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Special Issue "Energy Supply within Sustainable Agricultural Production: Challenges, Policies and Mechanisms"

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "C: Energy Economics and Policy".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2021) | Viewed by 33209

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Piotr Gradziuk
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Rural and Agricultural Development, Polish Academy of Sciences (IRWiR PAN), Nowy Świat St. 72, 00-330 Warsaw, Poland
Interests: efficiency of renewable energy sources; socio-economic transformations in rural areas; efficiency and productivity
Prof. Dr. Bogdan Klepacki
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Economics and Finance of the Warsaw University of Life Sciences (SGGW) in Warsaw, 02-787 Warszawa, Poland
Interests: agricultural development; renewable energy sources in agriculture; biofuels
Prof. Dr. Mariusz J. Stolarski
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Plant Breeding and Seed Production, Faculty of Environmental Management and Agriculture, Centre for Bioeconomy and Renewable Energies, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Pl. Łódzki 3, 10-724 Olsztyn, Poland
Interests: industrial and energy crops; biomass and byproducts; energy and economic efficiency; biomass production, harvesting, and logistics; multipurpose biomass utilization; bioproducts; biofuels; bioeconomy
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Energy supply is crucial for the agricultural sector to ensure its sustainability and continuous delivery of its key functions. This has to be performed in harmony with the existing and future challenges, including (but not limited to) economic, social, and environmental. While efficient energy generation for the needs of agricultural production is important, it is also agriculture that provides renewable energy to other economy sectors, thus being a key element of the complex energy generation system.

This issue welcomes papers related to existing and possible challenges, acting and feasible policies and mechanisms to ensure achievement and maintenance of a) sustainable agricultural production through the subsistent supply of energy, and b) generation of renewable energy by the agricultural sector to be distributed through the market to other economic sectors. The issue especially encourages multidisciplinary approaches (combining economics, engineering, sociology, management, psychology, geography, philosophy, etc.), various quantitative techniques (including econometrics, modeling, bibliometric studies, system and network analyses), and qualitative analyses (including case studies, content analysis, choice experiments, etc.). The issue intends to link together research on agricultural sustainability and its generation of energy. It also aims to contribute to policy debate on supporting agricultural development locally, regionally or globally to assure its input into sustainability through increasing delivery of renewable energy. Hence, the relevant questions are what enhances the sustainability of agricultural production and how that can be practically achieved through the increase of efficiency in use of energy and other related resources. This Special Issue aims to be of service to policy makers dealing with sustainability, energy, and agricultural policies. The papers should also give some insight into solutions working in times of crises, such as global economic crises (e.g., 2008/2009), world embargoes (e.g., Russian embargo of 2014) or COVID-19, as both supply and demand fluctuate in times of extraordinary conditions arising from economic, social, environmental, and other shocks.

Prof. Dr. Piotr Gradziuk
Prof. Dr. Bogdan Klepacki
Prof. Dr. Mariusz Stolarski
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Sustainability
  • Agriculture
  • Agricultural policy
  • Energy policy
  • Environmental policy
  • Renewable energy sources
  • Self-sufficiency
  • Development strategies
  • Bioeconomy
  • Challenges
  • Shocks
  • Uncertainty

Published Papers (29 papers)

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Research

Article
Legal Framework for the Sustainable Production of Short Rotation Coppice Biomass for Bioeconomy and Bioenergy
Energies 2022, 15(4), 1370; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15041370 - 14 Feb 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 411
Abstract
The production of lignocellulose biomass on dedicated plantations is an option that facilitates the implementation of sustainable development policy. The novelty of this type of research is that it involves the use of various types of methods—economic and legal analyses within a particular [...] Read more.
The production of lignocellulose biomass on dedicated plantations is an option that facilitates the implementation of sustainable development policy. The novelty of this type of research is that it involves the use of various types of methods—economic and legal analyses within a particular subject. This makes it possible to obtain a holistic view of the chosen case study. The purpose of this study was to determine whether setting up a Short Rotation Coppice (SRC) plantation of willow (Salix spp.) and poplar (Populus spp.) was economically profitable and if the legal regulations supported this type of production. The economic data are based on an experimental case study. The economic profitability of the plantations was assessed through an analysis of discounted cash flows, net present value (NPV), internal rate of return (IRR), and profitability index (PI). The legal analysis of the relevant EU and Polish legal solutions was based on a dogmatic approach. The study demonstrated that SRC cultivation was mostly hindered by economic factors, including the low selling price of biomass as an energy resource and the high costs of harvest. Meanwhile, in the analysed period, i.e., from 2015 to 2020, there were no additional legal or economic forms of support for this type of production that was addressed directly to lignocellulose biomass producers, with the exception of the standard support under the Common Agricultural Policy framework. The results of this study provide information for decisionmakers about the opportunities and challenges experienced during the development of SRC plantations. Full article
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Article
An Economic Assessment of the Impact on Agriculture of the Proposed Changes in EU Biofuel Policy Mechanisms
Energies 2021, 14(21), 6982; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14216982 - 25 Oct 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 579
Abstract
In Poland, rapeseed production has been the fastest growing branch of plant production since 2000. Rapeseed yields have increased 2.5 times in the last 20 years. The main reason for this trend was the implementation of obligations resulting from legal acts by Member [...] Read more.
