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Advanced Energy Systems in Zero/Positive Energy Buildings, Communities and Districts

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "G: Energy and Buildings".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (25 October 2023) | Viewed by 27340

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Special Issue Editors

VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, FI-02044 VTT Espoo, Finland
Interests: energy in buildings and communities; renwable energy integration; simulation and optimization of buildings’ performance
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Guest Editor
VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, FI-02044 VTT Espoo, Finland
Interests: zero energy building; positive energy buildings; positive energy district; energy transition; energy system modelling; renewable energy systems integration; energy storages; energy flexibility; energy resiliency in buildings and districts; sustainability
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The Building sector is important for cities around the world in its Climate Action efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In general, they are responsible for approximately 40% of the EU’s energy consumption and 36% of the emissions. Therefore, energy in the buildings, communities and districts is one of the main fields for the mitigation of emissions and ensuring a sustainable, self-sufficient and safe future. This can be done by enhancing the energy efficiency and using advanced energy systems components of onsite renewable energy generation, conversion, and storage technologies in buildings, communities and districts, which can offset the imported energy from the grids. Various raising concepts for net-zero/positive energy buildings and districts (NZPEBDs) have emerged in recent years to shape cities in to carbon-neutral communities in the near future. These buildings and districts can also support in reaching self-sufficiency, engage users and provide energy resiliency during outages.

For this Special Issue, authors are kindly invited to submit high-quality papers on one or more of the following topics related to advanced energy systems in net-zero/positive energy buildings and districts:

  • Concepts, definitions and KPIs development of nearly/net/zero and positive energy buildings/communities/districts;
  • Energy efficiency of buildings in communities and districts;
  • Advanced HVAC systems in buildings;
  • Heating/cooling energy and electricity demand;
  • Advanced short/long-term energy storage for heating/cooling/electricity and controls;
  • Renewable-based energy generations and smart controls;
  • Energy resiliency of the buildings during grid outages under various weather conditions;
  • Energy flexibility offered by buildings, communities and districts to the grid;
  • Energy self-sufficiency of the buildings, communities and districts;
  • Advanced simulation and optimization methods;
  • Experience and results from demos and monitoring sites;
  • Economic-, social- and policy-related aspects;
  • User’s acceptance and engagement in communities and districts.

Prof. Dr. Ala Hasan
Dr. Hassam Ur Rehman
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • nearly/net/zero and positive energy buildings/communities/districts
  • advanced energy systems
  • energy resiliency
  • energy flexibility
  • experience from demo sites
  • economic, social and policy aspects
  • user’s acceptance and engagement

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

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33 pages, 28768 KiB  
Article
Evaluating Reinforcement Learning Algorithms in Residential Energy Saving and Comfort Management
by Charalampos Rafail Lazaridis, Iakovos Michailidis, Georgios Karatzinis, Panagiotis Michailidis and Elias Kosmatopoulos
Energies 2024, 17(3), 581; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17030581 - 25 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1099
Abstract
The challenge of maintaining optimal comfort in residents while minimizing energy consumption has long been a focal point for researchers and practitioners. As technology advances, reinforcement learning (RL)—a branch of machine learning where algorithms learn by interacting with the environment—has emerged as a [...] Read more.
The challenge of maintaining optimal comfort in residents while minimizing energy consumption has long been a focal point for researchers and practitioners. As technology advances, reinforcement learning (RL)—a branch of machine learning where algorithms learn by interacting with the environment—has emerged as a prominent solution to this challenge. However, the modern literature exhibits a plethora of RL methodologies, rendering the selection of the most suitable one a significant challenge. This work focuses on evaluating various RL methodologies for saving energy while maintaining adequate comfort levels in a residential setting. Five prominent RL algorithms—Proximal Policy Optimization (PPO), Deep Deterministic Policy Gradient (DDPG), Deep Q-Network (DQN), Advantage Actor-Critic (A2C), and Soft Actor-Critic (SAC)—are being thoroughly compared towards a baseline conventional control approach, exhibiting their potential to improve energy use while ensuring a comfortable living environment. The integrated comparison between the different RL methodologies emphasizes the subtle strengths and weaknesses of each algorithm, indicating that the best selection relies heavily on particular energy and comfort objectives. Full article
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33 pages, 17467 KiB  
Article
Optimal Sizing of Renewable Energy Communities: A Multiple Swarms Multi-Objective Particle Swarm Optimization Approach
by João Faria, Carlos Marques, José Pombo, Sílvio Mariano and Maria do Rosário Calado
Energies 2023, 16(21), 7227; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16217227 - 24 Oct 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1379
Abstract
Renewable energy communities have gained popularity as a means of reducing carbon emissions and enhancing energy independence. However, determining the optimal sizing for each production and storage unit within these communities poses challenges due to conflicting objectives, such as minimizing costs while maximizing [...] Read more.
