Special Issue "Modeling of Wind Turbines and Wind Farms"

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "Wind, Wave and Tidal Energy".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 June 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Emilio Gomez-Lazaro
Website
Guest Editor
1. Renewable Energy Research Institute, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13001 Ciudad Real, Spain;
2. Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronics, Control Communications, Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales de Albacete, 02071 Albacete, Spain
Interests: power electronics and power systems; renewable energy systems; modeling; dynamic performance of inverter-based generation in power systems; maintenance of renewable energy power installations; transmission and distribution studies
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Estefania Artigao
Website
Guest Editor
1. Renewable Energy Research Institute, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Spain.
2. Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronics, Control Communications. Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales de Albacete, Spain.
Interests: operations and maintenance of wind turbines; condition monitoring of wind turbines; current signature analysis; doubly-fed induction generators; reliability and availability of wind farms; onshore and offshore wind farms; failure rates and downtime of wind turbines
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nowadays, Wind Power Plant (WPP) and Wind Turbine (WT) modeling are becoming of key importance due to the relevant wind-generation impact on power systems. Hence, wind integration into power systems must be carefully analyzed to forecast the effects on grid stability and reliability. Different agents, such as Transmission System Operators (TSOs) and Distribution System Operators (DSOs), are focused on transient analyses, aiming to deal with this issue. Wind turbine manufacturers, power system software developers, and technical consultants are also involved.

WPP and WT dynamic models are often divided into two types: Detailed and simplified. Detailed models are used for Electro-Magnetic Transient (EMT) simulations, providing both electrical and mechanical responses with high accuracy during short time intervals. Simplified models, also known as standard or generic models, are designed to give reliable responses, avoiding high computational resources. Simplified models are commonly used by TSOs and DSOs to carry out different transient stability studies, including loss of generation, switching of power lines or balanced faults, etc., Assessment and validation of such dynamic models is also a major issue due to the importance and difficulty of collecting real data.

This Special Issue aims to present solutions facing all these challenges, including the development, validation and application of WT and WPP models. Topics of interest include, but are not limited to:

  • Detailed WT and WPP models
  • Simplified WT and WPP models
  • Model validation
  • Transient stability studies
  • Wind integration studies
  • New control strategies
  • Ancillary services
  • Real time WT and WPP models
  • IEC 61400-27 and WECC model assessment
  • Grid code requirements
Prof. Dr. Emilio Gomez-Lazaro
Dr. Estefania Artigao
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Wind power plant modeling
  • Wind turbine modeling
  • Wind integration
  • Power system stability

Published Papers (25 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Comparative Analysis of Identification Methods for Mechanical Dynamics of Large-Scale Wind Turbine
Energies 2019, 12(18), 3429; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12183429 - 05 Sep 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
With increasing size and flexibility of modern grid-connected wind turbines, advanced control algorithms are urgently needed, especially for multi-degree-of-freedom control of blade pitches and sizable rotor. However, complex dynamics of wind turbines are difficult to be modeled in a simplified state-space form for [...] Read more.
With increasing size and flexibility of modern grid-connected wind turbines, advanced control algorithms are urgently needed, especially for multi-degree-of-freedom control of blade pitches and sizable rotor. However, complex dynamics of wind turbines are difficult to be modeled in a simplified state-space form for advanced control design considering stability. In this paper, grey-box parameter identification of critical mechanical models is systematically studied without excitation experiment, and applicabilities of different methods are compared from views of control design. Firstly, through mechanism analysis, the Hammerstein structure is adopted for mechanical-side modeling of wind turbines. Under closed-loop control across the whole wind speed range, structural identifiability of the drive-train model is analyzed in qualitation. Then, mutual information calculation among identified variables is used to quantitatively reveal the relationship between identification accuracy and variables’ relevance. Then, the methods such as subspace identification, recursive least square identification and optimal identification are compared for a two-mass model and tower model. At last, through the high-fidelity simulation demo of a 2 MW wind turbine in the GH Bladed software, multivariable datasets are produced for studying. The results show that the Hammerstein structure is effective for simplify the modeling process where closed-loop identification of a two-mass model without excitation experiment is feasible. Meanwhile, it is found that variables’ relevance has obvious influence on identification accuracy where mutual information is a good indicator. Higher mutual information often yields better accuracy. Additionally, three identification methods have diverse performance levels, showing their application potentials for different control design algorithms. In contrast, grey-box optimal parameter identification is the most promising for advanced control design considering stability, although its simplified representation of complex mechanical dynamics needs additional dynamic compensation which will be studied in future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling of Wind Turbines and Wind Farms)
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Open AccessArticle
Robust LFC Strategy for Wind Integrated Time-Delay Power System Using EID Compensation
Energies 2019, 12(17), 3223; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12173223 - 21 Aug 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
This paper presents an active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) technique for load frequency control of a wind integrated power system when communication delays are considered. To improve the stability of frequency control, equivalent input disturbances (EID) compensation is used to eliminate the influence [...] Read more.