In Poland, rapeseed production has been the fastest growing branch of plant production since 2000. Rapeseed yields have increased 2.5 times in the last 20 years. The main reason for this trend was the implementation of obligations resulting from legal acts by Member States relating to increasing the share of RES in the structure of primary energy production, and in particular relating to the share of biofuels in fuels used in transport. In Poland in the years 2010–2020, about 1.0–1.6 million tonnes of rape seeds were used for this purpose annually. Due to the fact that biofuel production competes for raw materials with the food economy, at the end of the first decade of the 21st century, many representatives of various circles intensified their voices, calling for withdrawal from the policy supporting the biofuel sector, which may have resulted in a decrease in oilseed plant cultivation areas. As a result of the research conducted here, it was determined that the place of oilseed rape in the sowing structure will be taken by rye, triticale and, on good soils, by wheat. Compared to rape, their production is characterised by lower income per 1 ha; in the years 2013–2019, these differences amounted to: wheat—8 EUR, triticale—102.3 EUR, and rye—168 EUR. This situation will deteriorate the value cereal cultivation sites and will result in a decrease in their yields. On the basis of the conducted research, the estimated value of rape as a forecrop for wheat, triticale, and rye was, respectively: 103.7; 64.6 and 46.7 EUR. An additional advantage of oilseed rape is that it is an excellent bee resource and is classified as a commodity crop, i.e., one from which significant amounts of honey can be obtained, with a net value of EUR 55 per hectare. In addition, in many agricultural holdings, as a result of forecasted changes in plant production, there will be an accumulation of field work during the harvest period, which will also affect the worse use of machinery and storage areas. The consequence of increasing the area under which cereal crops and their supply can grow may be the decline in production profitability and thus the income situation of farms, but this will be assessed at the next stage of research. Full article
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Article
GHGs Emission from the Agricultural Sector within EU-28: A Multivariate Analysis Approach
Energies 2021, 14(20), 6495; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14206495 - 11 Oct 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 745
Abstract
Climate mitigation and adaptation planning (CMAP) has recently been implemented across the EU-28 to reduce GHG emissions (CO2, CH4, N2O). Thus, the aim of this study was to provide an overview of GHG emissions from the agricultural [...] Read more.
Climate mitigation and adaptation planning (CMAP) has recently been implemented across the EU-28 to reduce GHG emissions (CO2, CH4, N2O). Thus, the aim of this study was to provide an overview of GHG emissions from the agricultural sector in the EU-28 from 1990 to 2019, and cluster the EU-28 countries regarding their total GHG emissions. The results emphasize the positive impact of CMAP through a negative trend of the total GHG emissions (−2653.01 thousand tons/year, p < 0.05). Despite the positive and not significant trend of the total CO2 emissions, both CH4 and N2O exhibited a negative and significant trend. At the country scale, Italy, the United Kingdom, and the Netherlands showed the highest reduction in total GHG emissions, by −282.61thousand tons/year (p < 0.05), −266.40 thousand tons/year (p < 0.05), and −262.91 thousand tons/year (p < 0.05), respectively. The output of the multivariate analysis approach indicates changes in the pattern of GHG emissions between 1990 and 2019, where CO2 emissions decreased in the case of Poland and Czechia. The output of this study highlights the positive impact of CMAP, adopted by EU countries, in minimizing GHG emissions. Despite some fluctuations in CO2 emissions, strategies for attaining carbon neutrality in the agricultural sector, across the European Union, should be pursued. Full article
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Article
Economic Implications of Agricultural Land Conversion to Solar Power Production
Energies 2021, 14(19), 6063; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14196063 - 23 Sep 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 781
Abstract
Meeting greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction targets will require a significant increase in electricity production from sustainable and renewable sources such as solar energy. Farmers have recognized this need as a chance to increase the profitability of their farms by allocating farmland to solar [...] Read more.
Meeting greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction targets will require a significant increase in electricity production from sustainable and renewable sources such as solar energy. Farmers have recognized this need as a chance to increase the profitability of their farms by allocating farmland to solar power production. However, the shift from agriculture to power production has many tradeoffs, arising primarily from alternative land uses and other means of production. This paper models the farmers’ decision as a constrained profit maximization problem, subject to the amount of land owned by the farmers, who have to allocate it between agriculture and solar power fields, while considering factors affecting production costs. The farmers’ problem is nested in the social welfare maximization problem, which includes additional factors such as ecological and aesthetical values of the competing land uses. Empirical analysis using data from a solar field operating in Israel shows that landowners will choose to have solar power production on their land unless agricultural production generates an unusually high net income. Adding the values of non-market services provided by agricultural land does not change this result. The consideration of the reduction in GHG emissions further increases the social welfare from solar fields. Full article
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Article
Factors Affecting the Adoption of Photovoltaic Systems in Rural Areas of Poland
Energies 2021, 14(17), 5272; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14175272 - 25 Aug 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 700
Abstract
The paper aims to identify and explain the factors influencing the decision-making process on the behavioural intention to use home photovoltaic systems by Polish households and potential buyers. The survey was conducted in 2021 on a sample of 521 participants. The research used [...] Read more.
The paper aims to identify and explain the factors influencing the decision-making process on the behavioural intention to use home photovoltaic systems by Polish households and potential buyers. The survey was conducted in 2021 on a sample of 521 participants. The research used a random sample of households without PV systems located in the rural areas in Poland, where the adoption of innovative technologies related to obtaining energy from renewable sources is especially important. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was applied to measure structural relationships. The main finding indicates that consumer innovativeness has the strongest impact on the intention to purchase a photovoltaic installation. The perceived value also affects the intention to purchase a photovoltaic installation. The perceived value is affected by perceived economic benefits and indirectly by the subjective knowledge of PV. Surprisingly, environmental concerns negatively affect the intention to use PV installations. Full article
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Article
The Role of Agriculture and Rural Areas in the Development of Autonomous Energy Regions in Poland
Energies 2021, 14(13), 4033; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14134033 - 04 Jul 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 810
Abstract
In many countries, energy security is treated as a priority for the coming decades, and at the same time energy production from the vast majority conventional energy sources does not meet environmental protection criteria. Hence, the need to use renewable energy sources (RES), [...] Read more.
