Special Issue "Information Theory and Complexity Science Approaches to Health Conditions and Cognitive Decline"

A special issue of Entropy (ISSN 1099-4300). This special issue belongs to the section "Information Theory, Probability and Statistics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Danilo P. Mandic
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Lead Guest Editor
Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Imperial College London, SW7 2AZ London, UK
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Theerasak Chanwimalueang
E-Mail Website
Co-Guest Editor
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Srinakharinwirot University, Bangkok 10110 Thailand
Ms. Tricia Adjei
E-Mail Website
Co-Guest Editor
Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Imperial College London, SW7 2AZ London, UK

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The application of information theory to investigate the structural complexity of physiological signals is one of the fastest growing areas in multidisciplinary research, and has the potential to transform lifestyles and healthcare. The related assessment of the deterministic vs stochastic behaviour of the observables also comes with an enormous potential to distinguish between the pathological and a healthy functioning of human organs.

A whole host of approaches do exist to characterise the underlying structural complexity within physiological signals, ranging from entropy-based algorithms to chaotic attractors. These are being gradually applied with the aim to enhance our understanding of the governing mechanisms of the human body, while the so-enabled quantitative assessment of the state of body and mind has enormous potential in transforming both diagnostic methods and the management of chronic illnesses. The scope of using information theory to analyse the (mal-)functioning of the human body is vast, ranging from congestive heart failure, depression, to hydrocephalus and cognitive decline. However, these analyses are still in their infancy, and this Special Issue is an attempt to share the findings on information theory aspects of the assessment of the structural complexity of physiological signals.

The brain, in particular, still remains one of the least understood organs, yet the need to unlock the mysteries of the human brain has never been so pressing. The ageing of the population has led to a rise in cases of cognitive decline, while modern lifestyles have led another pressing issue of chronic stress and depressions experienced by large portions of the population. It is therefore both imperative and timely to explore further the potential of information theory in the early quantification, prevention and management of these issues.

This Special Issue aims to disseminate the latest findings in the investigation and characterisation of health conditions and cognitive decline, using information theory and nonlinear complexity science approaches. We welcome manuscripts presenting novel findings that promise to revolutionise the health and cognitive sciences, in addition to those introducing novel algorithms to quantify the degree of a health-related condition through the assessment of the structural complexity of pathological signals. In particular, we encourage submissions on data acquired from wearable devices, such as ‘hearables’, which are very convenient for the user, but record typically weaker signals, with an overall signal quality that is compromised (due to artefacts or noise).

Prof. Dr. Danilo P. Mandic
Dr. Theerasak Chanwimalueang
Ms. Tricia Adjei
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Entropy is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Electroencephalography for the monitoring and management of health and cognition
  • Complexity loss theory for the monitoring and management of health and cognition
  • Entropy measures for the monitoring and management of health and cognition
  • Computationally efficient entropy measures for pathological bio-signals
  • Symbolic dynamics and coding in the health and cognitive sciences
  • Markers of cognitive decline in electroencephalography
  • Markers of pathology in bio-signals
  • Signatures of pathology through information-theory assessment of the deterministic vs. stochastic behaviour of observed physiological signals

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Predicting Premature Video Skipping and Viewer Interest from EEG Recordings
Entropy 2019, 21(10), 1014; https://doi.org/10.3390/e21101014 (registering DOI) - 19 Oct 2019
Abstract
Brain–computer interfacing has enjoyed growing attention, not only due to the stunning demonstrations with severely disabled patients, but also the advent of economically viable solutions in areas such as neuromarketing, mental state monitoring, and future human–machine interaction. An interesting case, at least for [...] Read more.
