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Special Issue "Energy Sources from Agriculture and Rural Areas"

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "K: Energy Sources".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (25 March 2022) | Viewed by 13155

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Vitaliy Krupin
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Rural and Agricultural Development, Polish Academy of Sciences (IRWiR PAN), 00-330 Warsaw, Poland
Interests: rural and agricultural development; development policies; rural economy; competitiveness of agriculture; greenhouse gasses; international trade
Dr. Roman Podolets
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Economics and Forecasting of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 01011 Kyiv, Ukraine
Interests: energy economics; energy modeling; renewable energy; energy strategies

Special Issue Information

This Special Issue is devoted to energy generation within rural areas, including the agricultural sector. Such technologies and application practices vary depending on the type of agricultural activity, local natural conditions, and external factors, thus globally creating a multitude of possible approaches and applications of technologies in particular conditions. We encourage going beyond the strict technological perception and enriching it based on a multidisciplinary approach, making it possible to pursue an understanding of not only energy generation technologies, but also conditions of their implementation and possible measures to increase their efficiency (technological, economic, environmental, and other).

Energy produced within or in addition to agricultural activities supplies the direct needs of farms, as well as other entities through the energy market. Even though it is an integral part of so-called “renewable sources”, agriculture’s distinct features create preconditions and necessity for research on technologies aimed at the generation of energy within agriculture itself. This is needed for both directly addressing such technologies, as well as for substantiation of measures available to ensure the development of complex approaches towards ensuring sustainability in agriculture. It is also crucial considering the policies aimed particularly at the development of agriculture and rural areas (e.g., the EU’s Common Agricultural Policy).

A multitude of economic, social, environmental, and institutional factors constantly modify the conditions for agricultural production, inflicting positive or negative effects upon its structure, output, and efficiency. Climate change issues are forcing agricultural entities to mitigate their negative effect upon the environment, while also creating the necessity to adapt and maintain proper efficiency and output levels. All of these influence the sustainability of rural areas and agriculture, both in terms of its primary production focus, as well as its input into the generation and use of energy.

Dr. Vitaliy Krupin
Dr. Roman Podolets
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • rural areas
  • agriculture
  • farming
  • agricultural energy sources
  • bio-energy
  • crop production
  • energy crops
  • biomass
  • livestock production
  • enteric fermentation
  • manure management
  • solid biofuels
  • liquid biofuels
  • biogas
  • greenhouse gasses
  • sustainable agriculture
  • bio-economy