In many countries, energy security is treated as a priority for the coming decades, and at the same time energy production from the vast majority conventional energy sources does not meet environmental protection criteria. Hence, the need to use renewable energy sources (RES), which can largely satisfy energy needs. The aim of the study was to identify possibilities of creating autonomous energy regions (ARE) in Poland, based on renewable energy sources. Attention was paid to the role and significance of the potential of rural areas in this respect, taking into account the possibilities of increasing energy production from these sources in individual regions of Poland. The research was conducted on a regional level (division into voivodships) and on a local level (division into powiats, which form voivodships). When assessing the potential for constructing ARE based on RES, the following energy sources were taken into account: water, wind, sun, biogas and biomass. It was found that the highest RES potential versus energy consumption can be obtained in powiats where the share of arable land and forests exceeds 80%. The research showed that in most regions of Poland (powiats, voivodships), there is a large potential for obtaining additional energy from RES, which would cover over 73% of the country’s demand for electricity. This could be the basis for building energy independence on a local scale. The results of the study indicated that as many as seven regions would become self-sufficient in terms of electricity demand. Full article
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Article
Sources of Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Agriculture, with Particular Emphasis on Emissions from Energy Used
Energies 2021, 14(13), 3784; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14133784 - 23 Jun 2021
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 1871
Abstract
The relationship between agriculture and climate change is two-sided. Agriculture is the branch of the economy most affected by the ongoing processes. It is also a large emitter of greenhouse gases and there are more and more voices about the need to reduce [...] Read more.
The relationship between agriculture and climate change is two-sided. Agriculture is the branch of the economy most affected by the ongoing processes. It is also a large emitter of greenhouse gases and there are more and more voices about the need to reduce emissions. The purpose of the study was, based on FADN (Farm Accountancy Data Network) data, to determine the structure of greenhouse gas emissions in farms and to identify types of farms where it is possible to reduce GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions through better energy use. The emission volume was determined on the basis of the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) methodology modified for the FADN data. The emissions related to the production of energy were found to be of minor importance compared to other emission sources. Only in the horticultural crop type is the emission from the Energy section the dominant stream of GHG emission. The greatest emissions come from livestock production. Therefore, the emphasis on reducing emissions should not be placed on the Energy sector because, except for the type of horticultural farm, there is not much potential for reduction. The introduction of taxes for GHG emissions at the level of 27.31 EUR/t would reduce farm income from 21% for the type of field crops to 40% for the type of herbivorous animals. The exception is low-emission permanent crops, where the decrease in income would be only 3.85%. Full article
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Article
Solid Biomass Energy Potential as a Development Opportunity for Rural Communities
Energies 2021, 14(12), 3398; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14123398 - 09 Jun 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1382
Abstract
Conventional energy sources often do not fully satisfy the needs of a modern economy, especially given the climate changes associated with them. These issues should be addressed by diversification of energy generation, including the development of renewable energy sources (RES). Solid biomass will [...] Read more.
Conventional energy sources often do not fully satisfy the needs of a modern economy, especially given the climate changes associated with them. These issues should be addressed by diversification of energy generation, including the development of renewable energy sources (RES). Solid biomass will play a major part in the process in Poland. The function of rural areas, along with a well-developed agricultural and forest economy sector, will be a key aspect in this as these areas are suitable for solid biomass acquisition in various ways. This study aimed to determine the solid biomass energy potential in the commune of Goworowo to illustrate the potential in the smallest administrative units of Poland. This research determined the environmental and natural conditions in the commune, which helped to identify the crucial usable solid biomass resources. The total energy potential of solid biomass resources in the commune of Goworowo amounted to 97,672 GJ y−1. The highest potential was accumulated in straw surplus (37,288 GJ y−1) and the lowest was in wood from roadside maintenance (113 GJ y−1). This study showed that rural areas could soon play a significant role in obtaining solid biomass, and individual communes could become spaces for the diversification of energy feedstock. Full article
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Article
Investments in Renewable Energy Sources in Basic Units of Local Government in Rural Areas
Energies 2021, 14(11), 3170; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14113170 - 28 May 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1039
Abstract
The main purpose of the study was to identify the level and factors influencing investments in renewable energy sources (RES) in basic local government units in rural areas. The specific objectives were to define the conditions for the development of renewable energy sources [...] Read more.
The main purpose of the study was to identify the level and factors influencing investments in renewable energy sources (RES) in basic local government units in rural areas. The specific objectives were to define the conditions for the development of renewable energy sources in Poland, to determine the directions of changes as well as the importance of renewable energy in Poland, to present the relationship between the level of expenditure on renewable energy and budget components in rural and rural-urban communes. The Świętokrzyskie voivodeship (Voivodship—a unit of the highest administration level in Poland, since 1990 a unit of the primary territorial division of government administration, since 1999 also a unit of local government, there were 16 voivodships in Poland), which is one of the centrally located voivodeships in Poland, was purposefully selected for the research. The research period covered the years 2016–2019. The sources of materials were the literature on the subject, as well as empirical materials obtained at the Voivodeship Statistical Office. The following methods were used for the analysis and presentation of materials: descriptive, tabular, graphical, Gini concentration coefficient, Lorenz concentration curve, Kendall’s tau correlation coefficient and Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient. Poland is one of the countries with quite high dependence on hard and brown coal. Changes in the structure of energy sources are slow. Investments in renewable energy are necessary. The problem in this respect is the lack of a proper law. Despite this, investments in renewable energy are being made in rural areas. In the Świętokrzyskie voivodeship, only 28% of communes made such investments. It was found that only in urban rural communes the amount of investment expenditures in renewable energy sources was related to the level of budget expenditures and property expenditures of the commune. The amount of support from the European Union aid funds was positively correlated with the level of expenditure on investments in renewable energy. Therefore, it can be concluded that without the support from EU funds, it is not possible to invest in renewable energy in local government units. Full article
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Article
Economic and Social Aspects of Using Energy from PV and Solar Installations in Farmers’ Households in the Podkarpackie Region
Energies 2021, 14(11), 3158; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14113158 - 28 May 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 841
Abstract
The growing energy needs of agriculture, the need to reduce the burning of fossil fuels, and, on the other hand, the increasing technical efficiency are contributing to the wider use of solar energy technology in agriculture. The aim of the article is to [...] Read more.
