Development of Novel Feeding Strategies to Improve Milk and Dairy Quality

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Dairy".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2022) | Viewed by 26141

Special Issue Editors


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Laboratory of Nutritional Physiology and Feeding, Department of Animal Science, School of Animal Biosciences, Agricultural University of Athens, Iera Odos 75, GR-11855 Athens, Greece
Interests: ruminant nutrition; feed additives; fatty acids; antioxidants; sheep and goats; dairy
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Milk and dairy products contain biologically active compounds, such as high-quality proteins, vitamins, minerals and fatty acids that have been proven to have beneficial effects on human nutrition, metabolism and health. Due to their exceptional nutritive and organoleptic properties, these products occupy a prominent position in consumer preferences and retain the interest of the food industry. However, the traditional view of their role has been greatly expanded in recent years, since much attention has been paid to developing dairy products with physiological functions that fortify human health. An interesting challenge for scientists in the field of animal science is the introduction of novel feeding strategies that could promote ruminal function, enhance animal health and welfare status, increase production yield, improve quality of milk and dairy products and prolong their shelf life by minimizing environmental burden and production costs. This Special Issue welcomes original research papers and review articles on the development of novel feeding strategies to improve milk and dairy quality characteristics.

Prof. Dr. Eleni Tsiplakou
Dr. Panagiotis Simitzis
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • milk quality
  • feeding strategies
  • dietary additives
  • antioxidants
  • ruminants

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

20 pages, 2745 KiB  
Article
Feeding Corn Silage or Grass Hay as Sole Dietary Forage Sources: Overall Mechanism of Forages Regulating Health-Promoting Fatty Acid Status in Milk of Dairy Cows
by Erdan Wang, Manqian Cha, Shuo Wang, Qianqian Wang, Yajing Wang, Shengli Li and Wei Wang
Foods 2023, 12(2), 303; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12020303 - 9 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2121
Abstract
Different dietary forage sources regulate health-promoting fatty acids (HPFAs), such as conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), in the milk of lactating cows. However, the overall mechanism of forages regulating lipid metabolism from the gastrointestinal tract to the [...] Read more.
Different dietary forage sources regulate health-promoting fatty acids (HPFAs), such as conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), in the milk of lactating cows. However, the overall mechanism of forages regulating lipid metabolism from the gastrointestinal tract to the mammary glands (MGs) is not clear. Three isocaloric diets that contained (1) 46% corn silage (CS), (2) a mixture of 23% corn silage and 14% grass hays (MIX), and (3) 28% grass hays (GH) as the forage sources and six cannulated (rumen, proximal duodenum, and terminal ileum) lactating cows were assigned to a double 3 × 3 Latin square design. Our results show that a higher proportion of grass hay in the diets increased the relative contents of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), CLAs, and n-3 PUFAs. The lower relative content of SCFA in the milk of CS was predominantly due to the reduction in acetate production in the rumen and arteriovenous differences in the MG, indicating that the de novo synthesis pathways were inhibited. The elevated relative contents of total CLA and n-3 PUFA in the milk of GH were attributed to the increases in apparent intestinal digestion and arteriovenous differences in total CLA and n-3 PUFA, together with the higher Δ9-desaturase activity in the MG. In conclusion, this study provides an overall mechanism of dietary forages regulating HPFA status in the milk of dairy cows. Full article
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16 pages, 526 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Dietary Inclusion of Microalgae Schizochytrium spp. on Ewes’ Milk Quality and Oxidative Status
by Foivos Zisis, Panagiota Kyriakaki, Fotis F. Satolias, Alexandros Mavrommatis, Panagiotis E. Simitzis, Athanasios C. Pappas, Peter F. Surai and Eleni Tsiplakou
Foods 2022, 11(19), 2950; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11192950 - 21 Sep 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2216
Abstract
An unprecedented challenge for nutritionists arises during the 21st century in order to produce highly nutritious and functional food which promotes human health. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) that are highly contained in microalgae have broadly been confirmed for preventing cardiovascular diseases and regulating [...] Read more.