This paper presents an active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) technique for load frequency control of a wind integrated power system when communication delays are considered. To improve the stability of frequency control, equivalent input disturbances (EID) compensation is used to eliminate the influence of the load variation. In wind integrated power systems, two area controllers are designed to guarantee the stability of the overall closed-loop system. First, a simplified frequency response model of the wind integrated time-delay power system was established. Then the state-space model of the closed-loop system was built by employing state observers. The system stability conditions and controller parameters can be solved by some linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) forms. Finally, the case studies were tested using MATLAB/SIMULINK software and the simulation results show its robustness and effectiveness to maintain power-system stability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling of Wind Turbines and Wind Farms)
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Open AccessArticle
Investigations on the Unsteady Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Horizontal-Axis Wind Turbine during Dynamic Yaw Processes
Energies 2019, 12(16), 3124; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12163124 - 14 Aug 2019
Cited by 8
Abstract
Wind turbines inevitably experience yawed flows, resulting in fluctuations of the angle of attack (AOA) of airfoils, which can considerably impact the aerodynamic characteristics of the turbine blades. In this paper, a horizontal-axis wind turbine (HAWT) was modeled using a structured grid with [...] Read more.
Wind turbines inevitably experience yawed flows, resulting in fluctuations of the angle of attack (AOA) of airfoils, which can considerably impact the aerodynamic characteristics of the turbine blades. In this paper, a horizontal-axis wind turbine (HAWT) was modeled using a structured grid with multiple blocks. Then, the aerodynamic characteristics of the wind turbine were investigated under static and dynamic yawed conditions using the Unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) method. In addition, start-stop yawing rotations at two different velocities were studied. The results suggest that AOA fluctuation under yawing conditions is caused by two separate effects: blade advancing & retreating and upwind & downwind yawing. At a positive yaw angle, the blade advancing & retreating effect causes a maximum AOA at an azimuth angle of 0°. Moreover, the effect is more dominant in inboard airfoils compared to outboard airfoils. The upwind & downwind yawing effect occurs when the wind turbine experiences dynamic yawing motion. The effect increases the AOA when the blade is yawing upwind and vice versa. The phenomena become more dominant with the increase of yawing rate. The torque of the blade in the forward yawing condition is much higher than in backward yawing, owing to the reversal of the yaw velocity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling of Wind Turbines and Wind Farms)
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Open AccessArticle
Fault-Ride Trough Validation of IEC 61400-27-1 Type 3 and Type 4 Models of Different Wind Turbine Manufacturers
Energies 2019, 12(16), 3039; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12163039 - 07 Aug 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
The participation of wind power in the energy mix of current power systems is progressively increasing, with variable-speed wind turbines being the leading technology in recent years. In this line, dynamic models of wind turbines able to emulate their response against grid disturbances, [...] Read more.
The participation of wind power in the energy mix of current power systems is progressively increasing, with variable-speed wind turbines being the leading technology in recent years. In this line, dynamic models of wind turbines able to emulate their response against grid disturbances, such as voltage dips, are required. To address this issue, the International Electronic Commission (IEC) 61400-27-1, published in 2015, defined four generic models of wind turbines for transient stability analysis. To achieve a widespread use of these generic wind turbine models, validations with field data are required. This paper performs the validation of three generic IEC 61400-27-1 variable-speed wind turbine model topologies (type 3A, type 3B and type 4A). The validation is implemented by comparing simulation results with voltage dip measurements performed on six different commercial wind turbines based on field campaigns conducted by three wind turbine manufacturers. Both IEC validation approaches, the play-back and the full system simulation, were implemented. The results show that the generic full-scale converter topology is accurately adjusted to the different real wind turbines and, hence, manufacturers are encouraged to the develop generic IEC models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling of Wind Turbines and Wind Farms)
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Open AccessArticle
Implementation of IEC 61400-27-1 Type 3 Model: Performance Analysis under Different Modeling Approaches
Energies 2019, 12(14), 2690; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12142690 - 12 Jul 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Forecasts for 2023 position wind energy as the third-largest renewable energy source in the world. This rapid growth brings with it the need to conduct transient stability studies to plan network operation activities and analyze the integration of wind power into the grid, [...] Read more.
Forecasts for 2023 position wind energy as the third-largest renewable energy source in the world. This rapid growth brings with it the need to conduct transient stability studies to plan network operation activities and analyze the integration of wind power into the grid, where generic wind turbine models have emerged as the optimal solution. In this study, the generic Type 3 wind turbine model developed by Standard IEC 61400-27-1 was submitted to two voltage dips and implemented in two simulation tools: MATLAB/Simulink and DIgSILENT-PowerFactory. Since the Standard states that the responses of the models are independent of the software used, the active and reactive power results of both responses were compared following the IEC validation guidelines, finding, nevertheless, slight differences dependent on the specific features of each simulation software. The behavior of the generic models was assessed, and their responses were also compared with field measurements of an actual wind turbine in operation. Validation errors calculated were comprehensively analyzed, and the differences in the implementation processes of both software tools are highlighted. The outcomes obtained help to further establish the limitations of the generic wind turbine models, thus achieving a more widespread use of Standard IEC 61400-27-1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling of Wind Turbines and Wind Farms)
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Open AccessArticle
New Assessment Scales for Evaluating the Degree of Risk of Wind Turbine Blade Damage Caused by Terrain-Induced Turbulence
Energies 2019, 12(13), 2624; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12132624 - 08 Jul 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
The present study scrutinized the impacts of terrain-induced turbulence on wind turbine blades, examining measurement data regarding wind conditions and the strains of wind turbine blades. Furthermore, we performed a high-resolution large-eddy simulation (LES) and identified the three-dimensional airflow structures of terrain-induced turbulence. [...] Read more.