The growing energy needs of agriculture, the need to reduce the burning of fossil fuels, and, on the other hand, the increasing technical efficiency are contributing to the wider use of solar energy technology in agriculture. The aim of the article is to identify factors determining farmers’ investments in solar photovoltaic and solar thermal installations for electricity and heat production, to establish the proportion between the consumption of such energy for the needs of the farmer’s family and for the needs of the farm, and to identify the drivers of solar energy use in agricultural production. Empirical materials were collected through surveys of farmers conducted at the end of 2020 in south-eastern Poland, in the Podkarpackie region. It is a region characterized by significant land fragmentation. Producing energy from renewable sources can be an opportunity for farmers not only to reduce household expenses, but also to increase agricultural income. As a result, it can be a driver of sustainable agricultural development in the region. The article presents the most important economic and social determinants that stimulate the adoption of solar photovoltaic and solar thermal technologies by farmers for the needs of their households as well as for agricultural production. Full article
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Article
The Role of Renewable Energy Sources in Alleviating Energy Poverty in Households in Poland
Energies 2021, 14(10), 2957; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14102957 - 20 May 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1080
Abstract
Energy poverty is a problem that affects all member states of the European Union to a varying degree, including Poland, where about 9% of the population is at risk of energy poverty. The article aims to show the changes in energy poverty in [...] Read more.
Energy poverty is a problem that affects all member states of the European Union to a varying degree, including Poland, where about 9% of the population is at risk of energy poverty. The article aims to show the changes in energy poverty in Poland in 2010–2018. The specific goal, however, is to evaluate government measures aimed at reducing energy poverty through investments based on renewable energy sources. To present changes in the level of energy poverty in 2010–2018, the authors proposed a new synthetic measure that unifies several different measures used by researchers and allows for a comprehensive assessment of this phenomenon. The conducted research showed that in 2010–2018 there was a slow but visible decrease in the level of energy poverty in Poland. In addition, the article indicates investments in renewable energy sources that may have a positive impact on reducing the scale of energy poverty in Poland. The programs implemented with national and EU public funds, which finance investments in renewable energy sources in Poland, are also presented. Full article
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Article
Energy Policy of European Union Member States in the Context of Renewable Energy Sources Development
Energies 2021, 14(10), 2864; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14102864 - 15 May 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 873
Abstract
As a consequence of increasing air pollution, the European Commission has decided to introduce special directives laying down the measures to achieve climate and energy neutrality. Renewable energy (RE) sources play an important role in the pursuit of these goals, which has been [...] Read more.
As a consequence of increasing air pollution, the European Commission has decided to introduce special directives laying down the measures to achieve climate and energy neutrality. Renewable energy (RE) sources play an important role in the pursuit of these goals, which has been taken into account in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. The aim of this article is to describe patterns and trends in the achievements of the energy policy of European Union (EU) countries in the field of renewable energy in sustainable development. The identification of leaders in this field gives the possibility to analyse actions taken by the governments of these countries and the possible implementation of the introduced solutions on the ground of individual Member States at the regional and national levels. At the beginning Main goal of energy policy on the field of renewable energy sources (RES) is to increase production from environmentally friendly sources that is why trends were determined in order to assess the rate of achievement of the national target for changes the share of energy from renewable sources in total gross energy consumption. Groups of similar countries were then identified on the basis of three indicators corresponding to the targets set in the climate and energy package. In the group of analysed countries, 14 have achieved the 2020 targets and 4 have exceeded the 2030 targets. The main renewable energy sources (RES) are biofuels, wind, and hydropower. In the assessment of the achievement of energy policy targets, the best situation was observed in the case of Denmark, Ireland, and the United Kingdom. These countries have significantly increased the share of renewable energy in total energy consumption. Compared to other EU countries, they have reduced the economy’s energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions the most. Full article
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Article
Renewable Energy Attitudes and Behaviour of Local Governments in Poland
Energies 2021, 14(10), 2765; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14102765 - 12 May 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 787
Abstract
The deployment of renewable energy at the local level can contribute significantly to mitigating climate change, improving energy security and increasing social, economic and environmental benefits. In many countries local authorities play an important role in the local development, but renewable energy deployment [...] Read more.
The deployment of renewable energy at the local level can contribute significantly to mitigating climate change, improving energy security and increasing social, economic and environmental benefits. In many countries local authorities play an important role in the local development, but renewable energy deployment is not an obligatory task for them. Hence there are two research questions: (1) Do local governments think investments in renewable energy (RE) are urgent and affordable within the local budgets? (2) How do they react to the public aid co-financing investments in renewable energy? To provide the answer we performed qualitative analysis and non-parametric tests of data from a survey of 252 local authorities, analysis of 292 strategies of local development and datasets of 1170 renewable energy projects co-financed by EU funds under operational programs 2007–2013 and 2014–2020 in Poland. Findings showed that local authorities’ attitudes were rather careful, caused by financial constraints of local budgets and the scope of obligatory tasks, which made renewable energy investments not the most urgent. Public aid was a factor significantly affecting local authorities’ behavior. It triggered local authorities’ renewable energy initiatives, increasing the number and scope of renewable energy investments as well cooperation with other municipalities and local communities. Despite this general trend, there were also considerable regional differences in local authorities’ renewable energy behavior. Full article
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Article
The Patterns of Energy Innovation Convergence across European Countries
Energies 2021, 14(10), 2755; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14102755 - 11 May 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 837
Abstract
Energy innovation is critical for addressing climate change and the ecological transitions of both developed and emerging economies. The present paper aims at the identification and assessment of patterns in energy innovation convergence across a sample of 27 European countries over the period [...] Read more.
