Special Issue "Wine Fermentation"

A special issue of Fermentation (ISSN 2311-5637).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 December 2018

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Harald Claus

Institute of Molecular Physiology, Microbiology and Wine Research, Johannes Gutenberg-University of Mainz, Becherweg 15 D-55099, Mainz, Germany
E-Mail
Phone: 0049(0)6131-39-23542
Interests: Wine Microbiology, Phenoloxidases, Biotechnical enzymes, Bioethanol, Bioremediation

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Life is an evolutionary process that is subjected to permanent alterations with the need for adaptions to changing conditions. The same is very true for the traditional art of wine fermentation. In the last few years, wineries have been facing new challenges due to current market demands for the creation of products exhibiting more individual flavors. Distinct climate changes provoke the search for grape varieties with specific features, such as convenient maturation times, enhanced tolerances towards dryness and osmotic stress, as well as resistance against invasive phytopathogenic organisms.

Innovative winemaking techniques and new yeast strains will contribute to solve some of these problems, such as increased sugar concentrations at grape maturity. Non-conventional Saccharomyces species like S. uvarum, S. kudriavzevii and their natural hybrids exhibit good fermentative capacities producing wines with lower ethanol and higher glycerol concentrations. In addition, they may be useful to avoid stuck fermentations as they can grow at deeper temperatures even under nitrogen limitations and display a more fructophilic character. Current biological approaches are in progress for wine deacidification using Saccharomyces yeasts in addition to the classical lactic acid bacteria Oenococcus oenii or Lactobacillus plantarum.

Non-Saccharomyces yeasts, considered essentially as “wild” spoiling microorganisms in the past, are estimated beneficial today as they improve the wine aroma profile when grown in controlled mixed starter fermentations together with S. cerevisiae. Artificial hybrids as well as collection of adapted isolates from various ecological niches all over the world will further extend winemakers yeast toolkit, allowing specific fermentations.

Not only causing gustatory pleasures and sometimes stimulating effects, moderate wine consumption has also been recognized as beneficial to human health in many clinical studies. Especially polyphenols in red wine are associated with positive antioxidant and cardiovascular properties. Modern winemaking techniques will take care to maintain high levels of these beneficial compounds, but at the same time to minimize concentrations of risky wine ingredients such as sulfites, biogenic amines, heavy metals, mycotoxins or proteins with allergenic potential.

The application of technical enzymes in wine fermentations offer many advantages such as speeding up settling and clarification processes, increased juice yields, higher contents of phenolic compounds and aroma precursors, improved color stability, as well as wine filterability. They are effective, specific and convenient to use, and it can be expected that the search for enzymes from grape-associated yeasts with improved characteristics will continue.

This Special Issue comprises actual studies addressing some problems and solutions for environmental, technical and consumer challenges of “Wine Fermentation” in the 21st century.

Dr. Harald Claus
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Fermentation is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) is waived for well-prepared manuscripts submitted to this issue. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • wine aroma
  • starter cultures
  • mixed fermentations
  • stuck fermentations
  • yeast hybrids
  • grape resistance
  • microbial ecology
  • enzymes
  • malolactic fermentation
  • human health