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Research

Article
Influence of the Fertilization Method on the Silphium perfoliatum Biomass Composition and Methane Fermentation Efficiency
Energies 2022, 15(3), 927; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15030927 - 27 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 579
Abstract
Biogas production is one of the solutions for replacing fossil fuels, which promotes the widespread use of green energy. The aim of this study was to determine the potential of Silphium perfoliatum as an energy crop for biogas production, as well as the [...] Read more.
Biogas production is one of the solutions for replacing fossil fuels, which promotes the widespread use of green energy. The aim of this study was to determine the potential of Silphium perfoliatum as an energy crop for biogas production, as well as the effect of different fertilization doses (0, 85 and 170 kg N ha1) on the production potential (NL CH4 kg1 VS) of Silphium perfoliatum. The study investigated the use of different feedstocks, such as raw and ensiled Silphium perfoliatum biomass. The methane production ranged between 193.59 and 243.61 NL CH4 kg1 VS. The highest biogas production potential was achieved with the biomasses which were cultivated with the highest fertilization dose (170 kg N ha1), both for raw and ensiled crop biomasses, although the difference from the other fertilization doses was not significant. The feedstock (biomass and silage) and digestate parameters were investigated as well. The use of Silphium perfoliatum for biogas production seems very promising since its methane production potential was found to be similar to that of the most common energy crop, such as maize, indicating that Silphium perfoliatum can compete in the future with maize. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Sources from Agriculture and Rural Areas)
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Article
Water Needs of Willow (Salix L.) in Western Poland
Energies 2022, 15(2), 484; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15020484 - 11 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 328
Abstract
Willows are one of the plants which can be used to produce biomass for energy purposes. Biomass production is classified as a renewable energy source. Increasing the share of renewable sources is one of the priority actions for European Union countries due to [...] Read more.
Willows are one of the plants which can be used to produce biomass for energy purposes. Biomass production is classified as a renewable energy source. Increasing the share of renewable sources is one of the priority actions for European Union countries due to the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. To achieve the best possible growth of the willow and increase its biomass for fuel, it is crucial to provide optimal water conditions for its growth. The aim of the study was to determine the water requirements of willows under the conditions of the western Polish climate and to verify whether this area is potentially favourable for willow cultivation. The novelty of this paper lies in its multi-year climatic analysis in the context of willow water needs for the area of three voivodships: Lubusz, Lower Silesian, and West Pomeranian. This is one of the few willow water-needs analyses for this region which considers the potential for widespread willow cultivation and biomass production in western Poland. Reference evapotranspiration (ETo) was determined by the Blaney-Criddle equation and then, using plant coefficients, water needs for willow were determined. Calculations were carried out for the growing season lasting from 21 May to 31 October. The estimated water needs during the vegetation season amounted on average to 408 mm for the West Pomeranian Voivodeship, 405 mm for the Lubusz Voivodeship, and 402 mm for the Lower Silesian Voivodeship. The conducted analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that these needs do not differ significantly between the voivodeships. Therefore, it can be concluded that the water requirements of willows in western Poland do not differ significantly, and the whole region shows similar water conditions for willow cultivation. Furthermore, it was found that water needs are increasing from decade to decade, making rational water management necessary. This is particularly important in countries with limited water resources, such as Poland. Correctly determining the water requirements of willow and applying them to the cultivation of this plant should increase the biomass obtained. With appropriate management, willow cultivation in Poland can provide an alternative energy source to coal. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Sources from Agriculture and Rural Areas)
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Article
Economic Feasibility of Agricultural Biogas Production by Farms in Ukraine
Energies 2022, 15(1), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15010087 - 23 Dec 2021
Viewed by 708
Abstract
Renewable energy generation in Ukraine is developing slower than state strategies and expectations, with the installations for energy generation based on biogas currently being among the lowest in terms of installed capacity. Most of those involved in energy generation from agricultural biogas are [...] Read more.
Renewable energy generation in Ukraine is developing slower than state strategies and expectations, with the installations for energy generation based on biogas currently being among the lowest in terms of installed capacity. Most of those involved in energy generation from agricultural biogas are large enterprises, while the small and medium-sized farms are far less involved. Thus the article aims to assess the economic feasibility of biogas production from agricultural waste by specific farm types and sizes, with a special focus on small and medium-sized farms. The research results present findings in two dimensions, first defining the economic feasibility of biogas installations in Ukraine based on investment costs and the rate of return at both the current and potential feed-in tariff, and second, analyzing the influence of state regulation and support on the economic feasibility of agricultural biogas production in Ukraine. The results emphasize that the construction of small generation capacities does not provide sufficient funds under the current feed-in tariff to meet the simple return period expected by the domestic financing institutions. Except for the general support programs for agricultural activities, there are no support funds specifically for biogas producers, while there is tight competition with wind and solar energy due to diversified feed-in tariffs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Sources from Agriculture and Rural Areas)