The present study scrutinized the impacts of terrain-induced turbulence on wind turbine blades, examining measurement data regarding wind conditions and the strains of wind turbine blades. Furthermore, we performed a high-resolution large-eddy simulation (LES) and identified the three-dimensional airflow structures of terrain-induced turbulence. Based on the LES results, we defined the Uchida-Kawashima Scale_1 (the U-K scale_1), which is a turbulence evaluation index, and clarified the existence of the terrain-induced turbulence quantitatively. The threshold value of the U-K scale_1 was determined as 0.2, and this index was confirmed to not be dependent on the inflow profile, the influence of the horizontal grid resolution, and the influence of the computed azimuth. In addition, we defined the Uchida-Kawashima Scale_2 (the U-K scale_2), which is a fatigue damage evaluation index based on the measurement data and the design value obtained by DNV GL’s Bladed. DNV GL (Det Norske Veritas Germanischer Lloyed) is a third party certification body in Norway, and Bladed has been the industry standard aero-elastic wind turbine modeling software. Using the U-K scale_2, the following results were revealed: the U-K scale_2 was 0.86 < 1.0 (within the designed value) in the case of northerly wind, and the U-K scale_2 was 1.60 > 1.0 (exceeding the designed value) in the case of easterly wind. As a result, it was revealed that the blades of the target wind turbine were directly and strongly affected by terrain-induced turbulence when easterly winds occurred. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling of Wind Turbines and Wind Farms)
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Open AccessArticle
Design and Simulation of an LQR-PI Control Algorithm for Medium Wind Turbine
Energies 2019, 12(12), 2248; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12122248 - 12 Jun 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
In this paper, a new linear quadratic regulator (LQR) and proportional integral (PI) hybrid control algorithm for a permanent-magnet synchronous-generator (PMSG) horizontal-axis wind turbine was developed and simulated. The new algorithm incorporates LQR control into existing PI control structures as a feed-forward term [...] Read more.
In this paper, a new linear quadratic regulator (LQR) and proportional integral (PI) hybrid control algorithm for a permanent-magnet synchronous-generator (PMSG) horizontal-axis wind turbine was developed and simulated. The new algorithm incorporates LQR control into existing PI control structures as a feed-forward term to improve the performance of a conventional PI control. A numerical model based on MATLAB/Simulink and a commercial aero-elastic code were constructed for the target wind turbine, and the new control technique was applied to the numerical model to verify the effect through simulation. For the simulation, the performance data were compared after applying the PI, LQR, and LQR-PI control algorithms to the same wind speed conditions with and without noise in the generator speed. Also, the simulations were performed in both the transition region and the rated power region. The LQR-PI algorithm was found to reduce the standard deviation of the generator speed by more than 20% in all cases regardless of the noise compared with the PI algorithm. As a result, the proposed LQR-PI control increased the stability of the wind turbine in comparison with the conventional PI control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling of Wind Turbines and Wind Farms)
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Open AccessArticle
A Large-Eddy Simulation-Based Assessment of the Risk of Wind Turbine Failures Due to Terrain-Induced Turbulence over a Wind Farm in Complex Terrain
Energies 2019, 12(10), 1925; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12101925 - 20 May 2019
Cited by 6
Abstract
The first part of the present study investigated the relationship among the number of yaw gear and motor failures and turbulence intensity (TI) at all the wind turbines under investigation with the use of in situ data. The investigation revealed that wind turbine [...] Read more.
The first part of the present study investigated the relationship among the number of yaw gear and motor failures and turbulence intensity (TI) at all the wind turbines under investigation with the use of in situ data. The investigation revealed that wind turbine #7 (T7), which experienced a large number of failures, was affected by terrain-induced turbulence with TI that exceeded the TI presumed for the wind turbine design class to which T7 belongs. Subsequently, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation was performed to examine if the abovementioned observed wind flow characteristics could be successfully simulated. The CFD software package that was used in the present study was RIAM-COMPACT, which was developed by the first author of the present paper. RIAM-COMPACT is a nonlinear, unsteady wind prediction model that uses large-eddy simulation (LES) for the turbulence model. RIAM-COMPACT is capable of simulating flow collision, separation, and reattachment and also various unsteady turbulence–eddy phenomena that are caused by flow collision, separation, and reattachment. A close examination of computer animations of the streamwise (x) wind velocity revealed the following findings: As we predicted, wind flow that was separated from a micro-topographical feature (micro-scale terrain undulations) upstream of T7 generated large vortices. These vortices were shed downstream in a nearly periodic manner, which in turn generated terrain-induced turbulence, affecting T7 directly. Finally, the temporal change of the streamwise (x) wind velocity (a non-dimensional quantity) at the hub-height of T7 in the period from 600 to 800 in non-dimensional time was re-scaled in such a way that the average value of the streamwise (x) wind velocity for this period was 8.0 m/s, and the results of the analysis of the re-scaled data were discussed. With the re-scaled full-scale streamwise wind velocity (m/s) data (total number of data points: approximately 50,000; time interval: 0.3 s), the time-averaged streamwise (x) wind velocity and TI were evaluated using a common statistical processing procedure adopted for in situ data. Specifically, 10-min moving averaging (number of sample data points: 1932) was performed on the re-scaled data. Comparisons of the evaluated TI values to the TI values from the normal turbulence model in IEC61400-1 Ed.3 (2005) revealed the following: Although the evaluated TI values were not as large as those observed in situ, some of the evaluated TI values exceeded the values for turbulence class A, suggesting that the influence of terrain-induced turbulence on the wind turbine was well simulated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling of Wind Turbines and Wind Farms)
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Open AccessArticle
Aeroelastic Analysis of a Coplanar Twin-Rotor Wind Turbine
Energies 2019, 12(10), 1881; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12101881 - 17 May 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Multi-rotor system (MRS) wind turbines can be a competitive alternative to large-scale wind turbines. In order to address the structural behavior of the turbine tower, an in-house aeroelastic tool has been developed to study the dynamic responses of a 2xNREL 5MW twin-rotor configuration [...] Read more.