Renewable energy communities have gained popularity as a means of reducing carbon emissions and enhancing energy independence. However, determining the optimal sizing for each production and storage unit within these communities poses challenges due to conflicting objectives, such as minimizing costs while maximizing energy production. To address this issue, this paper employs a Multi-Objective Particle Swarm Optimization (MOPSO) algorithm with multiple swarms. This approach aims to foster a broader diversity of solutions while concurrently ensuring a good plurality of nondominant solutions that define a Pareto frontier. To evaluate the effectiveness and reliability of this approach, four case studies with different energy management strategies focused on real-world operations were evaluated, aiming to replicate the practical challenges encountered in actual renewable energy communities. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach in determining the optimal size of production and storage units within renewable energy communities, while simultaneously addressing multiple conflicting objectives, including economic viability and flexibility, specifically Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE), Self-Consumption Ratio (SCR) and Self-Sufficiency Ratio (SSR). The findings also provide valuable insights that clarify which energy management strategies are most suitable for this type of community. Full article
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17 pages, 390 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Building Mass Characterization for Energy Flexibility through Rule- and Schedule-Based Control: A Statistical Approach
by Joscha Reber, Xenia Kirschstein and Nadja Bishara
Energies 2023, 16(19), 6878; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16196878 - 29 Sep 2023
Viewed by 638
Abstract
As renewables become more established in the electricity grid, the focus, and therefore adaptability, will need to shift from the generation side to the demand side. Since the building sector accounts for a large share of the energy demand, it will be strongly [...] Read more.
As renewables become more established in the electricity grid, the focus, and therefore adaptability, will need to shift from the generation side to the demand side. Since the building sector accounts for a large share of the energy demand, it will be strongly affected by this development. One possibility for adaptation is so-called demand side management (DSM). To assess the contribution of the building sector to energy flexibility, some key performance indicators (KPIs) have already been developed in previous work. In this study, we investigate and statistically compare two control strategies for temporarily raising the room temperature—one rule-based and one schedule-based—with regard to their influence on the characterization of the building mass as a type of thermal energy storage. In each case, we determine the thermal energy demand of a residential district based on a dynamic simulation that occurred for a period of one year. The rule-based control assigns in the median approximately 60% (mean: 41%) less capacity to the building mass than the schedule-based control for the same boundary conditions. The calculation of the time-independent heating load results in a median difference of 34% (mean: 36%). In addition, the establishment of energy-flexible control in the evening hours just before a night-time reduction in the room temperature has a negative impact on the efficiency of the thermal storage. Full article
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15 pages, 1765 KiB  
Article
Technical–Financial Feasibility Study of a Micro-Cogeneration System in the Buildings in Italy
by Gabriele Battista, Emanuele de Lieto Vollaro, Andrea Vallati and Roberto de Lieto Vollaro
Energies 2023, 16(14), 5512; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16145512 - 20 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 965
Abstract
The current global context, marked by crises such as climate change, the pandemic, and the depletion of fossil fuel resources, underscores the urgent need to minimize waste. Cogeneration technology, which enables simultaneous production of electricity and thermal energy from electricity generation waste, offers [...] Read more.