Energy innovation is critical for addressing climate change and the ecological transitions of both developed and emerging economies. The present paper aims at the identification and assessment of patterns in energy innovation convergence across a sample of 27 European countries over the period 2000–2018. The research is based on data covering a broad category of patents related to climate change mitigation technologies in the energy sector, including combustion inventions with mitigation potential (e.g., using biomass), extracted from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Statistical Database. Using a nonlinear time-varying factor model, the paper demonstrates that energy innovation efforts in the examined sample follow a pattern of club convergence. The findings allow the identification of three convergence clubs characterised by distinct disparities in energy patent intensity, as measured by the number of patent applications per 10 million inhabitants. Moreover, the results of an ordered logit model demonstrate that the emergence of the identified convergence clubs might be attributable to initial differences in per capita environmental research and development (R&D) expenditure, human resources in science and technology (HRST), and environmental policy stringency. The findings have important policy implications as they suggest the need for more tailored policies based on smart development and specialization frameworks designed to boost the energy innovation performance of the laggard countries, more fully exploiting the potential of their less technologically advanced sectors, such as agriculture. Full article
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Article
Energy as a Factor of Investment Attractiveness of Regions for Agricultural Enterprises
Energies 2021, 14(9), 2731; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14092731 - 10 May 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 804
Abstract
The aim of the article is to identify and assess the relationship between the investment attractiveness of regions for agricultural enterprises and the energy factor. Classical theories of the location of agriculture emphasise the importance of the market factor. The energy factor has [...] Read more.
The aim of the article is to identify and assess the relationship between the investment attractiveness of regions for agricultural enterprises and the energy factor. Classical theories of the location of agriculture emphasise the importance of the market factor. The energy factor has so far been ignored, despite the global trend related to the increasing importance of production scales and rising energy consumption in agriculture. There are also no methodological proposals that allow a comprehensive assessment of the investment attractiveness of regions for agricultural enterprises, taking into account the leading location factors. The article presents the author’s methodological model based on the weight-correlation method of valorisation of investment attractiveness of regions for economic entities that invest in agricultural production. It contains a sub-aggregate describing the energy factor. This proposal is a contribution to the theory of the location of agriculture in the field of location factor analysis. The developed methodological model is used to explain location decisions of agricultural enterprises at the regional level. Access to energy as well as energy management increase locational advantages and reduce the economic risk of carrying out agricultural activities in economic units, which contributes to an increase in the sustainability of agricultural production. This is especially true in areas dominated in the past by state-owned and cooperative enterprises, which are the dominant group of enterprises in this area after privatization. The proposed methodology was positively verified on the example of Polish regions, as a significant influence of the energy factor on investment attractiveness at the local level was demonstrated. Full article
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Article
External Costs for Agriculture from Lignite Extraction from the Złoczew Deposit
Energies 2021, 14(9), 2660; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14092660 - 06 May 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 644
Abstract
In many circles, including in Poland, lignite is still viewed as a cheap source of energy, which is only possible if the external costs associated with mining and burning coal are not taken into account. In Poland, this is reflected in plans to [...] Read more.
In many circles, including in Poland, lignite is still viewed as a cheap source of energy, which is only possible if the external costs associated with mining and burning coal are not taken into account. In Poland, this is reflected in plans to open new Złoczew opencast lignite mines. In previous studies, the analysis of external costs has focused on the external costs of coal combustion and related pollutant emissions. This paper focuses on the extraction phase. The aim of the work here described was to estimate the external costs that agriculture may incur due to the formation of a depression funnel for the projected lignite mine in the Złoczew deposit. This paper discusses factors causing uncertainty in calculated estimates of external costs in agriculture, and characterizes the Bełchatów and Złoczew opencast mines. In the paper, a methodology for calculating external costs in livestock production is then proposed. In the next part of the study, the decrease in cereal and potato yields and in the number of cattle and pigs in the area of the cone of depression of the Bełchatów opencast mine, which has been in operation for 40 years, were estimated. The estimates obtained formed the basis for estimating external costs for the planned Złoczew lignite opencast. The analyses showed high external costs for plant production and much lower for animal production. The inclusion of the estimated external costs of 12.2 € × kWh−1 in the costs of electricity production will significantly worsen the profitability of launching this opencast. The paper discusses factors causing uncertainty in calculated estimates of external costs in agriculture, and characterizes the Bełchatów and Złoczew opencast mines. The discussion also shows that the level of losses incurred in crop production due to opencast coal mining is similar to the losses incurred in crop production in extremely dry years. Full article
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Article
Does Economic Structure Differentiate the Achievements towards Energy SDG in the EU?
Energies 2021, 14(8), 2229; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14082229 - 16 Apr 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 581
Abstract
Energy sustainability constitutes an important goal for development, as declared at the global and the European levels. Some conditions decisive for energy performance, as suggested by the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis, may be specified by the sectoral structure of production, as industries [...] Read more.
Energy sustainability constitutes an important goal for development, as declared at the global and the European levels. Some conditions decisive for energy performance, as suggested by the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis, may be specified by the sectoral structure of production, as industries vary in the intensity of energy consumption. Nevertheless, sustainability is not automatically induced along with economic development and it is important to identify its determinants. The aim of the study is to empirically verify whether the sectoral structure of an economy differentiates energy sustainability within 28 European Union member states (the EU-28). To fulfil the task, a static approach was adopted and such taxonomic methods as the Ward agglomeration method and linear ordering based on the Hellwig synthetic measure were used. The hypothesis concerning the essential role of structural features in energy achievements was verified by a one-way analysis of variance. Our results do not confirm the decisive role of economic structure in energy performance for the EU-28 states; however, they suggest some complex relationships. The interference between energy performance and sectoral structure mostly concerned primary and final energy consumptions and energy poverty, as well as the shares of agriculture, industry, traditional services and finance in total production. The findings reveal a need for further research into the potential interlinkages between different dimensions of sustainable development (SD). Full article
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Article
Planning and Settlement Conditions for the Development of Renewable Energy Sources in Poland: Conclusions for Local and Regional Policy
Energies 2021, 14(7), 1935; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14071935 - 31 Mar 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 993
Abstract
The article presents an analysis of geographical-settlement and legal-planning conditions for the development of Poland’s distributed generation. The choice of this country is important and interesting due to the highly dispersed settlement, which may be a factor stimulating the development of this type [...] Read more.