Multi-rotor system (MRS) wind turbines can be a competitive alternative to large-scale wind turbines. In order to address the structural behavior of the turbine tower, an in-house aeroelastic tool has been developed to study the dynamic responses of a 2xNREL 5MW twin-rotor configuration wind turbine. The developed tool has been verified by comparing the results of a single-rotor configuration to a FAST analysis for the same simulation conditions. Steady flow and turbulent load cases were investigated for the twin-rotor configuration. Results of the simulations have shown that elasticity of the tower should be considered for studying tower dynamic responses. The tower loads, and deformations are not straightforward with the number of rotors added. For an equivalent tower, an additional rotor will increase the tower-top deflection, and the tower-base bending moment both in the fore-aft direction will be more than doubled. The tower torsional stiffness becomes a crucial factor in the case of a twin-rotor tower to avoid a severe torsional deflection. Tower natural frequencies are dominant over the flow conditions in regards to the loads and deflections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling of Wind Turbines and Wind Farms)
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis of Wind-Turbine Main Bearing Loads Due to Constant Yaw Misalignments over a 20 Years Timespan
Energies 2019, 12(9), 1768; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12091768 - 10 May 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
The compact design of modern wind farms means that turbines are located in the wake over a certain amount of time. This leads to reduced power and increased loads on the turbine in the wake. Currently, research has been dedicated to reduce or [...] Read more.
The compact design of modern wind farms means that turbines are located in the wake over a certain amount of time. This leads to reduced power and increased loads on the turbine in the wake. Currently, research has been dedicated to reduce or avoid these effects. One approach is wake-steering, where a yaw misalignment is introduced in the upstream wind turbine. Due to the intentional misalignment of upstream turbines, their wake flow can be forced around the downstream turbines, thus increasing park energy output. Such a control scheme reduces the turbulence seen by the downstream turbine but introduces additional load variation to the turbine that is misaligned. Within the scope of this investigation, a generic multi body simulation model is simulated for various yaw misalignments. The time series of the calculated loads are combined with the wind speed distribution of a reference site over 20 years to investigate the effects of yaw misalignments on the turbines main bearing loads. It is shown that damage equivalent loads increase with yaw misalignment within the range considered. Especially the vertical in-plane force, bending and tilt moment acting on the main bearing are sensitive to yaw misalignments. Furthermore, it is found that the change of load due to yaw misalignments is not symmetrical. The results of this investigation are a primary step and can be further combined with distributions of yaw misalignments for a study regarding specific load distributions and load cycles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling of Wind Turbines and Wind Farms)
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Open AccessArticle
Simulation and Protection of Lightning Electromagnetic Pulse in Non-Metallic Nacelle of Wind Turbine
Energies 2019, 12(9), 1745; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12091745 - 08 May 2019
Abstract
When the nacelle of a wind turbine is struck by lightning, lightning electromagnetic pulse (LEMP) is generated inside the nacelle and consequently impacts inside electronic devices or even seriously destroys them. In order to study the LEMP inside the nacelle, this paper firstly [...] Read more.
When the nacelle of a wind turbine is struck by lightning, lightning electromagnetic pulse (LEMP) is generated inside the nacelle and consequently impacts inside electronic devices or even seriously destroys them. In order to study the LEMP inside the nacelle, this paper firstly built a full-scale model of a non-metallic nacelle. The lightning electromagnetic environment in the nacelle was simulated and analyzed by the transmission-line matrix method. Then the protective measures of applying metallic shielding mesh on the nacelle were studied, including the mesh size and material of the shielding mesh on the protective effect. The results show that LEMP in the nacelle can be effectively attenuated by metallic shielding meshes. The shielding effect is highly dependent on the conductivity of the shielding mesh material and the mesh size. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling of Wind Turbines and Wind Farms)
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Open AccessArticle
Impact of Combined Demand-Response and Wind Power Plant Participation in Frequency Control for Multi-Area Power Systems
Energies 2019, 12(9), 1687; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12091687 - 04 May 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
An alternative approach for combined frequency control in multi-area power systems with significant wind power plant integration is described and discussed in detail. Demand response is considered as a decentralized and distributed resource by incorporating innovative frequency-sensitive load controllers into certain thermostatically controlled [...] Read more.