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Article
Regional Diversification of Electricity Consumption in Rural Areas of Poland
Energies 2021, 14(24), 8532; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14248532 - 17 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 571
Abstract
Access to energy, including electricity, determines countries’ socio-economic development. The growing demand for electricity translates into environmental problems. Energy is therefore a crucial element of the European Union’s sustainable development strategy. This article aims to present the changes taking place in the electricity [...] Read more.
Access to energy, including electricity, determines countries’ socio-economic development. The growing demand for electricity translates into environmental problems. Energy is therefore a crucial element of the European Union’s sustainable development strategy. This article aims to present the changes taking place in the electricity market in Poland considering the goals of the energy policy until 2040. This is the basis for the determination of the scale of processes taking place in the Polish energy sector from two perspectives, i.e., the production of electricity considering its level and energy carriers used, and the consumption of electricity in households depending on their location (rural vs. urban areas). The research was conducted at the regional level (NUTS 2 until 2017) in Poland. Secondary data from the Central Statistical Office (GUS) contained in the Local Data Bank were used, along with information from the European Commission and Eurostat websites. Results of the study made it possible to identify areas in which a greater environmental load is observed due to increasing electricity consumption. The coefficient of localization and concentration (by Florence) and the rate of change were applied. These results indicate that, in Poland, it is now the rural areas that have a greater negative environmental impact than urban areas, resulting from differences in unit energy consumption. Compared to the other provinces, rural areas of Podlaskie province had the highest rate of growth in energy consumption in the years 2004–2019, with an annual average of almost 20%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Sources from Agriculture and Rural Areas)
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Article
Economic and Energy Efficiency of Farms in Poland
Energies 2021, 14(17), 5586; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14175586 - 06 Sep 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 640
Abstract
Climate change and negative environmental effects are results of a simplified understanding of management processes, i.e., assuming economic effects as the basis for development, without taking into account external costs. Economically efficient facilities are not always environmentally efficient. Due to the existing conflict [...] Read more.
Climate change and negative environmental effects are results of a simplified understanding of management processes, i.e., assuming economic effects as the basis for development, without taking into account external costs. Economically efficient facilities are not always environmentally efficient. Due to the existing conflict of economic and environmental goals, it seems necessary to look for measures that would include both economic and environmental elements in their structure. The above doubts were the main reasons for undertaking this research. One of the important sectors of the economy accepted for research, where energy is an essential factor of production, is agriculture. Agricultural production is very diversified both in terms of inputs and final products. Depending on the production direction, the processes of conversion of energy accumulated in inputs into energy accumulated in commodity products have different natures and relationships. Taking into account the importance of agriculture in the national economy and the current environmental needs of the world, the types of farms generating energy surplus and those in which the surplus is the least cost-consuming were indicated. The research used the economic and energy efficiency index, which makes it possible to jointly assess technical and economic efficiency. Assuming the need to produce food with low energy consumption and a positive energy balance, it is reasonable to develop a support system for those farms showing the highest economic and energy efficiency indicators. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Sources from Agriculture and Rural Areas)
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Article
Production Profile of Farms and Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emissions
Energies 2021, 14(16), 4904; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14164904 - 11 Aug 2021
Viewed by 841
Abstract
The negative impact of agricultural production on the environment is manifested, above all, in the emission of greenhouse gases (GHG). The goals of this study were to estimate methane and nitrous oxide emissions at the level of individual farms and indicate differences in [...] Read more.
The negative impact of agricultural production on the environment is manifested, above all, in the emission of greenhouse gases (GHG). The goals of this study were to estimate methane and nitrous oxide emissions at the level of individual farms and indicate differences in emissions depending on the type of production, and to investigate dependencies between greenhouse gas emissions and economic indicators. Methane and nitrous oxide emissions were estimated at three types of farms in Poland, based on FADN data: field crops, milk, and mixed. Data were from 2004–2018. Statistical analysis confirmed the relationship between greenhouse gas emissions and economic performance. On milk farms, the value of methane and nitrous oxide emissions increased with increased net value added and farm income. Milk farms reached the highest land productivity and the highest level of income per 1 ha of farmland. On field crops farms, the relationship between net value added and farm income and methane and nitrous oxide emissions was negative. Animals remain a strong determinant of methane and nitrous oxide emissions, and the emissions at milk farms were the highest. On mixed farms, emissions result from intensive livestock and crop production. In farms of the field crops type, emissions were the lowest and mainly concerned crops. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Sources from Agriculture and Rural Areas)
