Mushroom Biotechnology in Food Industry

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Biotechnology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2024) | Viewed by 19604

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College of Bioscience and Bioengineering, Jiangxi Agricultural University, 1101 Zhimin Road, Nanchang 330045, China
Interests: mushroom; edible fungi
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Dear Colleagues,

The worldwide production of cultivated, edible mushrooms and truffles has multiplied more than three times in the past 20 years, reaching more than 40 million tonnes. In recent years, mushroom biotechnology has been rapidly developed. These mushroom biotechnologies include the aseptic technique, submerged cultivation, recycling of agri-food wastes, molecular biotechnologies, separation and extraction technology, environmental control technology, etc. However, mushroom biotechnology in the food industry has not received due attention, and this has become one of the factors limiting the rapid development of mushroom biotechnology and food biotechnology.

This Special Issue of Foods, entitled “Mushroom Biotechnology in Food Industry”, aims to focus on the latest research progress on mushroom biotechnology in the food industry, as well as advanced techniques that help to enhance mushroom- or food-related research. The scope of this Special Issue covers a wide range of research on mushroom biotechnology from breeding and cultivation to product processing. Authors are welcome to submit both articles and review papers.

Dr. Dianming Hu
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • cultivation
  • fermentation
  • fruiting body
  • fungus
  • molecular biotechnology
  • mushroom
  • mycelium