Brain–computer interfacing has enjoyed growing attention, not only due to the stunning demonstrations with severely disabled patients, but also the advent of economically viable solutions in areas such as neuromarketing, mental state monitoring, and future human–machine interaction. An interesting case, at least for neuromarketers, is to monitor the customer’s mental state in response to watching a commercial. In this paper, as a novelty, we propose a method to predict from electroencephalography (EEG) recordings whether individuals decide to skip watching a video trailer. Based on multiscale sample entropy and signal power, indices were computed that gauge the viewer’s engagement and emotional affect. We then trained a support vector machine (SVM), a k-nearest neighbor (kNN), and a random forest (RF) classifier to predict whether the viewer declares interest in watching the video and whether he/she decides to skip it prematurely. Our model achieved an average single-subject classification accuracy of 75.803% for skipping and 73.3% for viewer interest for the SVM, 82.223% for skipping and 78.333% for viewer interest for the kNN, and 80.003% for skipping and 75.555% for interest for the RF. We conclude that EEG can provide indications of viewer interest and skipping behavior and provide directions for future research. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Connective Core Structures in Cognitive Networks: The Role of Hubs
Entropy 2019, 21(10), 961; https://doi.org/10.3390/e21100961 - 30 Sep 2019
Abstract
Complex network analysis applied to the resting brain has shown that sets of highly interconnected networks with coherent activity may support a default mode of brain function within a global workspace. Perceptual processing of environmental stimuli induces architectural changes in network topology with [...] Read more.
Complex network analysis applied to the resting brain has shown that sets of highly interconnected networks with coherent activity may support a default mode of brain function within a global workspace. Perceptual processing of environmental stimuli induces architectural changes in network topology with higher specialized modules. Evidence shows that, during cognitive tasks, network topology is reconfigured and information is broadcast from modular processors to a connective core, promoting efficient information integration. In this study, we explored how the brain adapts its effective connectivity within the connective core and across behavioral states. We used complex network metrics to identify hubs and proposed a method of classification based on the effective connectivity patterns of information flow. Finally, we interpreted the role of the connective core and each type of hub on the network effectiveness. We also calculated the complexity of electroencephalography microstate sequences across different tasks. We observed that divergent hubs contribute significantly to the network effectiveness and that part of this contribution persists across behavioral states, forming an invariant structure. Moreover, we found that a large quantity of multiple types of hubs may be associated with transitions of functional networks. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Online Signature Analysis for Characterizing Early Stage Alzheimer’s Disease: A Feasibility Study
Entropy 2019, 21(10), 956; https://doi.org/10.3390/e21100956 - 29 Sep 2019
Abstract
We aimed to explore the online signature modality for characterizing early-stage Alzheimer’s disease (AD). A few studies have explored this modality, whereas many on online handwriting have been published. We focused on the analysis of raw temporal functions acquired by the digitizer on [...] Read more.
We aimed to explore the online signature modality for characterizing early-stage Alzheimer’s disease (AD). A few studies have explored this modality, whereas many on online handwriting have been published. We focused on the analysis of raw temporal functions acquired by the digitizer on signatures produced during a simulated check-filling task. Sample entropy was exploited to measure the information content in raw time sequences. We show that signatures of early-stage AD patients have lower information content than those of healthy persons, especially in the time sequences of pen pressure and pen altitude angle with respect to the tablet. The combination of entropy values on two signatures for each person was classified with two linear classifiers often used in the literature: support vector machine and linear discriminant analysis. The improvements in sensitivity and specificity were significant with respect to the a priori group probabilities in our population of AD patients and healthy subjects. We show that altitude angle, when combined with pen pressure, conveys crucial information on the wrist-hand-finger system during signature production for pathology detection. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Multiscale Approximate Entropy for Gait Analysis in Patients with Neurodegenerative Diseases
Entropy 2019, 21(10), 934; https://doi.org/10.3390/e21100934 - 25 Sep 2019
Abstract
Neurodegenerative diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Parkinson’s diseases (PD), and Huntington’s disease (HD) are not rare neurological diseases. They affect different neurological systems and present various characteristic gait abnormalities. We retrieved gait signals of the right and left feet from a [...] Read more.