An alternative approach for combined frequency control in multi-area power systems with significant wind power plant integration is described and discussed in detail. Demand response is considered as a decentralized and distributed resource by incorporating innovative frequency-sensitive load controllers into certain thermostatically controlled loads. Wind power plants comprising variable speed wind turbines include an auxiliary frequency control loop contributing to increase total system inertia in a combined manner, which further improves the system frequency performance. Results for interconnected power systems show how the proposed control strategy substantially improves frequency stability and decreases peak frequency excursion (nadir) values. The total need for frequency regulation reserves is reduced as well. Moreover, the requirements to exchange power in multi-area scenarios are significantly decreased. Extensive simulations under power imbalance conditions for interconnected power systems are also presented in the paper. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling of Wind Turbines and Wind Farms)
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Open AccessArticle
Inertia Dependent Droop Based Frequency Containment Process
Energies 2019, 12(9), 1648; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12091648 - 30 Apr 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Presently, there is a large need for a better understanding and extensive quantification of grid stability for different grid conditions and controller settings. This article therefore proposes and develops a novel mathematical model to study and perform sensitivity studies for the capabilities of [...] Read more.
Presently, there is a large need for a better understanding and extensive quantification of grid stability for different grid conditions and controller settings. This article therefore proposes and develops a novel mathematical model to study and perform sensitivity studies for the capabilities of different technologies to provide Frequency Containment Process (FCP) in different grid conditions. A detailed mathematical analytical approach for designing inertia-dependent droop-based FCP is developed and presented in this article. Impacts of different droop settings for generation technologies operating with different inertia of power system can be analyzed through this mathematical approach resulting in proper design of droop settings. In contrast to the simulation-based model, the proposed novel mathematical model allows mathematical quantification of frequency characteristics such as nadir, settling time, ROCOF, time to reach the nadir with respect to controller parameters such as gain, droop, or system parameters such as inertia, volume, of imbalance. Comparative studies between cases of frequency containment reserves (FCR) provision from conventional generators and wind turbines (WTs) are performed. Observations from these simulations are analyzed and explained with the help of an analytical approach which provides the feasible range of droop settings for different values of system inertia. The proposed mathematical approach is validated on simulated Continental Europe (CE) network. The results show that the proposed methodology can be used to design the droop for different technology providing FCP in a power system operating within a certain range of inertia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling of Wind Turbines and Wind Farms)
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Open AccessArticle
Compliance of a Generic Type 3 WT Model with the Spanish Grid Code
Energies 2019, 12(9), 1631; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12091631 - 29 Apr 2019
Cited by 6
Abstract
The expansion of wind power around the world poses a new challenge that network operators must overcome, namely the integration of this renewable energy source into the grid. Comprehensive analyses involving time-domain simulations must be carried out to plan network operation and ensure [...] Read more.
The expansion of wind power around the world poses a new challenge that network operators must overcome, namely the integration of this renewable energy source into the grid. Comprehensive analyses involving time-domain simulations must be carried out to plan network operation and ensure power supply. In light of the above, and with the aim of extending the use of the wind turbine models developed by Standard IEC 61400-27-1 and assessing their performance according to national grid code requirements, an IEC Type 3 wind turbine model has been submitted for the first time to Spanish grid code PO 12.3. Indeed, there is a lack of studies submitting generic wind turbine models to national grid code requirements. The model’s behavior is compared with field measurements of an actual Gamesa G52 machine and with its detailed simulation model. The outcomes obtained have been comprehensively analyzed and the results of the validation criteria highlight that several modeling modifications, in the cases of non-compliance, must be implemented in the IEC-developed Type 3 model in order to comply with PO 12.3. Nevertheless, the results also show that when the transformer inrush current is not considered, the reactive power response of the generic Type 3 WT model meets the validation criteria, thus complying with Spanish PO 12.3. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling of Wind Turbines and Wind Farms)
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Open AccessArticle
Reactive Power Capability Model of Wind Power Plant Using Aggregated Wind Power Collection System
Energies 2019, 12(9), 1607; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12091607 - 27 Apr 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
This article presents the development of a reactive power capability model for a wind power plant (WPP) based on an aggregated wind power collection system. The voltage and active power dependent reactive power capability are thus calculated by using aggregated WPP collection system [...] Read more.
This article presents the development of a reactive power capability model for a wind power plant (WPP) based on an aggregated wind power collection system. The voltage and active power dependent reactive power capability are thus calculated by using aggregated WPP collection system parameters and considering losses in the WPP collection system. The strength of this proposed reactive power capability model is that it not only requires less parameters and substantially less computational time compared to typical detailed models of WPPs, but it also provides an accurate estimation of the available reactive power. The proposed model is based on a set of analytical equations which represent converter voltage and current limitations. Aggregated impedance and susceptance of the WPP collection system are also included in the analytical equations, thereby incorporating losses in the collection system in the WPP reactive power capability calculation. The proposed WPP reactive power capability model is compared to available methodologies from literature and for different WPP topologies, namely, Horns Rev 2 WPP and Burbo Bank WPP. Performance of the proposed model is assessed and discussed by means of simulations of various case studies demonstrating that the error between the calculated reactive power using the proposed model and the detailed model is below 4% as compared to an 11% error in the available method from literature. The efficacy of the proposed method is further exemplified through an application of the proposed method in power system integration studies. The article provides new insights and better understanding of the WPPs’ limits to deliver reactive power support that can be used for power system stability assessment, particularly long-term voltage stability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling of Wind Turbines and Wind Farms)
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Open AccessArticle
Adaptive Nonparametric Kernel Density Estimation Approach for Joint Probability Density Function Modeling of Multiple Wind Farms
Energies 2019, 12(7), 1356; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12071356 - 09 Apr 2019
Cited by 10
Abstract
The uncertainty of wind power brings many challenges to the operation and control of power systems, especially for the joint operation of multiple wind farms. Therefore, the study of the joint probability density function (JPDF) of multiple wind farms plays a significant role [...] Read more.