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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12 pages, 1315 KiB  
Article
Innovative Approaches to Fungal Food Production: Mycelial Pellet Morphology Insights
by Chih-Yu Cheng, Yu-Sheng Wang, Zhong-Liang Wang and Sidra Bibi
Foods 2023, 12(18), 3477; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12183477 - 19 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1721
Abstract
Mycelia products enhance edible mushrooms in alignment with future sustainability trends. To meet forthcoming market demands, the morphology of mycelial pellets was optimized for direct consumption. Among ten commercial edible mushrooms in Taiwan, Pleurotus sp. was selected for its rapid growth and was [...] Read more.
Mycelia products enhance edible mushrooms in alignment with future sustainability trends. To meet forthcoming market demands, the morphology of mycelial pellets was optimized for direct consumption. Among ten commercial edible mushrooms in Taiwan, Pleurotus sp. was selected for its rapid growth and was identified via an internal transcribed spacer sequence. A combination of Plackett-Burman design and Taguchi’s L9(34) orthogonal table revealed the optimal formula as potato dextrose broth (2.4%), olive oil (2%), calcium carbonate (0.5%), yeast extract (0.75%), and soy flour (0.5%). This led to a biomass increase to 19.9 ± 1.1 g/L, resulting in a 2.17-fold yield increase. To refine morphology, image processing by ImageJ quantified spherical characteristics. The addition of 0.2 to 1.0% Tween 80 enhanced pellet compaction by over 50%. Dilution of the medium improved uniformity (0.85) and conversion rate (42%), yielding mycelial pellets with 2.10 ± 0.52 mm diameters and a yield of 15.1 ± 0.6 g/L. These findings provide an alternative evaluation and application of edible mycelial pellets as future food. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mushroom Biotechnology in Food Industry)
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16 pages, 7636 KiB  
Article
Identification of Eight High Yielding Strains via Morpho-Molecular Characterization of Thirty-Three Wild Strains of Calocybe indica
by Manoj Nath, Anupam Barh, Annu Sharma, Parul Verma, Rakesh Kumar Bairwa, Shwet Kamal, Ved Prakash Sharma, Sudheer Kumar Annepu, Kanika Sharma, Deepesh Bhatt, Pankaj Bhatt, Dharmesh Gupta and Akoijam Ratankumar Singh
Foods 2023, 12(11), 2119; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12112119 - 24 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1210
Abstract
Calocybe indica, generally referred as milky mushroom, is one of the edible mushroom species suitable for cultivation in the tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. However, lack of potential high yielding strains has limited its wider adaptability. To overcome this limitation, [...] Read more.
Calocybe indica, generally referred as milky mushroom, is one of the edible mushroom species suitable for cultivation in the tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. However, lack of potential high yielding strains has limited its wider adaptability. To overcome this limitation, in this study, the germplasms of C. indica from different geographical regions of India were characterized based on their morphological, molecular and agronomical attributes. Internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS4)-based PCR amplification, sequencing and nucleotide analysis confirmed the identity of all the studied strains as C. indica. Further, evaluation of these strains for morphological and yield parameters led to the identification of eight high yielding strains in comparison to the control (DMRO-302). Moreover, genetic diversity analysis of these thirty-three strains was performed using ten sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) markers/combinations. The Unweighted Pair-group Method with Arithmetic Averages (UPGMA)-based phylogenetic analysis categorized the thirty-three strains along with the control into three clusters. Cluster I possesses the maximum number of strains. Among the high yielding strains, high antioxidant activity and phenol content was recorded in DMRO-54, while maximum protein content was observed in DMRO-202 and DMRO-299 as compared with the control strain. The outcome of this study will help the mushroom breeders and growers in commercializing C. indica. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mushroom Biotechnology in Food Industry)
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13 pages, 1084 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Immune Modulation by β-1,3; 1,6 D-Glucan Derived from Ganoderma lucidum in Healthy Adult Volunteers, A Randomized Controlled Trial
by Shiu-Nan Chen, Fan-Hua Nan, Ming-Wei Liu, Min-Feng Yang, Ya-Chih Chang and Sherwin Chen
Foods 2023, 12(3), 659; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12030659 - 3 Feb 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3492
Abstract
Fungi-derived β-glucan, a type of glucopolysaccharide, has been shown to possess immune-modulatory properties in clinical settings. Studies have indicated that β-glucan derived from Ganoderma lucidum (commonly known as Reishi) holds particular promise in this regard, both in laboratory and in vivo settings. To [...] Read more.
Fungi-derived β-glucan, a type of glucopolysaccharide, has been shown to possess immune-modulatory properties in clinical settings. Studies have indicated that β-glucan derived from Ganoderma lucidum (commonly known as Reishi) holds particular promise in this regard, both in laboratory and in vivo settings. To further investigate the efficacy and safety of Reishi β-glucan in human subjects, a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted among healthy adult volunteers aged 18 to 55. Participants were instructed to self-administer the interventions or placebos on a daily basis for 84 days, with bloodwork assessments conducted at the beginning and end of the study. The results of the trial showed that subjects in the intervention group, who received Reishi β-glucan, exhibited a significant enhancement in various immune cell populations, including CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ T-lymphocytes, as well as an improvement in the CD4/CD8 ratio and natural killer cell counts when compared to the placebo group. Additionally, a statistically significant difference was observed in serum immunoglobulin A levels and natural killer cell cytotoxicity between the intervention and placebo groups. Notably, the intervention was found to be safe and well tolerated, with no statistically significant changes observed in markers of kidney or liver function in either group. Overall, the study provides evidence for the ability of Reishi β-glucan to modulate immune responses in healthy adults, thereby potentially bolstering their defense against opportunistic infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mushroom Biotechnology in Food Industry)
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14 pages, 2768 KiB  
Article
A Novel Strain Breeding of Ganoderma lucidum UV119 (Agaricomycetes) with High Spores Yield and Strong Resistant Ability to Other Microbes’ Invasions
by Chuanhong Tang, Yi Tan, Jingsong Zhang, Shuai Zhou, Yoichi Honda and Henan Zhang
Foods 2023, 12(3), 465; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12030465 - 19 Jan 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2519
Abstract
The spore powder of Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum) has been proven to have a variety of pharmacological activities, and it has become a new resource for the development of health products and pharmaceuticals. However, the scarcity of natural resources, strict growth [...] Read more.
The spore powder of Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum) has been proven to have a variety of pharmacological activities, and it has become a new resource for the development of health products and pharmaceuticals. However, the scarcity of natural resources, strict growth conditions and difficulty in controlling the stable yield, and quality of different culture batches seriously limit the development and utilization of G. lucidum spore powder. In the present study, the strain with the highest spore powder yield, G0109, was selected as the original strain to generate mutants of G. lucidum using ultraviolet ray irradiation. A total of 165 mutagenic strains were obtained, and fifty-five strains were chosen for the cultivation test. Importantly, one mutagenic strain with high spore powder yield and strong resistance to undesired microorganisms was acquired and named strain UV119. More cultivations demonstrated that the fruiting body and basidiospore yields from UV119 were, respectively, 8.67% and 19.27% higher than those of the parent (G0109), and the basidiospore yield was 20.56% higher than that of the current main cultivar “Longzhi No.1”. In conclusion, this study suggested that ultraviolet ray irradiation is an efficient and practical method for Ganoderma strain improvement and thus provided a basis for the development and application of G. lucidum spore production and outstanding contributions to the rapid development of the G. lucidum industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mushroom Biotechnology in Food Industry)
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12 pages, 837 KiB  
Article
Bioactive Metabolites from the Fruiting Body and Mycelia of Newly-Isolated Oyster Mushroom and Their Effect on Smooth Muscle Contractile Activity
by Mariya Brazkova, Galena Angelova, Dasha Mihaylova, Petya Stefanova, Mina Pencheva, Vera Gledacheva, Iliyana Stefanova and Albert Krastanov
Foods 2022, 11(24), 3983; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11243983 - 9 Dec 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2418
Abstract
Higher basidiomycetes are recognized as functional foods due to their bioactive compound content, which exerts various beneficial effects on human health, and which have been used as sources for the development of natural medicines and nutraceuticals for centuries. The aim of this study [...] Read more.
Higher basidiomycetes are recognized as functional foods due to their bioactive compound content, which exerts various beneficial effects on human health, and which have been used as sources for the development of natural medicines and nutraceuticals for centuries. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the biological potential of basidiocarp and mycelial biomass produced by submerged cultivation of a new regionally isolated oyster mushroom. The strain was identified with a high percentage of confidence (99.30%) as Pleurotus ostreatus and was deposited in the GenBank under accession number MW 996755. The β-glucan content in the basidiocarp and the obtained mycelial biomass was 31.66% and 12.04%, respectively. Three mycelial biomass and basidiocarp extracts were prepared, and the highest total polyphenol content (5.68 ± 0.15 mg GAE/g DW and 3.20 ± 0.04 mg GAE/g DW) was found in the water extract for both the fruiting body and the mycelium biomass. The in vitro antioxidant activity of the extracts was investigated, and it was determined that the water extracts exhibited the most potent radical scavenging activity. The potential ability of this new fungal isolate to affect the contractile activity (CA) of dissected smooth muscle preparations (SMP) was examined for the first time. It was found that oyster mushrooms likely exhibit indirect contractile effects on the gastric smooth muscle (SM) cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mushroom Biotechnology in Food Industry)
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Review