An unprecedented challenge for nutritionists arises during the 21st century in order to produce highly nutritious and functional food which promotes human health. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) that are highly contained in microalgae have broadly been confirmed for preventing cardiovascular diseases and regulating immune-oxidative status. However, their optimum dietary inclusion level needs to be defined since PUFA are prone to oxidation. For this purpose, 24 cross-bred dairy ewes, were separated into four groups (n = 6) and were fed with different levels of microalgae Schizochytrium spp. [0 (CON, no microalgae), 20 (SC20), 30 (SC30) and 40 (SC40) g/ewe/day] for 60 days. The results showed that although the production parameters were not impaired, milk fat content was decreased in medium and high-level supplemented groups while protein content was suppressed only for the medium one. Concerning the fatty acids (FA) profile, the proportions of C14:0, trans C18:1, trans-11 C18:1, cis-9, trans-11 C18:2, trans-10, cis-12 C18:2, C20:5 (EPA), C22:5n-6 (DPA), C22:6n-3 (DHA), the total ω3 FA and PUFA were significantly increased, while those of C18:0, cis-9 C18:1 and C18:2n-6c were decreased in the milk of treated ewes. Additionally, in the S40 group an oxidative response was induced, observed by the increased malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in milk and blood plasma. In conclusion, the dietary inclusion of 20 g Schizochytrium spp./ewe/day, improves milks’ fatty acid profile and seems to be a promising way for producing ω3 fatty acid-enriched dairy products. Full article
20 pages, 1233 KiB  
Article
Impact of an Omega-3-Enriched Sheep Diet on the Microbiota and Chemical Composition of Kefalograviera Cheese
by Athina Tzora, Aikaterini Nelli, Chrysoula (Chrysa) Voidarou, Konstantina Fotou, Eleftherios Bonos, Georgios Rozos, Katerina Grigoriadou, Panagiotis Papadopoulos, Zoitsa Basdagianni, Ilias Giannenas and Ioannis Skoufos
Foods 2022, 11(6), 843; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11060843 - 15 Mar 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2416
Abstract
Kefalograviera is a well-known hard Greek cheese. The aim of this study was to determine how milk produced from ewes fed omega-3-enriched diets could influence the microbiota as well as the chemical composition of Kefalograviera cheese. At the start of the trial, 30 [...] Read more.
Kefalograviera is a well-known hard Greek cheese. The aim of this study was to determine how milk produced from ewes fed omega-3-enriched diets could influence the microbiota as well as the chemical composition of Kefalograviera cheese. At the start of the trial, 30 dairy ewes (Lesvos and Chios crossbreed) were selected and fed a conventional diet, based on alfalfa hay, straw and concentrate feed that contained soybean meal for a period of thirty days. Then, for a period of sixty days the same ewes were fed an omega-3-enriched concentrate feed with a lower level of soybean meal that contained 10% flaxseed and 10% lupins. Milk yield was collected individually on Days 30, 60 and 90 and used to produce three different batches of Kefalograviera cheeses, at the same cheese factory, by using a traditional recipe and identical preparation conditions (pasteurization of milk, salt, rennet and culture). Sample analysis was done after six months of Kefalograviera cheese ripening. MALDI-TOF-MS (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry) identification was performed by contrasting the samples’ mass spectra with the corresponding reference database. The correlation between the different Kefalograviera cheeses revealed the predominant species being Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus paracasei, Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis, with significant quantitative differences between the experimental groups and the controls. Pediococcus spp. was isolated only from the experimental groups’ cheeses and Staphylococcus spp. only from the controls’ cheese, suggesting—among other differences—a bacterial microbiota distinction between the groups. Moreover, increased levels of alpha-linolenic acid and total polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids were noted in the enriched Kefalograviera cheeses. These promising findings suggest that enriched Kefalograviera cheese could be manufactured via enriching the ewes’ diets, with potential benefits for the consumers’ health. Full article
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12 pages, 3451 KiB  
Article
Fatty Acids of Semi-Hard Cheese Made from Milk of Goats Fed Diets Enriched with Extruded Linseed or Pumpkin Seed Cake
by Željka Klir Šalavardić, Josip Novoselec, Mario Ronta, Dušica Čolović, Marcela Šperanda and Zvonko Antunović
Foods 2022, 11(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11010006 - 21 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2497
Abstract
The addition of oilseeds and their cakes to the diets of lactating dairy goats is an alternative to supplemental feeding, which improves the lipid profile of goat cheeses. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of a diet containing [...] Read more.