The uncertainty of wind power brings many challenges to the operation and control of power systems, especially for the joint operation of multiple wind farms. Therefore, the study of the joint probability density function (JPDF) of multiple wind farms plays a significant role in the operation and control of power systems with multiple wind farms. This research was innovative in two ways. One, an adaptive bandwidth improvement strategy was proposed. It replaced the traditional fixed bandwidth of multivariate nonparametric kernel density estimation (MNKDE) with an adaptive bandwidth. Two, based on the above strategy, an adaptive multi-variable non-parametric kernel density estimation (AMNKDE) approach was proposed and applied to the JPDF modeling for multiple wind farms. The specific steps of AMNKDE were as follows: First, the model of AMNKDE was constructed using the optimal bandwidth. Second, an optimal model of bandwidth based on Euclidean distance and maximum distance was constructed, and the comprehensive minimum of these distances was used as a measure of optimal bandwidth. Finally, the ordinal optimization (OO) algorithm was used to solve this model. The scenario results indicated that the overall fitness error of the AMNKDE method was 8.81% and 11.6% lower than that of the traditional MNKDE method and the Copula-based parameter estimation method, respectively. After replacing the modeling object the overall fitness error of the comprehensive Copula method increased by as much as 1.94 times that of AMNKDE. In summary, the proposed approach not only possesses higher accuracy and better applicability but also solved the local adaptability problem of the traditional MNKDE. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling of Wind Turbines and Wind Farms)
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Open AccessArticle
Development of a Computational System to Improve Wind Farm Layout, Part II: Wind Turbine Wakes Interaction
Energies 2019, 12(7), 1328; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12071328 - 06 Apr 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
The second part of this work describes a wind turbine Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation capable of modeling wake effects. The work is intended to establish a computational framework from which to investigate wind farm layout. Following the first part of this work [...] Read more.
The second part of this work describes a wind turbine Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation capable of modeling wake effects. The work is intended to establish a computational framework from which to investigate wind farm layout. Following the first part of this work that described the near wake flow field, the physical domain of the validated model in the near wake was adapted and extended to include the far wake. Additionally, the numerical approach implemented allowed to efficiently model the effects of the wake interaction between rows in a wind farm with reduced computational costs. The influence of some wind farm design parameters on the wake development was assessed: Tip Speed Ratio (TSR), free-stream velocity, and pitch angle. The results showed that the velocity and turbulence intensity profiles in the far wake are dependent on the TSR. The wake profile did not present significant sensitivity to the pitch angle for values kept close to the designed condition. The capability of the proposed CFD model showed to be consistent when compared with field data and kinematical models results, presenting similar ranges of wake deficit. In conclusion, the computational models proposed in this work can be used to improve wind farm layout considering wake effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling of Wind Turbines and Wind Farms)
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Open AccessArticle
Wind Energy Prediction in Highly Complex Terrain by Computational Fluid Dynamics
Energies 2019, 12(7), 1311; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12071311 - 05 Apr 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
With rising levels of wind power penetration in global electricity production, the relevance of wind power prediction is growing. More accurate forecasts reduce the required total amount of energy reserve capacity needed to ensure grid reliability and the risk of penalty for wind [...] Read more.
With rising levels of wind power penetration in global electricity production, the relevance of wind power prediction is growing. More accurate forecasts reduce the required total amount of energy reserve capacity needed to ensure grid reliability and the risk of penalty for wind farm operators. This study analyzes the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software WindSim regarding its ability to perform accurate wind power predictions in complex terrain. Simulations of the wind field and wind farm power output in the Swiss Jura Mountains at the location of the Juvent Wind Farm during winter were performed. The study site features the combined presence of three complexities: topography, heterogeneous vegetation including forest, and interactions between wind turbine wakes. Hence, it allows a comprehensive evaluation of the software. Various turbulence models, forest models, and wake models, as well as the effects of domain size and grid resolution were evaluated against wind and power observations from nine Vestas V90’s 2.0-MW turbines. The results show that, with a proper combination of modeling options, WindSim is able to predict the performance of the wind farm with sufficient accuracy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling of Wind Turbines and Wind Farms)
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Open AccessArticle
Development of a Computational System to Improve Wind Farm Layout, Part I: Model Validation and Near Wake Analysis
Energies 2019, 12(5), 940; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12050940 - 12 Mar 2019
Cited by 7
Abstract
The first part of this work describes the validation of a wind turbine farm Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation using literature velocity wake data from the MEXICO (Model Experiments in Controlled Conditions) experiment. The work is intended to establish a computational framework from [...] Read more.