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Characterization of Saccharomyces bayanus CN1 for Fermenting Partially Dehydrated Grapes Grown in Cool Climate Winemaking Regions
Fermentation 2018, 4(3), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation4030077
Received: 15 August 2018 / Revised: 9 September 2018 / Accepted: 11 September 2018 / Published: 13 September 2018
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Abstract
This project aims to characterize and define an autochthonous yeast, Saccharomyces bayanus CN1, for wine production from partially dehydrated grapes. The yeast was identified via PCR and Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) analysis as Saccharomyces bayanus, and then subsequently used in
[...] Read more.
This project aims to characterize and define an autochthonous yeast, Saccharomyces bayanus CN1, for wine production from partially dehydrated grapes. The yeast was identified via PCR and Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) analysis as Saccharomyces bayanus, and then subsequently used in fermentations using partially dehydrated or control grapes. Wine grapes were dried to 28.0°Brix from the control grapes at a regular harvest of 23.0°Brix. Both the partially dehydrated and control grapes were then vinified with each of two yeast strains, S. bayanus CN1 and S. cerevisiae EC1118, which is a common yeast used for making wine from partially dehydrated grapes. Chemical analysis gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and enzymatic) of wines at each starting sugar level showed that CN1 produced comparable ethanol levels to EC1118, while producing higher levels of glycerol, but lower levels of oxidative compounds (acetic acid, ethyl acetate, and acetaldehyde) compared to EC1118. Yeast choice impacted the wine hue; the degree of red pigment coloration and total red pigment concentration differed between yeasts. A sensory triangle test (n = 40) showed that wines made from different starting sugar concentrations and yeast strains both differed significantly. This newly identified S. bayanus strain appears to be well-suited for this style of wine production from partially dehydrated grapes by reducing the oxidative compounds in the wine, with potential commercial application for cool climate wine regions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wine Fermentation)
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Open AccessArticle Agronomical and Chemical Effects of the Timing of Cluster Thinning on Pinot Noir (Clone 115) Grapes and Wines
Fermentation 2018, 4(3), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation4030060
Received: 16 June 2018 / Revised: 23 July 2018 / Accepted: 26 July 2018 / Published: 31 July 2018
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Abstract
A two-year study was performed to evaluate the effects of the timing of cluster thinning on Pinot noir grapes and wines in the central coast of California. Vines were thinned to one cluster per shoot at three selected time-points during the growing season,
[...] Read more.
A two-year study was performed to evaluate the effects of the timing of cluster thinning on Pinot noir grapes and wines in the central coast of California. Vines were thinned to one cluster per shoot at three selected time-points during the growing season, and fruit was harvested and made into wine. No consistent effect of cluster thinning was found in wine phenolic profile or color across a cool (2016) and a warm (2017) growing season. The growing season had a more significant effect than the cluster thinning treatment for most parameters measured. There was no detectable overall sensory difference between the non-thinned control wines and any of the thinned treatment wines. Based on current results, Pinot noir vineyards on the central coast of California can support crop loads that result in Ravaz Index values from 3 to 6 without concern for impacting ripening potential or negatively affecting fruit composition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wine Fermentation)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle End-User Software for Efficient Sensor Placement in Jacketed Wine Tanks
Fermentation 2018, 4(2), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation4020042
Received: 24 May 2018 / Revised: 4 June 2018 / Accepted: 6 June 2018 / Published: 9 June 2018
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Abstract
In food processing, temperature is a key parameter affecting product quality and energy consumption. The efficiency of temperature control depends on the data provided by sensors installed in the production device. In the wine industry, temperature sensor placement inside the tanks is usually
[...] Read more.
In food processing, temperature is a key parameter affecting product quality and energy consumption. The efficiency of temperature control depends on the data provided by sensors installed in the production device. In the wine industry, temperature sensor placement inside the tanks is usually predetermined by the tank manufacturers. Winemakers rely on these measurements and configure their temperature control accordingly, not knowing whether the monitored values really represent the wine’s bulk temperature. To address this problem, we developed an end-user software which 1. allows winemakers or tank manufacturers to identify optimal sensor locations for customizable tank geometries and 2. allows for comparisons between actual and optimal sensor placements. The analysis is based on numerical simulations of a user-defined cooling scenario. Case studies involving two different tanks showed good agreement between experimental data and simulations. Implemented based on the scientific Linux operating system gmlinux, the application solely relies on open-source software that is available free of charge. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wine Fermentation)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Comparison of Different Extraction Methods to Predict Anthocyanin Concentration and Color Characteristics of Red Wines
Fermentation 2018, 4(2), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation4020039
Received: 10 May 2018 / Revised: 30 May 2018 / Accepted: 4 June 2018 / Published: 7 June 2018
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Abstract
Red wines ferment in contact with skins to extract polyphenols and anthocyanins that help build, establish, and stabilize color. Concentration and composition vary among genera, species, and cultivars. For this study, 11 grapes representing Vitis vinifera (Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Cabernet Franc, Barbera, Syrah,
[...] Read more.
Red wines ferment in contact with skins to extract polyphenols and anthocyanins that help build, establish, and stabilize color. Concentration and composition vary among genera, species, and cultivars. For this study, 11 grapes representing Vitis vinifera (Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Cabernet Franc, Barbera, Syrah, Petite Sirah, Mourvedre), Vitis labrusca (Concord), Muscadinia rotundifolia (Noble), and French-American hybrids (Marquette, Chambourcin) were selected. All cultivars were fermented on skins while color extraction was monitored daily. Each grape was also extracted using six different methods (microwave, and ultrasound assisted, Glorie procedure, ITV Standard (Institut Technique de la Vigne et du Vin), AWRI method (Australian Wine and Research Institute), solvent extraction of skins) and compared to color characteristics of the wines produced by fermentation. Results show that the extraction pattern varies among cultivars. Post-fermentation maceration, pressing, and sulfur dioxide addition lead to color loss up to 68 percent of the original maximum with the highest loss for native American grapes and hybrid varieties. Extraction procedures over-estimate color in the finished wine but are more accurate if compared to peak extraction levels during fermentation. Color loss and suitability of different extraction procedures to predict color characteristics of fermented wine strongly depend on the complexity of the anthocyanin spectrum and therefore the cultivar used. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wine Fermentation)
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Review

