Special Issue "Wine Fermentation"
A special issue of Fermentation (ISSN 2311-5637).
Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 December 2018
Dr. Harald Claus
Institute of Molecular Physiology, Microbiology and Wine Research, Johannes Gutenberg-University of Mainz, Becherweg 15 D-55099, Mainz, Germany
Interests: Wine Microbiology, Phenoloxidases, Biotechnical enzymes, Bioethanol, Bioremediation
Life is an evolutionary process that is subjected to permanent alterations with the need for adaptions to changing conditions. The same is very true for the traditional art of wine fermentation. In the last few years, wineries have been facing new challenges due to current market demands for the creation of products exhibiting more individual flavors. Distinct climate changes provoke the search for grape varieties with specific features, such as convenient maturation times, enhanced tolerances towards dryness and osmotic stress, as well as resistance against invasive phytopathogenic organisms.
Innovative winemaking techniques and new yeast strains will contribute to solve some of these problems, such as increased sugar concentrations at grape maturity. Non-conventional Saccharomyces species like S. uvarum, S. kudriavzevii and their natural hybrids exhibit good fermentative capacities producing wines with lower ethanol and higher glycerol concentrations. In addition, they may be useful to avoid stuck fermentations as they can grow at deeper temperatures even under nitrogen limitations and display a more fructophilic character. Current biological approaches are in progress for wine deacidification using Saccharomyces yeasts in addition to the classical lactic acid bacteria Oenococcus oenii or Lactobacillus plantarum.
Non-Saccharomyces yeasts, considered essentially as “wild” spoiling microorganisms in the past, are estimated beneficial today as they improve the wine aroma profile when grown in controlled mixed starter fermentations together with S. cerevisiae. Artificial hybrids as well as collection of adapted isolates from various ecological niches all over the world will further extend winemakers yeast toolkit, allowing specific fermentations.
Not only causing gustatory pleasures and sometimes stimulating effects, moderate wine consumption has also been recognized as beneficial to human health in many clinical studies. Especially polyphenols in red wine are associated with positive antioxidant and cardiovascular properties. Modern winemaking techniques will take care to maintain high levels of these beneficial compounds, but at the same time to minimize concentrations of risky wine ingredients such as sulfites, biogenic amines, heavy metals, mycotoxins or proteins with allergenic potential.
The application of technical enzymes in wine fermentations offer many advantages such as speeding up settling and clarification processes, increased juice yields, higher contents of phenolic compounds and aroma precursors, improved color stability, as well as wine filterability. They are effective, specific and convenient to use, and it can be expected that the search for enzymes from grape-associated yeasts with improved characteristics will continue.
This Special Issue comprises actual studies addressing some problems and solutions for environmental, technical and consumer challenges of “Wine Fermentation” in the 21st century.
Dr. Harald Claus
Manuscript Submission Information
Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.
Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Fermentation is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.
Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) is waived for well-prepared manuscripts submitted to this issue. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.
- wine aroma
- starter cultures
- mixed fermentations
- stuck fermentations
- yeast hybrids
- grape resistance
- microbial ecology
- malolactic fermentation
- human health
The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.
Title: Grape and wine metabolomics to develop new insights using untargeted and targeted approaches
Author: Farhana Pinu
Abstract: Chemical analysis of grape juice and wine has been performed for over 50 years in a targeted manner to determine a limited number of compounds using Gas Chromatography and Mass-Spectrometry (GC-MS) and High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Therefore, it only allowed the determination of metabolites that are present in high concentration including major sugars, amino acids and some important carboxylic acids. Thus, the roles of many significant but less concentrated metabolites during wine making process are still not known. This is where metabolomics shows its enormous potential mainly because of its capability in analysing over 1000 of metabolites in a single run mainly due to the recent advancements of high resolution and sensitive analytical instruments. Metabolomics has mainly been adopted by many wine scientists as a hypothesis-generating tool in an unbiased and non-targeted way to address various issues, including characterization of geographical origin (terroir) and wine yeast metabolic traits, determination of biomarkers for aroma compounds, monitoring the growth developments of grape vines and grapes. The aim of this review is to explore the published literature that made use of both targeted and untargeted metabolomics to study grapes and wines and also the fermentation process. In addition, insights are also provided into many other possible avenues where metabolomics shows tremendous potential as a question driven approach in grape and wine research.