Neurodegenerative diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Parkinson’s diseases (PD), and Huntington’s disease (HD) are not rare neurological diseases. They affect different neurological systems and present various characteristic gait abnormalities. We retrieved gait signals of the right and left feet from a public domain on the Physionet. There were 13 patients with ALS, 15 patients with PD, 20 patients with HD and 16 healthy controls (HC). We used multiscale approximate entropy (MAE) to analyze ground reaction force on both feet. Our study shows that MAE increases with scales in all tested subjects. The group HD has the highest MAE and group ALS has the lowest MAE. We can differentiate ALS from HC by MAE, while scale factors >10 in the left foot. There are few significant differences of MAE between the HC and HD. We found a good correlation of MAE between both feet in group ALS. In conclusion, our results indicate that MAE analysis of gait signals can be used for diagnosis and long-term assessment for ALS and probably HD. Similarity of MAE between both feet can also be a diagnostic marker for ALS. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Heart Rate Dynamics in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Heart Rate Variability and Entropy
Entropy 2019, 21(10), 927; https://doi.org/10.3390/e21100927 - 24 Sep 2019
Abstract
Background: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), a highly prevalent sleep disorder, is closely related to cardiovascular disease (CVD). Our previous work demonstrated that Shannon entropy of the degree distribution (EDD), obtained from the network domain of heart rate variability (HRV), might be [...] Read more.
Background: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), a highly prevalent sleep disorder, is closely related to cardiovascular disease (CVD). Our previous work demonstrated that Shannon entropy of the degree distribution (EDD), obtained from the network domain of heart rate variability (HRV), might be a potential indicator for CVD. Method: To investigate the potential association between OSA and EDD, OSA patients and healthy controls (HCs) were identified from a sleep study database. Then EDD was calculated from electrocardiogram (ECG) signals during sleep, followed by cross-sectional comparisons between OSA patients and HCs, and longitudinal comparisons from baseline to follow-up visits. Furthermore, for OSA patients, the association between EDD and OSA severity, measured by apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), was also analyzed. Results: Compared with HCs, OSA patients had significantly increased EDD during sleep. A positive correlation between EDD and the severity of OSA was also observed. Although the value of EDD became larger with aging, it was not OSA-specified. Conclusion: Increased EDD derived from ECG signals during sleep might be a potential dynamic biomarker to identify OSA patients from HCs, which may be used in screening OSA with high risk before polysomnography is considered. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Monitoring Autonomic and Central Nervous System Activity by Permutation Entropy during Short Sojourn in Antarctica
Entropy 2019, 21(9), 893; https://doi.org/10.3390/e21090893 - 14 Sep 2019
Abstract
The aim of this study was to monitor acute response patterns of autonomic and central nervous system activity during an encounter with Antarctica by synchronously recording heart rate variability (HRV) and electroencephalography (EEG). On three different time-points during the two-week sea journey, the [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to monitor acute response patterns of autonomic and central nervous system activity during an encounter with Antarctica by synchronously recording heart rate variability (HRV) and electroencephalography (EEG). On three different time-points during the two-week sea journey, the EEG and HRV were recorded from nine male scientists who participated in “The First Turkish Antarctic Research Expedition”. The recordings were performed in a relaxed state with the eyes open, eyes closed, and during a space quantity perception test. For the EEG recordings, the wireless 14 channel EPOC-Emotiv device was used, and for the HRV recordings, a Polar heart rate monitor S810i was used. The HRV data were analyzed by time/frequency domain parameters and ordinal pattern statistics. For the EEG data, spectral band power in the conventional frequency bands, as well as permutation entropy values were calculated. Regarding HRV, neither conventional nor permutation entropy calculations produced significant differences for the different journey time-points, but only permutation entropy was able to differentiate between the testing conditions. During the cognitive test, permutation entropy values increased significantly, whereas the conventional HRV parameters did not show any significant differences. In the EEG analysis, the ordinal pattern statistics revealed significant transitions in the course of the sea voyage as permutation entropy values decreased, whereas spectral band power analysis could not detect any significant difference. Permutation entropy analysis was further able to differentiate between the three testing conditions as well between the brain regions. In the conventional spectral band power analysis, alpha band power could separate the three testing conditions and brain regions, and beta band power could only do so for the brain regions. This superiority of permutation entropy in discerning subtle differences in the autonomic and central nervous system’s responses to an overwhelming subjective experience renders it suitable as an analysis tool for biomonitoring in extreme environments. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Recognition of Emotional States Using Multiscale Information Analysis of High Frequency EEG Oscillations
Entropy 2019, 21(6), 609; https://doi.org/10.3390/e21060609 - 20 Jun 2019
Abstract
Exploring the manifestation of emotion in electroencephalogram (EEG) signals is helpful for improving the accuracy of emotion recognition. This paper introduced the novel features based on the multiscale information analysis (MIA) of EEG signals for distinguishing emotional states in four dimensions based on [...] Read more.