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Open AccessReview A Future Place for Saccharomyces Mixtures and Hybrids in Wine Making
Fermentation 2018, 4(3), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation4030067
Received: 26 June 2018 / Revised: 14 August 2018 / Accepted: 15 August 2018 / Published: 18 August 2018
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Abstract
Each year, winemakers can face sluggish or stuck fermentations during wine making, especially when a spontaneous fermentation is performed, even if strains of the classical wine yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are applied. Problems are inevitable when low ammonium concentrations (<160 mg L−1 grape
[...] Read more.
Each year, winemakers can face sluggish or stuck fermentations during wine making, especially when a spontaneous fermentation is performed, even if strains of the classical wine yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are applied. Problems are inevitable when low ammonium concentrations (<160 mg L−1 grape must) or an excess of fructose compared to glucose are observed during grape must fermentation. S. cerevisiae strains cannot use all kinds of amino acids as the sole nitrogen source but usually need free ammonium (optimal concentration: 600 mg L−1 grape must). It preferably consumes glucose, leading often to an excess of fructose in the fermenting must, which contains glucose and fructose in an equal ratio at the beginning of fermentation. Yeast hybrids have been isolated from wines several times and different strains are already commercially available. The united properties of the parent strains can provide advantages under sophisticated fermentation conditions. However, the involvement of a hybrid yeast for the rectification of fermentation disorders in spontaneous fermentations has only been described recently in the literature. Recent investigations have provided convincing evidence that fermentation problems can be overcome when must fermentations are successively performed with Saccharomyces bayanus strain HL 77 and the triple hybrid S. cerevisiae × Saccharomyces kudriavzevii × S. bayanus strain HL 78. The triple hybrid strain HL 78 uses amino acids as a nitrogen source in the absence of ammonium and it also exhibits a fructophilic character with an enhanced uptake of fructose in comparison to glucose. The application of genetically modified yeast strains is not allowed for starter cultures in wine making, but the usage of yeast mixtures and hybrid strains could be a promising tool for winemakers to solve fermentation problems during spontaneous fermentation or for the creation of novel wine types with desired sensory characteristics under more challenging conditions, especially when the composition of the must components is not optimal because of, e.g., critical climatic or soil conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wine Fermentation)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Recent Developments on the Origin and Nature of Reductive Sulfurous Off-Odours in Wine
Fermentation 2018, 4(3), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation4030062
Received: 9 July 2018 / Revised: 2 August 2018 / Accepted: 3 August 2018 / Published: 8 August 2018
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Abstract
Reductive sulfurous off-odors are still one of the main reasons for rejecting wines by consumers. In 2008 at the International Wine Challenge in London, approximately 6% of the more than 10,000 wines presented were described as faulty. Twenty-eight percent were described as faulty
[...] Read more.
Reductive sulfurous off-odors are still one of the main reasons for rejecting wines by consumers. In 2008 at the International Wine Challenge in London, approximately 6% of the more than 10,000 wines presented were described as faulty. Twenty-eight percent were described as faulty because they presented “reduced characters” similar to those presented by “cork taint” and in nearly the same portion. Reductive off-odors are caused by low volatile sulfurous compounds. Their origin may be traced back to the metabolism of the microorganisms (yeasts and lactic acid bacteria) involved in the fermentation steps during wine making, often followed by chemical conversions. The main source of volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) are precursors from the sulfate assimilation pathway (SAP, sometimes named as the “sulfate reduction pathway” SRP), used by yeast to assimilate sulfur from the environment and incorporate it into the essential sulfur-containing amino acids methionine and cysteine. Reductive off-odors became of increasing interest within the last few years, and the method to remove them by treatment with copper (II) salts (sulfate or citrate) is more and more questioned: The effectiveness is doubted, and after prolonged bottle storage, they reappear quite often. Numerous reports within the last few years and an ongoing flood of publications dealing with this matter reflect the importance of this problem. In a recent detailed review, almost all relevant aspects were discussed on a scientific data basis, and a “decision tree” was formulated to support winemakers handling this problem. Since we are dealing with a very complicated matter with a multitude of black spots still remaining, these advices can only be realized using specific equipment and special chemicals, not necessarily found in small wineries. The main problem in dealing with sulfurous compounds arises from the high variability of their reactivities. Sulfur is a metalloid with a large valence span across eight electron transformations from S (−II) up to S (+VI). This allows it to participate in an array of oxidation, reduction and disproportionation