The article presents an analysis of geographical-settlement and legal-planning conditions for the development of Poland’s distributed generation. The choice of this country is important and interesting due to the highly dispersed settlement, which may be a factor stimulating the development of this type of energy systems. For this reason, the analysis can be a model for other countries and regions, indicating ways to analyze and evaluate settlement and planning conditions for the development of renewable and distributed energy. At the same time, Poland is struggling with a severe crisis of spatial planning. By analysing these opportunities and threats, empirical analyses try to indicate regularities in this respect in Poland’s regions in a detailed approach to communes and detailed legal and planning conditions. The conclusions emphasise the usefulness of distributed generation development for peripheral and sparsely populated areas of Europe and other parts of the world and appropriate directions of changes in spatial development law. Full article
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Article
The Influence of Opencast Lignite Mining Dehydration on Plant Production—A Methodological Study
Energies 2021, 14(7), 1917; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14071917 - 30 Mar 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 804
Abstract
In many circles, brown coal continues to be viewed as a cheap source of energy, resulting in numerous investments in new opencast brown coal mines. Such a perception of brown coal energy is only possible if the external costs associated with mining and [...] Read more.
In many circles, brown coal continues to be viewed as a cheap source of energy, resulting in numerous investments in new opencast brown coal mines. Such a perception of brown coal energy is only possible if the external costs associated with mining and burning coal are not considered. In past studies, external cost analysis has focused on the external costs of coal burning and associated emissions. This paper focuses on the extraction phase and assesses the external costs to agriculture associated with the resulting depression cone. This paper discusses the difficulties researchers face in estimating agricultural losses resulting from the development of a depression cone due to opencast mineral extraction. In the case of brown coal, the impacts are of a geological, natural-climatic, agricultural-productive, temporal, and spatial nature and result from a multiplicity of interacting factors. Then, a methodology for counting external costs in crop production was proposed. The next section estimates the external costs of crop production arising from the operation of opencast mines in the Konin-Turek brown coal field, which is located in central Poland. The analyses conducted showed a large decrease in grain and potato yields and no effect of the depression cone on sugar beet levels. Including the estimated external costs in the cost of producing electricity from mined brown coal would significantly worsen the profitability of that production. Full article
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Article
Energy Sector Risk and Cost of Capital Assessment—Companies and Investors Perspective
Energies 2021, 14(6), 1613; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14061613 - 14 Mar 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1586
Abstract
This paper aims to identify the costs of capital in a group of companies from the energy sector by including an investor and market risk approach. The study also concerns the company’s Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC) cost intra-industry analysis related to [...] Read more.
This paper aims to identify the costs of capital in a group of companies from the energy sector by including an investor and market risk approach. The study also concerns the company’s Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC) cost intra-industry analysis related to sector characteristics such as total assets, revenues, market capitalization, and companies’ age. In order to assess the intergroup relationships, basic correlation relationships were compared and a nonparametric test of variance was performed. The period under study covered the years 2015–2019. The conducted research evaluates groups of companies that dedicated their activity to a particular energy intra-industry division under numerous regulations in Europe. The study contributes to assessing the level of risk among energy listed companies in European capital markets based on capital structure valuation. The study results underline the role of the cost of equity financing, which was twice as high as the cost of debt. The highest WACC was related to the Beta indicator that also expressed the political and regulatory risk over the investigated period. Across debt cost analysis, the role of effective tax rate decreased the level of WACC. The highest level of WACC was noticed among uranium and integrated oil and gas companies. The study contributes to information asymmetry theory related to the cost of capital assumptions. Full article
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Article
Changes in Energy Consumption in Agriculture in the EU Countries
Energies 2021, 14(6), 1570; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14061570 - 12 Mar 2021
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 1667
Abstract
The paper’s main purpose was to identify and present the current situation and changes in energy consumption in agriculture in the European Union (EU) countries. The specific objectives were the determination of the degree of concentration of energy consumption in agriculture in the [...] Read more.
The paper’s main purpose was to identify and present the current situation and changes in energy consumption in agriculture in the European Union (EU) countries. The specific objectives were the determination of the degree of concentration of energy consumption in agriculture in the EU countries, showing the directions of their changes, types of energy used, and changes in this respect, establishing the correlation between energy consumption and changes in the economic and agricultural situation in the EU countries. All member states of the European Union were deliberately selected for research on 31 December 2018 (28 countries). The research period covered the years 2005–2018. The sources of materials were the literature on the subject, and data from Eurostat. Descriptive, tabular, and graphical methods were used to analyze and present materials, dynamics indicators with a stable base, Gini concentration coefficient, concentration analysis using the Lorenz curve, coefficient of variation, Kendall’s tau correlation coefficient, and Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient. A high concentration of energy consumption in agriculture was found in several EU countries, the largest in countries with the largest agricultural sector, i.e., France and Poland. There were practically no changes in the concentration level. Only in the case of renewable energy, a gradual decrease in concentration was visible. More and more countries developed technologies that allow the use of this type of energy. However, the EU countries differed in terms of the structure of the energy sources used. The majority of the basis was liquid fuels, while stable and gaseous fuels were abandoned in favor of electricity and renewable sources—according to which, in the EU countries, the research hypothesis was confirmed: a gradual diversification of energy sources used in agriculture, with a systematic increase in the importance of renewable energy sources. The second research hypothesis was also confirmed, according to which the increase in the consumption of renewable energy in agriculture is closely related to the economy’s parameters. The use of renewable energy is necessary and results from concern for the natural environment. Therefore, economic factors may have a smaller impact. Full article
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Article
Edible Energy Production and Energy Return on Investment—Long-Term Analysis of Global Changes
Energies 2021, 14(4), 1011; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14041011 - 15 Feb 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 860
Abstract
The projected increase in the world’s population requires an increase in the production of edible energy that would meet the associated increased demand for food. However, food production is strongly dependent on the use of energy, mainly from fossil fuels, the extraction of [...] Read more.