The current global context, marked by crises such as climate change, the pandemic, and the depletion of fossil fuel resources, underscores the urgent need to minimize waste. Cogeneration technology, which enables simultaneous production of electricity and thermal energy from electricity generation waste, offers a promising solution to enhance energy efficiency. Its widespread adoption, particularly in the European Union, where several cogeneration systems are in place, demonstrates its growing popularity. Italy alone has 1865 high-efficiency cogeneration units, contributing significantly to total cogeneration energy generation. Micro-cogeneration, specifically, has attracted attention for its potential to reduce energy waste and environmental impact. This study focuses on assessing the technical and financial feasibility of a micro-cogeneration plant using natural gas-fuelled internal combustion engines, considering different scenarios of plant operating strategies in order to optimize energy production, minimize waste, and mitigate environmental footprints associated with conventional methods. Additionally, it provides valuable guidance for policymakers, industry stakeholders, and decision-makers invested in sustainable energy solutions. By advancing micro-cogeneration technology, this study aims to promote a more sustainable and environmentally conscious approach to energy production. The methodology applied is based on the development of a numerical model via RETScreen Expert 8 and it was calibrated with one-year energy bills. The study was performed by focusing on the analysis of the annual energy savings, greenhouse gas emission savings, tonnes of oil equivalents savings, and financial parameters such as Net Present Value (NPV), Internal Rate of Return (IRR), Profitability Index (PI) and Payback time (PBT). The results show, using a micro-cogeneration system in a big complex of buildings, that the financial parameters can continually increase with the plant’s capacity with the electrical load following, but with a loss of the recovered heat from the cogenerator because it may reach values that are not necessary for the users. When the thermal load variation is much more significant than the electrical load variation, it will be useful to design the plant to follow the thermal load variation which allows the full utilization of the thermal and energy production from the plant without any waste energy and choosing a system capacity that can optimize the energy, emissions and financial aspects. Full article
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30 pages, 6308 KiB  
Article
Energy Flexibility and towards Resilience in New and Old Residential Houses in Cold Climates: A Techno-Economic Analysis
by Hassam ur Rehman and Ala Hasan
Energies 2023, 16(14), 5506; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16145506 - 20 Jul 2023
Viewed by 871
Abstract
One of the main sectors that contribute to climate change is the buildings sector. While nearly zero-energy buildings are becoming a new norm in many countries in the world, research is advancing towards energy flexibility and resilience to reach energy efficiency and sustainability [...] Read more.
One of the main sectors that contribute to climate change is the buildings sector. While nearly zero-energy buildings are becoming a new norm in many countries in the world, research is advancing towards energy flexibility and resilience to reach energy efficiency and sustainability goals. Combining the energy flexibility and energy resilience concept is rare. In this article, we aim to investigate the effect of energy efficiency in a new single-family building on the energy flexibility potential and resilience characteristics and compare these with those for an old building in the cold climate of Finland. These two objectives are dependent on the buildings’ respective thermal mass. The heat demands of the two buildings are compared. Their technical and economic performance are calculated to compare their flexibility and resilience characteristics. Dynamic simulation software is used to model the buildings. The results show that the old building has better flexibility and higher energy cost savings when including the energy conservation activation strategy. In the old building, savings can be around EUR 400 and flexibility factor can be around 24–52% depending on the activation duration and strategy. The new building, due to higher efficiency, may not provide higher energy cost savings, and the energy conservation activation strategy is better. In the new building, savings can be around EUR 70 and the flexibility factor reaches around 7–14% depending on the activation duration and strategy. The shifting efficiency of the new house is better compared to that of the old house due to its higher storage capacity. For energy resilience, the new building is shown to be better during power outages. The new building can be habitable for 17 h, while the old building can provide the same conditions for 3 h only. Therefore, it is essential to consider both energy flexibility and resilience as this can impact performance during the energy crisis. Full article
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13 pages, 5327 KiB  
Article
Surrogate Models for Efficient Multi-Objective Optimization of Building Performance
by Gonçalo Roque Araújo, Ricardo Gomes, Maria Glória Gomes, Manuel Correia Guedes and Paulo Ferrão
Energies 2023, 16(10), 4030; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16104030 - 11 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1327
Abstract
Nowadays, the large set of available simulation tools brings numerous benefits to urban and architectural practices. However, simulations often take a considerable amount of time to yield significant results, particularly when performing many simulations and with large models, as is typical in complex [...] Read more.
