of cereal based foods, playing an important role due to its ability to form a matrix, entrapping air bubbles. A detailed characterisation of five gluten-free starches (corn, wheat, rice, tapioca, potato) was performed in this study. In addition, the influence of these starches, with different compositional and morphological properties, was evaluated on a simple gluten-free model bread system. The morphological characterisation, evaluated using scanning electron microscopy, revealed some similarities among the starches, which could be linked to the baking performance of the breads. Moreover, the lipid content, though representing one of the minor components in starch, was found to have an influence on pasting, bread making, and staling. Quality differences in cereal root and tuber starch based breads were observed. However, under the baking conditions used, gluten-free rendered wheat starch performed best, followed by potato starch, in terms of loaf volume and cell structure. Tapioca starch and rice starch based breads were not further analysed, due to an inferior baking performance. This is the first study to evaluate gluten-free starch on a simple model bread system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gluten-Free Foods)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Overview on the General Approaches to Improve Gluten-Free Pasta and Bread
Foods 2016, 5(4), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods5040087 - 09 Dec 2016
Cited by 19
Abstract
The use of gluten-free products is increasing since a growing number of people are suffering from celiac disease and thereby need gluten-free diet. Gluten is responsible for the visco-elastic characteristics of wheat-based products; therefore, its lack makes the gluten-free products not similar to [...] Read more.
The use of gluten-free products is increasing since a growing number of people are suffering from celiac disease and thereby need gluten-free diet. Gluten is responsible for the visco-elastic characteristics of wheat-based products; therefore, its lack makes the gluten-free products not similar to wheat-based product, with scarce textural properties. This reason constitutes the major industrial limitation. Thus, obtaining good-quality gluten-free products represents a technological challenge. This review reports the main strategies adopted to produce high quality gluten-free pasta and bread. They are mainly obtained by the utilization of specific ingredients (hydrocolloids, proteins or enzymes) to be incorporated into the standard formulation or the adoption of proper technological variables that can enhance above all the functional properties, the texture and the taste. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gluten-Free Foods)
Open AccessReview
Sourdough-Based Biotechnologies for the Production of Gluten-Free Foods
Foods 2016, 5(3), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods5030065 - 20 Sep 2016
Cited by 9
Abstract
Sourdough fermentation, a traditional biotechnology for making leavened baked goods, was almost completely replaced by the use of baker’s yeast and chemical leavening agents in the last century. Recently, it has been rediscovered by the scientific community, consumers, and producers, thanks to several [...] Read more.
Sourdough fermentation, a traditional biotechnology for making leavened baked goods, was almost completely replaced by the use of baker’s yeast and chemical leavening agents in the last century. Recently, it has been rediscovered by the scientific community, consumers, and producers, thanks to several effects on organoleptic, technological, nutritional, and functional features of cereal-based products. Acidification, proteolysis, and activation of endogenous enzymes cause several changes during sourdough fermentation, carried out by lactic acid bacteria and yeasts, which positively affect the overall quality of the baked goods. In particular, the hydrolysis of native proteins of the cereal flours may improve the functional features of baked goods. The wheat flour processed with fungal proteases and selected lactic acid bacteria was demonstrated to be safe for coeliac patients. This review article focuses on the biotechnologies that use selected sourdough lactic acid bacteria to potentially counteract the adverse reactions to gluten, and the risk of gluten contamination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gluten-Free Foods)
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Open AccessReview
Microbial Proteases in Baked Goods: Modification of Gluten and Effects on Immunogenicity and Product Quality
Foods 2016, 5(3), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods5030059 - 30 Aug 2016
Cited by 2
Abstract
Gluten-related diseases are a range of inflammatory disorders of the small intestine, characterized by an adverse response to gluten ingestion; therefore, the treatment is a gluten withdrawal. In spite of the increased market of gluten-free products, widely available breads with high acceptability are [...] Read more.
Gluten-related diseases are a range of inflammatory disorders of the small intestine, characterized by an adverse response to gluten ingestion; therefore, the treatment is a gluten withdrawal. In spite of the increased market of gluten-free products, widely available breads with high acceptability are still missing due to the technological challenge of substituting the special gluten properties. Instead of using alternative ingredients for baking, some attempts have been done to decrease gluten immunogenicity by its enzymatic degradation with microbial proteases. Although the gluten immunogenicity reduction has been reached to an acceptable level, some quality parameters of the products are affected. This review focus on the use of microbial peptidases to prepare less immunogenic baked goods and their effect on product quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gluten-Free Foods)
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Open AccessReview
Calcium in Gluten-Free Life: Health-Related and Nutritional Implications
Foods 2016, 5(3), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods5030051 - 15 Jul 2016
Cited by 6
Abstract
Calcium deficiency and metabolic bone diseases are a frequent co-morbidity of coeliac disease (CD). Gluten-free diet (GFD) is the only effective treatment of CD. However, CD patients on the strict GFD consume less than the recommended amounts of calcium. In this review, the [...] Read more.
Calcium deficiency and metabolic bone diseases are a frequent co-morbidity of coeliac disease (CD). Gluten-free diet (GFD) is the only effective treatment of CD. However, CD patients on the strict GFD consume less than the recommended amounts of calcium. In this review, the main etiological factors responsible for calcium deficiency in CD were presented. Additionally, the research on the application of calcium supplements in the gluten-free breadmaking was reviewed, and its effect on the technological and sensory properties of baked products was indicated. Calcium-fortified gluten-free products could increase the calcium content in the diet of CD patients, supplying the amount of calcium they need for prophylactic or therapeutic use. Apart from this, the consumption of the naturally GF products as well as functional ingredients beneficially affecting calcium absorption need to be encouraged. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gluten-Free Foods)
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