The projected increase in the world’s population requires an increase in the production of edible energy that would meet the associated increased demand for food. However, food production is strongly dependent on the use of energy, mainly from fossil fuels, the extraction of which requires increasing input due to the depletion of the most easily accessible deposits. According to numerous estimations, the world’s energy production will be dependent on fossil fuels at least to 2050. Therefore, it is vital to increase the energy efficiency of production, including food production. One method to measure energy efficiency is the energy return on investment (EROI), which is the ratio of the amount of energy produced to the amount of energy consumed in the production process. The literature lacks comparable EROI calculations concerning global food production and the existing studies only include crop production. The aim of this study was to calculate the EROI of edible crop and animal production in the long term worldwide and to indicate the relationships resulting from its changes. The research takes into account edible crop and animal production in agriculture and the direct consumption of fossil fuels and electricity. The analysis showed that although the most underdeveloped regions have the highest EROI, the production of edible energy there is usually insufficient to meet the food needs of the population. On the other hand, the lowest EROI was observed in highly developed regions, where production ensures food self-sufficiency. However, the changes that have taken place in Europe since the 1990s indicate an opportunity to simultaneously reduce the direct use of energy in agriculture and increase the production of edible energy, thus improving the EROI. Full article
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Article
Regional Diversification of Potential, Production and Efficiency of Use of Biogas and Biomass in Poland
Energies 2021, 14(3), 742; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14030742 - 31 Jan 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 944
Abstract
Energy obtained from renewable sources is an important element of the sustainable development strategy of the European Union and its member states. The aim of this research is, therefore, to assess the potential and use of renewable energy sources and their effectiveness from [...] Read more.
Energy obtained from renewable sources is an important element of the sustainable development strategy of the European Union and its member states. The aim of this research is, therefore, to assess the potential and use of renewable energy sources and their effectiveness from the regional perspective in Poland. The research covered the years 2012 and 2018. The diversification of production and potential of renewable energy sources was defined on the basis of biogas and biomass. Calculations made using the data envelopment analysis (DEA) method showed that, in 2012, only three voivodeships achieved the highest efficiency in terms of the use of biogas and biomass resources; in 2018, this number increased to four. Comparing the effective units in 2012 and 2018, it can be seen that their efficiency frontier moved upwards by 56% in terms of biogas and 21% in terms of to biomass. Despite a large relative increase in the production of heat from biogas by 99% compared to the production of heat from biomass by 38%, the efficiency frontier for biogas did not change considerably. It was found that the resources of solid biomass are used far more intensively than the resources of biogas. However, in the case of biogas, a significant increase in the utilization of the production potential was observed: from 3.3% in 2012 to 6.4% in 2018, whereas in the same years, the utilization of solid biomass production potential remained at the same level (15.3% in 2012, 15.4% in 2018). It was also observed that, at the level of voivodeships, the utilization of biogas and biomass production potential is negatively correlated with the size of this potential. The combined potential of solid biomass and biogas can cover the demand of each of the studied regions in Poland in terms of thermal energy. The coverage ranges from 104% to 1402%. The results show that when comparing biomass and biogas, the production of both electricity and heat was dominated by solid biomass. Its high share occurred especially in voivodeships characterized by a high share of forest area and a low potential for biogas production (Lubuskie Voivodeship, Zachodniopomorskie Voivodeship). Full article
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Article
The Importance of Local Investments Co-Financed by the European Union in the Field of Renewable Energy Sources in Rural Areas of Poland
Energies 2021, 14(2), 450; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14020450 - 15 Jan 2021
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 1341
Abstract
Local investments for the development of renewable energy sources (RESs) constitute an important element of sustainable rural development. They are conducive to the social and economic development of the said areas, and improve the environmental values and living conditions of their inhabitants. However, [...] Read more.
Local investments for the development of renewable energy sources (RESs) constitute an important element of sustainable rural development. They are conducive to the social and economic development of the said areas, and improve the environmental values and living conditions of their inhabitants. However, such advancement in rural areas is not possible without adequate financial support, including the funds from the EU budget. Therefore, the main objective of the research is to assess the scale, scope and importance of local investments in renewable energy sources in rural areas of Poland in 2014–2020, cofinanced from EU funds. The study covered 1117 projects, whose beneficiaries were rural and urban–rural municipalities. Evaluation of the municipal investment activities in acquiring EU subsidies in the area of environmentally friendly energy was conducted using selected methods of descriptive statistics and the analysis of variance. Subsequently, with the use of logistic regression, the study identified the main socioeconomic, financial and environmental conditions of the investment activities of the local government entities in RES in rural areas. Empirical studies allowed for the positive verification of the research hypothesis, which assumed that “The highest investment activity in the field of local projects co-financed from EU funds, related to the development of RES in rural areas, may be attributed to municipalities performing primarily agricultural functions, located in Eastern Poland”. The municipalities’ own income potential and investment activity are of major importance for the acquisition of EU funds used in RES financing. Municipalities at a lower development level demonstrated a greater activity in accessing these funds. They view the development of RES as an opportunity for accelerated growth. Full article
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Article
Construction and Empirical Verification of the Agri-Environmental Index (AEI) as a Tool for Assessing the Green Performance of Agriculture
Energies 2021, 14(1), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14010045 - 23 Dec 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 883
Abstract
In this paper, the aggregate index of green performance of agriculture (Agri-Environmental Index (AEI)) was proposed and empirically verified. For this purpose, a taxonomic method was used, i.e., the linear ordering method, which allows for the construction of a synthetic metric [...] Read more.