Nowadays, the large set of available simulation tools brings numerous benefits to urban and architectural practices. However, simulations often take a considerable amount of time to yield significant results, particularly when performing many simulations and with large models, as is typical in complex urban and architectural endeavors. Additionally, multiple objective optimizations with metaheuristic algorithms have been widely used to solve building optimization problems. However, most of these optimization processes exponentially increase the computational time to correctly produce outputs and require extensive knowledge to interpret results. Thus, building optimization with time-consuming simulation tools is often rendered unfeasible and requires a specific methodology to overcome these barriers. This work integrates a baseline multi-objective optimization process with a widely used, validated building energy simulation tool. The goal is to minimize the energy use and cost of the construction of a residential building complex. Afterward, machine learning and optimization techniques are used to create a surrogate model capable of accurately predicting the simulation results. Finally, different metaheuristics with their tuned hyperparameters are compared. Results show significant improvements in optimization results with a decrease of up to 22% in the total cost while having similar performance results and execution times up to 100 times faster. Full article
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27 pages, 7567 KiB  
Article
Structural Performance of Energy Efficient Geopolymer Concrete Confined Masonry: An Approach towards Decarbonization
by Muhammad Mubashir Ajmal, Asad Ullah Qazi, Ali Ahmed, Ubaid Ahmad Mughal, Safeer Abbas, Syed Minhaj Saleem Kazmi and Muhammad Junaid Munir
Energies 2023, 16(8), 3579; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16083579 - 20 Apr 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1779
Abstract
Geopolymer concrete is preferred over OPC due to its use of energy waste such as fly ash, making it more sustainable and energy-efficient. However, limited research has been done on its seismic characterization in confined masonry, highlighting a gap in sustainable earthquake-resistant structures. [...] Read more.
Geopolymer concrete is preferred over OPC due to its use of energy waste such as fly ash, making it more sustainable and energy-efficient. However, limited research has been done on its seismic characterization in confined masonry, highlighting a gap in sustainable earthquake-resistant structures. Our study compares the performance of alkali-activated fly-ash-based geopolymer concrete bare frame and confined masonry wall panels with conventional concrete. Experimental results showed that geopolymer concrete bare frame has 3.5% higher initial stiffness and 1.0% higher lateral load-bearing capacity compared to conventional concrete. Geopolymer concrete confined masonry exhibited 45.2% higher initial stiffness and 4.1% higher ultimate seismic capacity than traditional concrete. The experimental results were verified using a numerical simulation technique with ANSYS-APDL, showing good correlation. Comparison with previously tested masonry walls revealed that GPC confined masonry has similar structural behavior to cement concrete masonry. This study demonstrates that geopolymer concrete made from waste energy such as fly ash is a sustainable and low-energy substitute for OPC concrete, particularly in highly seismic-prone areas, for a cleaner environment. Full article
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23 pages, 6853 KiB  
Article
Towards the Decarbonization of Industrial Districts through Renewable Energy Communities: Techno-Economic Feasibility of an Italian Case Study
by Francesca Ceglia, Elisa Marrasso, Chiara Martone, Giovanna Pallotta, Carlo Roselli and Maurizio Sasso
Energies 2023, 16(6), 2722; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16062722 - 14 Mar 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2511
Abstract
In Europe, the recast of Directive 2018/2001 defined Renewable Energy Communities as innovative configurations for renewable energy sharing between different end user types. In this regard, this work aims to assess the benefits following the constitution of a Renewable Energy Community in the [...] Read more.