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26 pages, 8358 KiB  
Review
Biotechnological Applications of Mushrooms under the Water-Energy-Food Nexus: Crucial Aspects and Prospects from Farm to Pharmacy
by Xhensila Llanaj, Gréta Törős, Péter Hajdú, Neama Abdalla, Hassan El-Ramady, Attila Kiss, Svein Ø. Solberg and József Prokisch
Foods 2023, 12(14), 2671; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12142671 - 11 Jul 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 4035
Abstract
Mushrooms have always been an important source of food, with high nutritional value and medicinal attributes. With the use of biotechnological applications, mushrooms have gained further attention as a source of healthy food and bioenergy. This review presents different biotechnological applications and explores [...] Read more.
Mushrooms have always been an important source of food, with high nutritional value and medicinal attributes. With the use of biotechnological applications, mushrooms have gained further attention as a source of healthy food and bioenergy. This review presents different biotechnological applications and explores how these can support global food, energy, and water security. It highlights mushroom’s relevance to meet the sustainable development goals of the UN. This review also discusses mushroom farming and its requirements. The biotechnology review includes sections on how to use mushrooms in producing nanoparticles, bioenergy, and bioactive compounds, as well as how to use mushrooms in bioremediation. The different applications are discussed under the water, energy, and food (WEF) nexus. As far as we know, this is the first report on mushroom biotechnology and its relationships to the WEF nexus. Finally, the review valorizes mushroom biotechnology and suggests different possibilities for mushroom farming integration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mushroom Biotechnology in Food Industry)
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17 pages, 297 KiB  
Review
Functional Components from the Liquid Fermentation of Edible and Medicinal Fungi and Their Food Applications in China
by Meng-Qiu Yan, Jie Feng, Yan-Fang Liu, Dian-Ming Hu and Jing-Song Zhang
Foods 2023, 12(10), 2086; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12102086 - 22 May 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3064
Abstract
Functional raw materials rich in various effective nutrients and active ingredients that are of stable quality can be obtained from the liquid fermentation of edible and medicinal fungi. In this review, we systematically summarize the main findings of this comparative study that compared [...] Read more.
Functional raw materials rich in various effective nutrients and active ingredients that are of stable quality can be obtained from the liquid fermentation of edible and medicinal fungi. In this review, we systematically summarize the main findings of this comparative study that compared the components and efficacy of liquid fermented products from edible and medicinal fungi with those from cultivated fruiting bodies. Additionally, we present the methods used in the study to obtain and analyze the liquid fermented products. The application of these liquid fermented products in the food industry is also discussed. With the potential breakthrough of liquid fermentation technology and the continued development of these products, our findings can serve as a reference for further utilization of liquid fermented products derived from edible and medicinal fungi. Further exploration of liquid fermentation technology is necessary to optimize the production of functional components from edible and medicinal fungi, and to enhance their bioactivity and safety. Investigation of the potential synergistic effects of combining liquid fermented products with other food ingredients is also necessary to enhance their nutritional values and health benefits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mushroom Biotechnology in Food Industry)
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