The addition of oilseeds and their cakes to the diets of lactating dairy goats is an alternative to supplemental feeding, which improves the lipid profile of goat cheeses. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of a diet containing extruded linseed or pumpkin seed cake on the fatty acid profile of semi-hard cheese made from goat milk. The research was carried out with 28 French Alpine goats fed the following diets: 1—basal diet based on extruded soybean and soybean meal; 2—basal diet with 90 g/kg DM extruded linseed (ELS); and 3—basal diet with 160 g/kg DM pumpkin seed cake (PSC). Bulk milk from three separated milk tanks at three samplings was used for the manufacture of four traditional semi-hard cheeses from each milk tank at each sampling on the family farm. The ELS and PSC diets increased fat content in the cheese. The ELS feeding increased the proportion of C18:1 c9, C18:2 c9t11, and C18:3 n-3 in cheese and lowered C8:0, C6:0, and C16:0, while PSC resulted in the highest C18:2 n-6 proportions in the cheese. The health-promoting index was the highest in the cheese of ELS. The ELS had a contribution to higher nutritional and health quality of semi-hard traditional goat cheeses, thus representing a food with health-promoting properties. Full article
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19 pages, 1609 KiB  
Article
Assessing the Optimum Level of Supplementation with Camelina Seeds in Ewes’ Diets to Improve Milk Quality
by Christos Christodoulou, Alexandros Mavrommatis, Christina Mitsiopoulou, George Symeon, Vasilis Dotas, Kyriaki Sotirakoglou, Basiliki Kotsampasi and Eleni Tsiplakou
Foods 2021, 10(9), 2076; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10092076 - 2 Sep 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2303
Abstract
Camelina sativa seeds are rich in bioactive compounds such as polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and antioxidants, thus, their supplementation in ewes’ diets, may be an effective way to develop high nutritional dairy products. Therefore, the present study investigates the effect of the dietary [...] Read more.
Camelina sativa seeds are rich in bioactive compounds such as polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and antioxidants, thus, their supplementation in ewes’ diets, may be an effective way to develop high nutritional dairy products. Therefore, the present study investigates the effect of the dietary inclusion of Camelina sativa seeds in ewes’ oxidative status and milk quality. Forty-eight dairy Chios ewes were divided into four homogenous groups and were fed individually. The concentrate of the control group (CON) had no inclusion of Camelina seeds, while the treatment groups (CSS6, CSS11, CSS16) were supplemented with 6%, 11%, and 16%, respectively. Including Camelina seeds in 6% and 11%, had no impact on milk performance, while in the CSS16, milk fat was significantly decreased compared to the CON. Supplementing Camelina seeds improved milk quality from a human health perspective by modifying the content of saturated fatty acid, the proportions of α-linolenic (C18:3 n-3), and C18:2 cis-9, trans-11 (CLA), and the ω6/ω3 ratio. Furthermore, the activity of catalase (CAT) was significantly increased in the CSS11 and CSS16, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity also significantly upsurged in the CSS16. Still, the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) were significantly increased in the CSS11 compared to the CON and CSS6, and in the CSS16 compared to the CSS6. In CSS16, protein carbonyls were significantly increased. Finally, in the CSS-fed ewes, milk oxidative stability was fortified, as suggested by the modifications in the activities of SOD, CAT, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), in the antioxidant capacity, and the oxidative stress biomarkers. Consequently, the incorporation of 6% Camelina seeds in the concentrates of ewes improves milk’s fatty acid profile and oxidative status. However, more research is required regarding the possible negative effects of the constant consumption of Camelina seeds by ewes. Full article
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17 pages, 818 KiB  
Article
Effect of Dietary Seaweed Supplementation in Cows on Milk Macrominerals, Trace Elements and Heavy Metal Concentrations
by Eric E. Newton, Ásta H. Pétursdóttir, Gunnar Ríkharðsson, Corentin Beaumal, Natasa Desnica, Konstantina Giannakopoulou, Darren Juniper, Partha Ray and Sokratis Stergiadis
Foods 2021, 10(7), 1526; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10071526 - 2 Jul 2021
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 5098
Abstract
This study investigated the effect of seaweed supplementation in dairy cow diets on milk yield, basic composition, and mineral concentrations. Thirty-seven Icelandic cows were split into three diet treatments: control (CON, no seaweed), low seaweed (LSW, 0.75% concentrate dry matter (DM), 13–40 g/cow/day), [...] Read more.