Exploring the manifestation of emotion in electroencephalogram (EEG) signals is helpful for improving the accuracy of emotion recognition. This paper introduced the novel features based on the multiscale information analysis (MIA) of EEG signals for distinguishing emotional states in four dimensions based on Russell’s circumplex model. The algorithms were applied to extract features on the DEAP database, which included multiscale EEG complexity index in the time domain, and ensemble empirical mode decomposition enhanced energy and fuzzy entropy in the frequency domain. The support vector machine and cross validation method were applied to assess classification accuracy. The classification performance of MIA methods (accuracy = 62.01%, precision = 62.03%, recall/sensitivity = 60.51%, and specificity = 82.80%) was much higher than classical methods (accuracy = 43.98%, precision = 43.81%, recall/sensitivity = 41.86%, and specificity = 70.50%), which extracted features contain similar energy based on a discrete wavelet transform, fractal dimension, and sample entropy. In this study, we found that emotion recognition is more associated with high frequency oscillations (51–100Hz) of EEG signals rather than low frequency oscillations (0.3–49Hz), and the significance of the frontal and temporal regions are higher than other regions. Such information has predictive power and may provide more insights into analyzing the multiscale information of high frequency oscillations in EEG signals. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Inducing Gamma Oscillations in Hippocampal Subregions DG, CA3, and CA1 on the Potential Alleviation of Alzheimer’s Disease-Related Pathology: Computer Modeling and Simulations
Entropy 2019, 21(6), 587; https://doi.org/10.3390/e21060587 - 13 Jun 2019
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the possibility of the gamma oscillation function (40–130 Hz) to reduce Alzheimer’s disease related pathology in a computer model of the hippocampal network dentate gyrus, CA3, and CA1 (DG-CA3-CA1) regions. Methods: Computer simulations were [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the possibility of the gamma oscillation function (40–130 Hz) to reduce Alzheimer’s disease related pathology in a computer model of the hippocampal network dentate gyrus, CA3, and CA1 (DG-CA3-CA1) regions. Methods: Computer simulations were made for a pathological model in which Alzheimer’s disease was simulated by synaptic degradation in the hippocampus. Pathology modeling was based on sequentially turning off the connections with entorhinal cortex layer 2 (EC2) and the dentate gyrus on CA3 pyramidal neurons. Gamma induction modeling consisted of simulating the oscillation provided by the septo-hippocampal pathway with band frequencies from 40–130 Hz. Pathological models with and without gamma induction were compared with a control. Results: In the hippocampal regions of DG, CA3, and CA1, and jointly DG-CA3-CA1 and CA3-CA1, gamma induction resulted in a statistically significant improvement in terms of increased numbers of spikes, spikes per burst, and burst duration as compared with the model simulating Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The positive maximal Lyapunov exponent was negative in both the control model and the one with gamma induction as opposed to the pathological model where it was positive within the DG-CA3-CA1 region. Gamma induction resulted in decreased transfer entropy in accordance with the information flow in DG → CA3 and CA3 → CA1. Conclusions: The results of simulation studies show that inducing gamma oscillations in the hippocampus may reduce Alzheimer’s disease related pathology. Pathologically higher transfer entropy values after gamma induction returned to values comparable to the control model. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Multifractal Spectrum Curvature of RR Tachograms of Healthy People and Patients with Congestive Heart Failure, a New Tool to Assess Health Conditions
Entropy 2019, 21(6), 581; https://doi.org/10.3390/e21060581 - 11 Jun 2019
Abstract
We calculate the multifractal spectra of heartbeat RR-interval time series (tachograms) of healthy subjects and patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). From these time series, we obtained new subseries of 6 h durations when healthy persons and patients were asleep and awake respectively. [...] Read more.