In Europe, the recast of Directive 2018/2001 defined Renewable Energy Communities as innovative configurations for renewable energy sharing between different end user types. In this regard, this work aims to assess the benefits following the constitution of a Renewable Energy Community in the industrial area of Benevento (South of Italy), involving a mixed-use building and an industrial wastewater treatment plant. The alternative single end users’ configuration has been also examined, and both solutions have been compared with the current state where the users’ electric energy requests are fully met by the power grid. The users have been equipped with a 466 kWp photovoltaic plant, modelled in HOMER Pro®, providing in input experimental meteorological data (global solar radiation and air temperature) collected by one of the weather control units in Benevento. Real data about users’ electric energy demand have been gathered from their electricity bills, and when unavailable their electric load profiles on an hourly basis have been reconstructed based on the aggregated monthly data. Energy sharing has been proven to increase energy self-consumption and the users’ self-sufficiency. Annually, the primary energy demand is reduced by 577 MWh (1.2 MWh/kWp), carbon dioxide emissions by 84 tCO2 and operative costs by 101 kEUR. Full article
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22 pages, 1602 KiB  
Article
Design of an Algorithm for Modeling Multiple Thermal Zones Using a Lumped-Parameter Model
by Pedro Fernández de Córdoba, Frank Florez Montes, Miguel E. Iglesias Martínez, Jose Guerra Carmenate, Romeo Selvas and John Taborda
Energies 2023, 16(5), 2247; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16052247 - 26 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1220
Abstract
The generation of mathematical models for the analysis of buildings with multiple thermal zones is a large and complex task. Furthermore, the order and complexity of the dynamical model are increased by the number of included thermal zones. To overcome this problem, this [...] Read more.
The generation of mathematical models for the analysis of buildings with multiple thermal zones is a large and complex task. Furthermore, the order and complexity of the dynamical model are increased by the number of included thermal zones. To overcome this problem, this paper presents an algorithm to define the mathematical model automatically, using the geometric and physics parameters as inputs. Additionally, the spatial position of each thermal zone must be recorded in an arrangement called a contact matrix. The algorithm for modeling systems with multiple thermal zones is the main contribution of this work. This algorithm is presented in pseudocode format and as an annex, an implementation in MATLAB software. One of the advantages of this methodology is that it allows us to work with parallelepipeds and not necessarily cubic thermal zones. The algorithm allows us to generate mathematical models with symbolic variables, starting from the knowledge of how many thermal zones compose the system and its geometric organization. This information must be organized in a matrix arrangement called a contact matrix. Different arrays of thermal zones were constructed with wooden boxes to verify the functionality of the models generated with the algorithm. Each case provided information that allowed us to adjust the mathematical models and their simulations, obtaining a range of errors between experimental and simulated temperatures from 2.08 to 5.6, depending on the number of thermal zones studied. Full article
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16 pages, 1126 KiB  
Article
The Sense and Non-Sense of PEDs—Feeding Back Practical Experiences of Positive Energy District Demonstrators into the European PED Framework Definition Development Process
by Han Vandevyvere, Dirk Ahlers and Annemie Wyckmans
Energies 2022, 15(12), 4491; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15124491 - 20 Jun 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3176
Abstract
This article discusses early developments of the Positive Energy District (PED) concept, both in terms of its definition and of its implementation in real world demonstrators. Based on the specific challenges for creating an operational definition for the European +CityxChange project, the feasibility [...] Read more.