This study investigated the effect of seaweed supplementation in dairy cow diets on milk yield, basic composition, and mineral concentrations. Thirty-seven Icelandic cows were split into three diet treatments: control (CON, no seaweed), low seaweed (LSW, 0.75% concentrate dry matter (DM), 13–40 g/cow/day), and high seaweed (HSW, 1.5% concentrate DM, 26–158 g/cow/day). Cows were fed the same basal diet of grass silage and concentrate for a week, and then were introduced to the assigned experimental diets for 6 weeks. The seaweed mix of 91% Ascophyllum nodosum: 9% Laminaria digitata (DM basis), feed, and milk samples were collected weekly. Data were analyzed using a linear mixed effects model, with diet, week, and their interaction as fixed factors, cow ID as random factor, and the pre-treatment week data as a covariate. When compared with CON milk, LSW and HSW milk had, respectively, less Se (−1.4 and −3.1 μg/kg milk) and more I (+744 and +1649 μg/kg milk), while HSW milk also had less Cu (−11.6 μg/kg milk) and more As (+0.17 μg/kg milk) than CON milk. The minimal changes or concentrations in milk for Se, Cu, and As cannot be associated with any effects on consumer nutrition, but care should be taken when I-rich seaweed is fed to cows to avoid excessive animal I supply and milk I concentrations. Full article
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22 pages, 14347 KiB  
Article
Effects of Inclusion of Schizochytrium spp. and Forage-to-Concentrate Ratios on Goats’ Milk Quality and Oxidative Status
by Alexandros Mavrommatis, Kyriaki Sotirakoglou, Charalampos Kamilaris and Eleni Tsiplakou
Foods 2021, 10(6), 1322; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10061322 - 8 Jun 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2120
Abstract
Although the dietary inclusion level of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and the forage: concentrate (F:C) ratio affect milk quality, their interaction has not been broadly studied. To address such gaps and limitations a two-phase trial using twenty-two dairy goats was carried out. During [...] Read more.
Although the dietary inclusion level of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and the forage: concentrate (F:C) ratio affect milk quality, their interaction has not been broadly studied. To address such gaps and limitations a two-phase trial using twenty-two dairy goats was carried out. During the first phase, both groups (20 HF n = 11; high forage and 20 HG n = 11; high grain) were supplemented with 20 g Schizochytrium spp./goat/day. The 20 HF group consumed a diet with F:C ratio 60:40 and the 20 HG-diet consisted of F:C = 40:60. In the second phase, the supplementation level of Schizochytrium spp. was increased to 40 g/day/goat while the F:C ratio between the two groups were remained identical (40 HF n = 11; high forage and 40 HG n = 11; high grain). Neither the Schizochytrium spp. supplementation levels (20 vs. 40) nor the F:C ratio (60:40 vs. 40:60) affected milk performance. The high microalgae level (40 g) in combination with high grain diet (40 HG) modified the proportions of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and the ω3/ω6 ratio in milk, to a beneficial manner according to human health recommendation guidelines. However, the highest inclusion level of Schizochytrium spp. (40 g) and foremost in combination with the high grain diets (40 HG) induced an oxidative response as observed by the increased protein carbonyls (CP) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in milk and blood plasma indicating severe limitations for a long-term, on-farm application. In conclusion, the supplementation with 20 g Schizochytrium spp. and high forage diet (60:40) appears to be an ideal formula to enrich dairy products with essential biomolecules for human health without adversely affect milk oxidative stability. Full article
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14 pages, 296 KiB  
Article
Effect of Farming System (Organic vs. Conventional) and Season on Composition and Fatty Acid Profile of Bovine, Caprine and Ovine Milk and Retail Halloumi Cheese Produced in Cyprus
by Ouranios Tzamaloukas, Marina C. Neofytou, Panagiotis E. Simitzis and Despoina Miltiadou
Foods 2021, 10(5), 1016; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10051016 - 6 May 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2861
Abstract
The present work aimed to evaluate the effect of farming practices and season on the fat and protein content and fatty acid (FA) profile of milk and Halloumi cheese produced in Cyprus. Over a year, raw bulk-tank milk samples from cow, goat, and [...] Read more.