In this paper, the aggregate index of green performance of agriculture (Agri-Environmental Index (AEI)) was proposed and empirically verified. For this purpose, a taxonomic method was used, i.e., the linear ordering method, which allows for the construction of a synthetic metric for the assessment of performance. Based on 16 agri-environmental indicators from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and Eurostat database, green performance indexes were constructed for 20 European countries. The constructed indexes are based on the multi-line impact of agriculture on the environment, with a particular focus on energy issues. During the analyses, answers to the following research questions were sought: Is the AEI an appropriate tool for evaluating the green performance of agriculture? What is the overall situation in this matter in EU countries? Which areas in terms of the impact of agriculture on the environment require remedial actions? The results of surveys show that the level of green performance in countries is still low (an average of 0.3069). The article indicates the areas that require special attention in the context of continuation of greening processes in the agricultural sector. Full article
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Article
The Linkages between Crude Oil and Food Prices
Energies 2020, 13(24), 6545; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13246545 - 11 Dec 2020
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 1344
Abstract
This paper aims to indicate the linkages between crude oil prices and selected food price indexes (dairy, meat, oils, cereals, and sugar) and provide an empirical specification of the direction of the impact. This paper reviews the fuel–food price linkage models with consideration [...] Read more.
This paper aims to indicate the linkages between crude oil prices and selected food price indexes (dairy, meat, oils, cereals, and sugar) and provide an empirical specification of the direction of the impact. This paper reviews the fuel–food price linkage models with consideration to the time series literature. This study adopts several methods, namely the Augmented Dickey–Fuller test, Granger causality test, the cointegration test, the vector autoregression model, and the vector error correction model, for studying the price transmission among the crude oil and five selected food groups. The data series covers the period between January 1990 and September 2020. The empirical results from the paper indicate that there are long-term relationships between crude oil and meat prices. The linkage of crude oil prices occurred with food, cereal, and oil prices in the short term. Furthermore, the linkages between the analyzed variables increased in 2006–2020. Full article
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Article
The Economic Effects of New Patterns of Energy Efficiency and Heat Sources in Rural Single-Family Houses in Poland
Energies 2020, 13(23), 6358; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13236358 - 02 Dec 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1355
Abstract
In the face of severe air pollution and implementation of energy and climate policy, it remains a challenge to develop effective strategies addressing the problem of solid fuels use in single-family houses (SFH) in rural areas in Poland. This study investigated the correlations [...] Read more.
In the face of severe air pollution and implementation of energy and climate policy, it remains a challenge to develop effective strategies addressing the problem of solid fuels use in single-family houses (SFH) in rural areas in Poland. This study investigated the correlations between thermal modernization of SFH, the changes of heat sources from coal to clean energy, including heat pumps driven by prosumers’ photovoltaic (PV) installation, and the disposable income of households in Polish rural areas. It also provided an analysis of the current support mechanisms promoting energy efficiency and PV development. The application of simulation modelling of energy consumption and costs in the research has proved that comprehensive thermal modernization of rural SFH constructed in the period of 1945–1970 and investments supporting PV/heat pump systems would enable the most cost-effective way of heating to be implemented. Considering that, today, spending on energy for heat puts a burden on the budget of rural households, especially those living in the SFH aged 50 years and more that dominate rural areas in Poland, the changes in energy supply–demand patterns would be an enhancement of their economic, energy and environmental security. The research argued that, in the wider process of energy transformation and solving air pollution problems, the role of rural households should not be neglected in public policy. Full article
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Article
Biogas Plant Exploitation in a Middle-Sized Dairy Farm in Poland: Energetic and Economic Aspects
Energies 2020, 13(22), 6058; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13226058 - 19 Nov 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1580
Abstract
Although cow manure is a valuable natural fertilizer, it is also a source of extreme greenhouse gas emissions, mainly methane. For this reason, this study aims to determine the impact of investments in a biogas plant on the energy and economic aspects of [...] Read more.
Although cow manure is a valuable natural fertilizer, it is also a source of extreme greenhouse gas emissions, mainly methane. For this reason, this study aims to determine the impact of investments in a biogas plant on the energy and economic aspects of the operation of a dairy farm. A farm with a breeding size of 600 livestock units (LSU) was adopted for the analysis. In order to reach the paper’s aim, the analysis of two different scenarios of dairy farm functioning (conventional–only milk production, and modern–with biogas plant exploitation) was conducted. The analysis showed that the investment in biogas plant operations at a dairy farm and in using cow manure as one of the main substrates is a more profitable scenario compared to traditional dairy farming. Taking into account the actual Polish subsidies for electricity produced by small biogas plants, the scenario with a functioning biogas plant with a capacity of 500 kW brings €332,000/a more profit compared to the conventional scenario, even when taking into account additional costs, including the purchase of straw to ensure a continuous operation of the installation. Besides, in the traditional scenario, building a biogas plant allows for an almost complete reduction of greenhouse gas emissions during manure storage. Full article
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Article
The Potential of Agricultural Biogas Production in Ukraine—Impact on GHG Emissions and Energy Production
Energies 2020, 13(21), 5755; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13215755 - 03 Nov 2020
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 1784
Abstract
Renewable energy production is gaining importance in the context of global climate changes. However, in some countries other aspects increasing the role of renewable energy production are also present. Such a country is Ukraine, which is not self-sufficient in energy supply and whose [...] Read more.
Renewable energy production is gaining importance in the context of global climate changes. However, in some countries other aspects increasing the role of renewable energy production are also present. Such a country is Ukraine, which is not self-sufficient in energy supply and whose dependency on poorly diversified import of energy carriers regularly leads to political tensions and has socio-economic implications. Production of agricultural biogas seems to be a way to both slow down climatic changes and increase energy self-sufficiency by replacing or complementing conventional sources of energy. One of the most substantial barriers to agricultural biogas production is the low level of agricultural concentration and significant economies of scale in constructing biogas plants. The aim of the paper was thus to assess the potential of agricultural biogas production in Ukraine, including its impact on energy self-sufficiency, mitigation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and the economic performance of biogas plants. The results show that due to the prevailing fragmentation of farms, most manure cannot be processed in an economically viable way. However, in some regions utilization of technically available manure for agricultural biogas production could cover up to 11% of natural gas or up to 19% of electricity demand. While the theoretical potential for reducing greenhouse gas emissions could reach 5% to 6.14%, the achievable technical potential varies between 2.3% and 2.8% of total emissions. The economic performance of agricultural biogas plants correlates closely with their size and bioenergy generation potential. Full article
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