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Investigations on the Unsteady Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Horizontal-Axis Wind Turbine during Dynamic Yaw Processes

1
Key Laboratory of Condition Monitoring and Control for Power Plant Equipment, Ministry of Education, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206, China
2
China Huaneng Clean Energy Research Institute, Beijing 102209, China
3
Department of Aerospace Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2019, 12(16), 3124; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12163124
Received: 11 June 2019 / Revised: 29 July 2019 / Accepted: 7 August 2019 / Published: 14 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling of Wind Turbines and Wind Farms)
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Abstract

Wind turbines inevitably experience yawed flows, resulting in fluctuations of the angle of attack (AOA) of airfoils, which can considerably impact the aerodynamic characteristics of the turbine blades. In this paper, a horizontal-axis wind turbine (HAWT) was modeled using a structured grid with multiple blocks. Then, the aerodynamic characteristics of the wind turbine were investigated under static and dynamic yawed conditions using the Unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) method. In addition, start-stop yawing rotations at two different velocities were studied. The results suggest that AOA fluctuation under yawing conditions is caused by two separate effects: blade advancing & retreating and upwind & downwind yawing. At a positive yaw angle, the blade advancing & retreating effect causes a maximum AOA at an azimuth angle of 0°. Moreover, the effect is more dominant in inboard airfoils compared to outboard airfoils. The upwind & downwind yawing effect occurs when the wind turbine experiences dynamic yawing motion. The effect increases the AOA when the blade is yawing upwind and vice versa. The phenomena become more dominant with the increase of yawing rate. The torque of the blade in the forward yawing condition is much higher than in backward yawing, owing to the reversal of the yaw velocity. View Full-Text
Keywords: HAWT; aerodynamic characteristics; dynamic yawing process; near wake; start-stop yaw velocity HAWT; aerodynamic characteristics; dynamic yawing process; near wake; start-stop yaw velocity
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Wang, X.; Ye, Z.; Kang, S.; Hu, H. Investigations on the Unsteady Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Horizontal-Axis Wind Turbine during Dynamic Yaw Processes. Energies 2019, 12, 3124.

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