reactions, both abiotic and linked to microbial metabolism. In addition, sulfur is the element with the most allotropes and a high tendency to form chains and rings, with different stabilities of defined species and a high interconvertibility among each other. We suppose, there is simply a lack of knowledge of what is transferred during filling into bottles after fermentation and fining procedures. The treatment with copper (II) salts to remove sulfurous off-odors before filling rather increases instead of solving the problem. This paper picks up the abundant knowledge from recent literature and tries to add some aspects and observations, based on the assumption that the formation of polythionates, hitherto not taken into consideration, may explain some of the mystery of the re-appearance of reductive off-odors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wine Fermentation)
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Open AccessReview Lachancea thermotolerans, the Non-Saccharomyces Yeast that Reduces the Volatile Acidity of Wines
Fermentation 2018, 4(3), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation4030056
Received: 7 June 2018 / Revised: 14 July 2018 / Accepted: 16 July 2018 / Published: 19 July 2018
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Abstract
To improve the quality of fermented drinks, or more specifically, wine, some strains of yeast have been isolated, tested and studied, such as Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces. Some non-conventional yeasts present good fermentative capacities and are able to ferment in quite undesirable
[...] Read more.
To improve the quality of fermented drinks, or more specifically, wine, some strains of yeast have been isolated, tested and studied, such as Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces. Some non-conventional yeasts present good fermentative capacities and are able to ferment in quite undesirable conditions, such as the case of must, or wines that have a high concentration of acetic acid. One of those yeasts is Lachancea thermotolerants (L. thermotolerans), which has been studied for its use in wine due to its ability to decrease pH through L-lactic acid production, giving the wines a pleasant acidity. This review focuses on the recent discovery of an interesting feature of L. thermotolerans—namely, its ability to decrease wines’ volatile acidity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wine Fermentation)
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Open AccessReview Enzymes for Wine Fermentation: Current and Perspective Applications
Fermentation 2018, 4(3), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation4030052
Received: 16 May 2018 / Revised: 28 June 2018 / Accepted: 5 July 2018 / Published: 9 July 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (781 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Enzymes are used in modern wine technology for various biotransformation reactions from prefermentation through fermentation, post-fermentation and wine aging. Industrial enzymes offer quantitative benefits (increased juice yields), qualitative benefits (improved color extraction and flavor enhancement) and processing advantages (shorter maceration, settling and filtration
[...] Read more.
Enzymes are used in modern wine technology for various biotransformation reactions from prefermentation through fermentation, post-fermentation and wine aging. Industrial enzymes offer quantitative benefits (increased juice yields), qualitative benefits (improved color extraction and flavor enhancement) and processing advantages (shorter maceration, settling and filtration time). This study gives an overview about key enzymes used in winemaking and the effects of commercial enzyme preparations on process engineering and the quality of the final product. In addition, we highlight on the presence and perspectives of beneficial enzymes in wine-related yeasts and lactic acid bacteria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wine Fermentation)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Grape and wine metabolomics to develop new insights using untargeted and targeted approaches
Author: Farhana Pinu
Abstract: Chemical analysis of grape juice and wine has been performed for over 50 years in a targeted manner to determine a limited number of compounds using Gas Chromatography and Mass-Spectrometry (GC-MS) and High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Therefore, it only allowed the determination of metabolites that are present in high concentration including major sugars, amino acids and some important carboxylic acids. Thus, the roles of many significant but less concentrated metabolites during wine making process are still not known. This is where metabolomics shows its enormous potential mainly because of its capability in analysing over 1000 of metabolites in a single run mainly due to the recent advancements of high resolution and sensitive analytical instruments. Metabolomics has mainly been adopted by many wine scientists as a hypothesis-generating tool in an unbiased and non-targeted way to address various issues, including characterization of geographical origin (terroir) and wine yeast metabolic traits, determination of biomarkers for aroma compounds, monitoring the growth developments of grape vines and grapes. The aim of this review is to explore the published literature that made use of both targeted and untargeted metabolomics to study grapes and wines and also the fermentation process. In addition, insights are also provided into many other possible avenues where metabolomics shows tremendous potential as a question driven approach in grape and wine research.

 

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