This article discusses early developments of the Positive Energy District (PED) concept, both in terms of its definition and of its implementation in real world demonstrators. Based on the specific challenges for creating an operational definition for the European +CityxChange project, the feasibility of creating a PED was practically explored by identifying 4 possible subtypes that respond to varying constraints regarding the energy balance of the PED. This article provides the context and describes these 4 ambitions levels: PEDautonomous, PEDdynamic, PEDvirtual, and PrePED; and the 3 boundary modes: geographical, functional, and virtual. The work thus expands on the first general PED definitions as they were put forward in the SET-plan and by the European Commission, while allowing a better response to the specific boundary conditions of PEDs’ physical context. As such, it provides an operational, city-focused, bottom-up PED definition. The present study analyses how these efforts connect to current work being performed on the development of a European PED Framework Definition. In the latter, new elements such as context factors are introduced in order to account for the varying boundary conditions that PEDs must address, and in particular the difficulties of realising PEDs in existing and densely built-up urban areas. Hereby it can be argued that the approach with 4 subtypes is a bottom-up method of addressing the same challenges as a context factor based approach operating in a top-down manner, this time starting from the regional or national renewable energy potentials. Both approaches indeed strive towards an optimum setup of PEDs both within their geographical boundaries and in their interactions with the surrounding energy infrastructures and cities. These efforts are instrumental in helping to prevent that a PED is being regarded as a goal in se, functionally disconnected from its surroundings. There are strong arguments in favour of handling PEDs as building blocks for the broader realisation of carbon neutral cities and regions, thus contributing to the systemic change that is needed to futureproof the built environment as a whole. Without applying this integrating perspective, PEDs risk creating a sub-optimal lock-in within their sites and thus remain one-off experiments, lacking connection to the wider urban sustainability strategies that are needed to properly address today’s energy and climate emergencies. This holds even more when considering the quality-related requirements that come with sustainable urban design and governance. Therefore, this study further explores how PEDs can fully support such a deep urban sustainability transition, and what could consequently be the next steps towards successful and upscaled PED deployment. Full article
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Review

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40 pages, 6936 KiB  
Review
A Review on Optimal Energy Management in Commercial Buildings
by Jahangir Hossain, Aida. F. A. Kadir, Ainain. N. Hanafi, Hussain Shareef, Tamer Khatib, Kyairul. A. Baharin and Mohamad. F. Sulaima
Energies 2023, 16(4), 1609; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16041609 - 6 Feb 2023
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 6460
Abstract
The rising cost and demand for energy have prompted the need to devise innovative methods for energy monitoring, control, and conservation. In addition, statistics show that 20% of energy losses are due to the mismanagement of energy. Therefore, the utilization of energy management [...] Read more.
The rising cost and demand for energy have prompted the need to devise innovative methods for energy monitoring, control, and conservation. In addition, statistics show that 20% of energy losses are due to the mismanagement of energy. Therefore, the utilization of energy management can make a substantial contribution to reducing the unnecessary usage of energy consumption. In line with that, the intelligent control and optimization of energy management systems integrated with renewable energy resources and energy storage systems are required to increase building energy efficiency while considering the reduction in the cost of energy bills, dependability of the grid, and mitigating carbon emissions. Even though a variety of optimization and control tactics are being utilized to reduce energy consumption in buildings nowadays, several issues remain unsolved. Therefore, this paper presents a critical review of energy management in commercial buildings and a comparative discussion to improve building energy efficiency using both active and passive solutions, which could lead to net-zero energy buildings. This work also explores different optimum energy management controller objectives and constraints concerning user comfort, energy policy, data privacy, and security. In addition, the review depicts prospective future trends and issues for developing an effective building energy management system, which may play an unavoidable part in fulfilling the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. Full article
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28 pages, 5693 KiB  
Review
Lessons Learned from Positive Energy District (PED) Projects: Cataloguing and Analysing Technology Solutions in Different Geographical Areas in Europe
by Federica Leone, Francesco Reda, Ala Hasan, Hassam ur Rehman, Fausto Carmelo Nigrelli, Francesco Nocera and Vincenzo Costanzo
Energies 2023, 16(1), 356; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16010356 - 28 Dec 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3303
Abstract
A Positive Energy District (PED) is a portion of urban area with defined boundaries that can produce energy in excess of its own consumption. The aim of this study is to analyse design variations among the six projects (12 case studies) of PED [...] Read more.
A Positive Energy District (PED) is a portion of urban area with defined boundaries that can produce energy in excess of its own consumption. The aim of this study is to analyse design variations among the six projects (12 case studies) of PED belonging to the European Smart Cities and Communities programme. Thus, it will be possible to identify the reasons behind the energy choices related to generation, storage and distribution that appear in the different geographical areas. To achieve this, different data were collected by consulting official documents and creating questionnaires that were communicated with the project representatives. Thus, the result of this study is a catalogue of the energy system solutions adopted in the studied PEDs with a critical analysis of the different motivations behind them in order to outline general trends in the geographical areas with similar characteristics. In conclusion, this study defined which technological choices are the most common in territories with similar profiles and how divergent those with different profiles are. Furthermore, applied to a large catalogue of PED, the methodology identified would make it possible to create different operating models for different territorial types and urban settlements. Full article
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