The first part of this work describes the validation of a wind turbine farm Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation using literature velocity wake data from the MEXICO (Model Experiments in Controlled Conditions) experiment. The work is intended to establish a computational framework from which to investigate wind farm layout, seeking to validate the simulation and identify parameters influencing the wake. A CFD model was designed to mimic the MEXICO rotor experimental conditions and simulate new operating conditions with regards to tip speed ratio and pitch angle. The validation showed that the computational results qualitatively agree with the experimental data. Considering the designed tip speed ratio (TSR) of 6.6, the deficit of velocity in the wake remains at rate of approximately 15% of the free-stream velocity per rotor diameter regardless of the free-stream velocity applied. Moreover, analysis of a radial traverse right behind the rotor showed an increase of 20% in the velocity deficit as the TSR varied from TSR = 6 to TSR = 10, corresponding to an increase ratio of approximately 5% m·s−1 per dimensionless unit of TSR. We conclude that the near wake characteristics of a wind turbine are strongly influenced by the TSR and the pitch angle. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling of Wind Turbines and Wind Farms)
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Open AccessArticle
Dynamic Modeling and Robust Controllers Design for Doubly Fed Induction Generator-Based Wind Turbines under Unbalanced Grid Fault Conditions
Energies 2019, 12(3), 454; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12030454 - 31 Jan 2019
Cited by 8
Abstract
High penetration of large capacity wind turbines into power grid has led to serious concern about its influence on the dynamic behaviors of the power system. Unbalanced grid voltage causing DC-voltage fluctuations and DC-link capacitor large harmonic current which results in degrading reliability [...] Read more.
High penetration of large capacity wind turbines into power grid has led to serious concern about its influence on the dynamic behaviors of the power system. Unbalanced grid voltage causing DC-voltage fluctuations and DC-link capacitor large harmonic current which results in degrading reliability and lifespan of capacitor used in voltage source converter. Furthermore, due to magnetic saturation in the generator and non-linear loads distorted active and reactive power delivered to the grid, violating grid code. This paper provides a detailed investigation of dynamic behavior and transient characteristics of Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) during grid faults and voltage sags. It also presents novel grid side controllers, Adaptive Proportional Integral Controller (API) and Proportional Resonant with Resonant Harmonic Compensator (PR+RHC) which eliminate the negative impact of unbalanced grid voltage on the DC-capacitor as well as achieving harmonic filtering by compensating harmonics which improve power quality. Proposed algorithm focuses on mitigation of harmonic currents and voltage fluctuation in DC-capacitor making capacitor more reliable under transient grid conditions as well as distorted active and reactive power delivered to the electric grid. MATLAB/Simulink simulation of 2 MW DFIG model with 1150 V DC-linked voltage has been considered for validating the effectiveness of proposed control algorithms. The proposed controllers performance authenticates robust, ripples free, and fault-tolerant capability. In addition, performance indices and Total Harmonic Distortions (THD) are also calculated to verify the robustness of the designed controller. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling of Wind Turbines and Wind Farms)
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Open AccessArticle
On Modelling Wind-Farm Wake Turbulence Autospectra and Coherence from a Database
Energies 2019, 12(1), 120; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12010120 - 30 Dec 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
This study addresses the feasibility of modeling wind-farm wake-turbulence autospectra and coherences from a database: flow velocity points from experimental and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) investigations. Specifically, it first applies an earlier-exercised framework to construct the autospectral models from a database and then [...] Read more.
This study addresses the feasibility of modeling wind-farm wake-turbulence autospectra and coherences from a database: flow velocity points from experimental and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) investigations. Specifically, it first applies an earlier-exercised framework to construct the autospectral models from a database and then it adopts a recently proposed framework to construct the coherence models from a database. While this proposed framework has not been tested against a database, the methodology has been completely formulated with a theoretical basis. These models of autospectrum and coherence are interpretive, and in closed form. Both frameworks basically involve the perturbation series expansion of the autospectra and coherences. The framework for modeling autospectra is tested against a demanding database of wake turbulence inside a wind farm over a complex terrain from a full-scale test. The suitability of these autospectral models for simulation through white-noise driven filters is also demonstrated. Finally, coherence models are generated for assumed values of the perturbation series constants, and these coherence models are used to demonstrate how the coherence models of homogeneous isotropic turbulence deviate from the coherence models of non-homogeneous non-isotropic turbulence such as wind-farm wake turbulence. This feasibility of extracting both the one-point statistics of autospectral models and the two-point statistics of coherence models from a database represents a research avenue that is new and promising in the treatment of wind-farm wake turbulence. This paper also demonstrates the feasibility of fruitfully exploiting the wake treatment methods developed in other fields. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling of Wind Turbines and Wind Farms)
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Open AccessArticle
Fast Power Reserve Emulation Strategy for VSWT Supporting Frequency Control in Multi-Area Power Systems
Energies 2018, 11(10), 2775; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11102775 - 16 Oct 2018
Cited by 7
Abstract
The integration of renewables into power systems involves significant targets and new scenarios with an important role for these alternative resources, mainly wind and PV power plants. Among the different objectives, frequency control strategies and new reserve analysis are currently considered as a [...] Read more.