We calculate the multifractal spectra of heartbeat RR-interval time series (tachograms) of healthy subjects and patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). From these time series, we obtained new subseries of 6 h durations when healthy persons and patients were asleep and awake respectively. For each time series and subseries, we worked out the multifractal spectra with the Chhabra and Jensen method and found that their graphs have different shapes for CHF patients and healthy persons. We suggest to measure two parameters: the curvature around the maximum and the symmetry for all these multifractal spectra graphs, because these parameters were different for healthy and CHF subjects. Multifractal spectra of healthy subjects tend to be right skewed especially when the subjects are asleep and the curvature around the maximum is small compared with the curvature around the maximum of the CHF multifractal spectra; that is, the spectra of patients tend to be more pointed around the maximum. In CHF patients, we also have encountered differences in the curvature of the multifractal spectra depending on their respective New York Heart Association (NYHA) index. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
An Information Theory Approach for the Analysis of Individual and Combined Evaluation Parameters of Multiple Age-Related Diseases
Entropy 2019, 21(6), 572; https://doi.org/10.3390/e21060572 - 05 Jun 2019
Abstract
In view of the frequent presence of several aging-related diseases in geriatric patients, there is a need to develop analytical methodologies that would be able to perform diagnostic evaluation of several diseases at once by individual or combined evaluation parameters and select the [...] Read more.
In view of the frequent presence of several aging-related diseases in geriatric patients, there is a need to develop analytical methodologies that would be able to perform diagnostic evaluation of several diseases at once by individual or combined evaluation parameters and select the most informative parameters or parameter combinations. So far there have been no established formal methods to enable such capabilities. We develop a new formal method for the evaluation of multiple age-related diseases by calculating the informative values (normalized mutual information) of particular parameters or parameter combinations on particular diseases, and then combine the ranks of informative values to provide an overall estimation (or correlation) on several diseases at once. Using this methodology, we evaluate a geriatric cohort, with several common age-related diseases, including cognitive and physical impairments (dementia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease—COPD and ischemic heart disease), utilizing a set of evaluation parameters (such as demographic data and blood biomarkers) routinely available in geriatric clinical practice. This method permitted us to establish the most informative parameters and parameter combinations for several diseases at once. Combinations of evaluation parameters were shown to be more informative than individual parameters. This method, with additional clinical data, may help establish the most informative parameters and parameter combinations for the diagnostic evaluation of multiple age-related diseases and enhance specific assessment for older multi-morbid patients and treatments against old-age multimorbidity. Full article
Open AccessArticle
A Comparison of Bispectral Index and Entropy During Sevoflurane Anesthesia Induction in Children with and without Diplegic Cerebral Palsy
Entropy 2019, 21(5), 498; https://doi.org/10.3390/e21050498 - 15 May 2019
Abstract
Background: This study compared the correlation of bispectral index (BIS) or entropy with different sevoflurane concentrations between children with and without cerebral palsy (CP) during induction. Methods: For eighty-two children (40 CP and 42 non-CP children), anesthesia was induced with sevoflurane. BIS and [...] Read more.