The present work aimed to evaluate the effect of farming practices and season on the fat and protein content and fatty acid (FA) profile of milk and Halloumi cheese produced in Cyprus. Over a year, raw bulk-tank milk samples from cow, goat, and sheep farms were collected seasonally from all organic (11) and representative conventional (44) dairy farms, whereas Fresh Halloumi cheese samples were collected monthly from retail outlets (48 organic and 48 conventional samples in total). The different farming practices did not affect the milk fat content of ruminants, while protein levels were decreased in organic bovine and caprine milk. Under organic farming practices, milk and cheese contained increased values of total mono-unsaturated FA (MUFA) and poly-unsaturated FA (PUFA), and specific FA, such as oleic, conjugated linoleic, linoleic, and α-linolenic acids. Total saturated FA (SFA) levels were particularly decreased in organic samples and, consequently, the atherogenic indices of milk and cheese were decreased. Season influenced milk and Halloumi cheese FA profile; spring samples had lower SFA and higher PUFA and MUFA concentrations. Overall, the organic farm practices improved the lipid profile of milk and Halloumi cheese, which is more likely attributed to the different feeding strategies applied in organic dairy farms. Full article

Review

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21 pages, 398 KiB  
Review
Grape, Pomegranate, Olive, and Tomato By-Products Fed to Dairy Ruminants Improve Milk Fatty Acid Profile without Depressing Milk Production
by Fabio Correddu, Maria Francesca Caratzu, Mondina Francesca Lunesu, Silvia Carta, Giuseppe Pulina and Anna Nudda
Foods 2023, 12(4), 865; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12040865 - 17 Feb 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2801
Abstract
The continuous increase in the cost of feeds and the need to improve the sustainability of animal production require the identification of alternative feeds, such as those derived from the agro-industrial sector, that can be effectively used for animal nutrition. Since these by-products [...] Read more.
The continuous increase in the cost of feeds and the need to improve the sustainability of animal production require the identification of alternative feeds, such as those derived from the agro-industrial sector, that can be effectively used for animal nutrition. Since these by-products (BP) are sources of bioactive substances, especially polyphenols, they may play an important role as a new resource for improving the nutritional value of animal-derived products, being effective in the modulation of the biohydrogenation process in the rumen, and, hence, in the composition of milk fatty acids (FA). The main objective of this work was to evaluate if the inclusion of BP in the diets of dairy ruminants, as a partial replacement of concentrates, could improve the nutritional quality of dairy products without having negative effects on animal production traits. To meet this goal, we summarized the effects of widespread agro-industrial by-products such as grape pomace or grape marc, pomegranate, olive cake, and tomato pomace on milk production, milk composition, and FA profile in dairy cows, sheep, and goats. The results evidenced that substitution of part of the ratio ingredients, mainly concentrates, in general, does not affect milk production and its main components, but at the highest tested doses, it can depress the yield within the range of 10–12%. However, the general positive effect on milk FA profile was evident by using almost all BP at different tested doses. The inclusion of these BP in the ration, from 5% up to 40% of dry matter (DM), did not depress milk yield, fat, or protein production, demonstrating positive features in terms of both economic and environmental sustainability and the reduction of human–animal competition for food. The general improvement of the nutritional quality of milk fat related to the inclusion of these BP in dairy ruminant diets is an important advantage for the commercial promotion of dairy products resulting from the recycling of agro-industrial by-products. Full article
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