The integration of renewables into power systems involves significant targets and new scenarios with an important role for these alternative resources, mainly wind and PV power plants. Among the different objectives, frequency control strategies and new reserve analysis are currently considered as a major concern in power system stability and reliability studies. This paper aims to provide an analysis of multi-area power systems submitted to power imbalances, considering a high wind power penetration in line with certain European energy road-maps. Frequency control strategies applied to wind power plants from different areas are studied and compared for simulation purposes, including conventional generation units. Different parameters, such as nadir values, stabilization time intervals and tie-line active power exchanges are also analyzed. Detailed generation unit models are included in the paper. The results provide relevant information on the influence of multi-area scenarios on the global frequency response, including participation of wind power plants in system frequency control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling of Wind Turbines and Wind Farms)
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Open AccessArticle
Numerical Investigation of Terrain-Induced Turbulence in Complex Terrain by Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) Technique
Energies 2018, 11(10), 2638; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11102638 - 02 Oct 2018
Cited by 7
Abstract
In the present study, field observation wind data from the time of the wind turbine blade damage accident on Shiratakiyama Wind Farm were analyzed in detail. In parallel, high-resolution large-eddy simulation (LES) turbulence simulations were performed in order to examine the model’s ability [...] Read more.
In the present study, field observation wind data from the time of the wind turbine blade damage accident on Shiratakiyama Wind Farm were analyzed in detail. In parallel, high-resolution large-eddy simulation (LES) turbulence simulations were performed in order to examine the model’s ability to numerically reproduce terrain-induced turbulence (turbulence intensity) under strong wind conditions (8.0–9.0 m/s at wind turbine hub height). Since the wind velocity and time acquired from the numerical simulation are dimensionless, they are converted to full scale. As a consequence, both the standard deviation of the horizontal wind speed (m/s) and turbulence intensity evaluated from the field observation and simulated wind data are successfully in close agreement. To investigate the cause of the wind turbine blade damage accident on Shiratakiyama Wind Farm, a power spectral analysis was performed on the fluctuating components of the observed time series data of wind speed (1 s average values) for a 10 min period (total of 600 data) by using a fast Fourier transform (FFT). It was suggested that the terrain-induced turbulence which caused the wind turbine blade damage accident on Shiratakiyama Wind Farm was attributable to rapid wind speed and direction fluctuations which were caused by vortex shedding from Tenjogadake (elevation: 691.1 m) located upstream of the wind farm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling of Wind Turbines and Wind Farms)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Short-Circuit Current Calculation and Harmonic Characteristic Analysis for a Doubly-Fed Induction Generator Wind Turbine under Converter Control
Energies 2018, 11(9), 2471; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11092471 - 17 Sep 2018
Cited by 5
Abstract
An accurate calculation of short-circuit current (SCC) is very important for relay protection setting and optimization design of electrical equipment. The short-circuit current for a doubly-fed induction generator wind turbine (DFIG-WT) under excitation regulation of a converter contains the stator current and grid-side [...] Read more.
An accurate calculation of short-circuit current (SCC) is very important for relay protection setting and optimization design of electrical equipment. The short-circuit current for a doubly-fed induction generator wind turbine (DFIG-WT) under excitation regulation of a converter contains the stator current and grid-side converter (GSC) current. The transient characteristics of GSC current are controlled by double closed-loops of the converter and influenced by fluctuations of direct current (DC) bus voltage, which is characterized as high order, multiple variables, and strong coupling, resulting in great difficulty with analysis. Existing studies are mainly focused on the stator current, neglecting or only considering the steady-state short-circuit current of GSC, resulting in errors in the short-circuit calculation of DFIG-WT. This paper constructs a DFIG-WT total current analytical model involving GSC current. Based on Fourier decomposition of switch functions and the frequency domain analytical method, the fluctuation of DC bus voltage is considered and described in detail. With the proposed DFIG-WT short-circuit current analytical model, the generation mechanism and evolution law of harmonic components are revealed quantitatively, especially the second harmonic component, which has a great influence on transformer protection. The accuracies of the theoretical analysis and mathematical model are verified by comparing calculation results with simulation results and low-voltage ride-through (LVRT) field test data of a real DFIG. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling of Wind Turbines and Wind Farms)
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Open AccessArticle
Comparative Analysis of Bearing Current in Wind Turbine Generators
Energies 2018, 11(5), 1305; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11051305 - 20 May 2018
Cited by 11
Abstract
Bearing current problems frequently appear in wind turbine systems, which cause wind turbines the break down and result in very large losses. This paper investigates and compares bearing current problems in three kinds of wind turbine generators, namely doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG), direct-drive [...] Read more.
Bearing current problems frequently appear in wind turbine systems, which cause wind turbines the break down and result in very large losses. This paper investigates and compares bearing current problems in three kinds of wind turbine generators, namely doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG), direct-drive permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG), and semi-direct-drive PMSG turbines. Common mode voltage (CMV) of converters is introduced firstly. Then stray capacitances of three kinds of generators are calculated and compared through the finite element method. The bearing current equivalent circuits are proposed and simulations of the bearing current are carried out. It is verified that the bearing currents of DFIGs are more serious than the two kinds of PMSG, while common mode current (CMC) of the direct-drive PMSG is much greater than the other two types of wind turbine generators. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling of Wind Turbines and Wind Farms)
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