Background: This study compared the correlation of bispectral index (BIS) or entropy with different sevoflurane concentrations between children with and without cerebral palsy (CP) during induction. Methods: For eighty-two children (40 CP and 42 non-CP children), anesthesia was induced with sevoflurane. BIS and entropy (response entropy and state entropy (RE and SE)) were recorded before and after the induction of anesthesia at end-tidal sevoflurane concentrations of 1–3 vol%. The sedation status was assessed using an Observer’s Assessment of Alertness/Sedation scale. The ability to predict awareness was estimated using the area under the receiver-operator characteristic curve (AUC) analysis. Results: RE, SE and BIS values decreased continuously over the observed concentration range of sevoflurane in both groups. The SE values while awake and the RE, SE, BIS values at 3 vol% sevoflurane were lower in children with CP than in those without CP. The AUC of the BIS was significantly better than RE or SE in children without CP. The AUC of the BIS was not significantly higher than that of the RE or SE in children with CP. Conclusion: BIS seems better correlated than entropy with the clinical state of loss of response in children without CP, but not in those with CP. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Brain Complex Network Characteristic Analysis of Fatigue during Simulated Driving Based on Electroencephalogram Signals
Entropy 2019, 21(4), 353; https://doi.org/10.3390/e21040353 - 01 Apr 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Fatigued driving is one of the major causes of traffic accidents. Frequent repetition of driving behavior for a long time may lead to driver fatigue, which is closely related to the central nervous system. In the present work, we designed a fatigue driving [...] Read more.
Fatigued driving is one of the major causes of traffic accidents. Frequent repetition of driving behavior for a long time may lead to driver fatigue, which is closely related to the central nervous system. In the present work, we designed a fatigue driving simulation experiment and collected the electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. Complex network theory was introduced to study the evolution of brain dynamics under different rhythms of EEG signals during several periods of the simulated driving. The results show that as the fatigue degree deepened, the functional connectivity and the clustering coefficients increased while the average shortest path length decreased for the delta rhythm. In addition, there was a significant increase of the degree centrality in partial channels on the right side of the brain for the delta rhythm. Therefore, it can be concluded that driving fatigue can cause brain complex network characteristics to change significantly for certain brain regions and certain rhythms. This exploration may provide a theoretical basis for further finding objective and effective indicators to evaluate the degree of driving fatigue and to help avoid fatigue driving. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Brain Network Modeling Based on Mutual Information and Graph Theory for Predicting the Connection Mechanism in the Progression of Alzheimer’s Disease
Entropy 2019, 21(3), 300; https://doi.org/10.3390/e21030300 - 20 Mar 2019
Abstract
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive disease that causes problems of cognitive and memory functions decline. Patients with AD usually lose their ability to manage their daily life. Exploring the progression of the brain from normal controls (NC) to AD is an essential [...] Read more.
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive disease that causes problems of cognitive and memory functions decline. Patients with AD usually lose their ability to manage their daily life. Exploring the progression of the brain from normal controls (NC) to AD is an essential part of human research. Although connection changes have been found in the progression, the connection mechanism that drives these changes remains incompletely understood. The purpose of this study is to explore the connection changes in brain networks in the process from NC to AD, and uncovers the underlying connection mechanism that shapes the topologies of AD brain networks. In particular, we propose a mutual information brain network model (MINM) from the perspective of graph theory to achieve our aim. MINM concerns the question of estimating the connection probability between two cortical regions with the consideration of both the mutual information of their observed network topologies and their Euclidean distance in anatomical space. In addition, MINM considers establishing and deleting connections, simultaneously, during the networks modeling from the stage of NC to AD. Experiments show that MINM is sufficient to capture an impressive range of topological properties of real brain networks such as characteristic path length, network efficiency, and transitivity, and it also provides an excellent fit to the real brain networks in degree distribution compared to experiential models. Thus, we anticipate that MINM may explain the connection mechanism for the formation of the brain network organization in AD patients. Full article
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