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Article
The Effectiveness of Energy Cooperatives Operating on the Capacity Market
Energies 2021, 14(11), 3226; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14113226 - 31 May 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 982
Abstract
The European Green Deal aims to make Europe the world’s first climate-neutral continent by 2050 by shifting to a clean circular economy, combating biodiversity loss and reducing pollution levels. In Poland, whose economy invariably remains one of the most dependent on coal consumption [...] Read more.
The European Green Deal aims to make Europe the world’s first climate-neutral continent by 2050 by shifting to a clean circular economy, combating biodiversity loss and reducing pollution levels. In Poland, whose economy invariably remains one of the most dependent on coal consumption in Europe, institutional responses to the above EU objectives have taken the shape of energy cooperatives aimed at filling the gaps in the development of the civic dimension of energy on a local scale and the use of potential renewable energy sources in rural areas, including in relation to the agricultural sector. This article is a continuation of the authors’ previous research work, which has so far focused on the analysis of the development of profitability of Polish institutions that fit into the European idea of a “local energy community”, which includes energy cooperatives. In this research paper, they present the results of subsequent research work and analyses performed on the basis of it which, on the one hand, complement the previously developed optimization model with variables concerning actual energy storage and, on the other hand, analyze the profitability of the operation of energy cooperatives in the conditions of the “capacity market”. The latter was actually introduced in Poland at the beginning of 2021. The research took account of the characteristics of energy producers and consumers in rural areas of Poland, the legally defined rules for the operation of the capacity market and the institutional conditions for the operation of energy cooperatives that can use the potential of energy storage. A dedicated mathematical model in mixed integer programming technology was used, enriched with respect to previous research, making it possible to optimize the operation of energy cooperative with the use of actual energy storage (batteries). Conclusions from the research and simulation show that the installation of energy storage only partially minimizes the volume of energy drawn from the grid in periods when fees related to the capacity market are in force (which should be avoided due to higher costs for consumers). The analysis also indicates that a key challenge is the proper parameterization of energy storage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Sources from Agriculture and Rural Areas)
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Article
Energy Self-Subsistence of Agriculture in EU Countries
Energies 2021, 14(11), 3014; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14113014 - 23 May 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 803
Abstract
The paper’s main purpose was to identify the level and factors influencing the consumption of bioenergy of agricultural origin in agriculture in EU countries. All EU countries were deliberately selected for research, as of 31 December 2018. The research period covered the years [...] Read more.
The paper’s main purpose was to identify the level and factors influencing the consumption of bioenergy of agricultural origin in agriculture in EU countries. All EU countries were deliberately selected for research, as of 31 December 2018. The research period covered the years 2004 to 2018. The sources of materials were the subject literature, Eurostat data, and IEA (International Energy Agency) data. The following methods were used for the analysis and presentation of materials: descriptive, tabular, graphical, Gini concentration coefficient, Lorenz concentration curve, descriptive statistics, Kendall’s tau correlation coefficient and Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient. In the EU, there was a high level of concentration of renewable energy consumption in several countries. There was also no change in the use of bioenergy of agricultural origin in agriculture, but the concentration level was low. The degree of concentration has not changed for both parameters of renewable energy over a dozen or so years, which proves a similar pace of development of the use of renewable energy sources in individual EU countries. Higher consumption of bioenergy of agricultural origin in agriculture was shown to occur in economically developed countries, but with high agricultural production. There was a strong correlation between the consumption of bioenergy of agricultural origin in agriculture for the entire EU and individual economic parameters in the field of energy and agriculture. The relations were positive for all economic parameters, for total renewables and biofuels consumption and for agricultural production parameters. Negative relations concerned the total energy consumption and parameters related to the area of agricultural crops. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Sources from Agriculture and Rural Areas)
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Article
Renewable Energy Generation Gaps in Poland: The Role of Regional Innovation Systems and Knowledge Transfer
Energies 2021, 14(10), 2935; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14102935 - 19 May 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 882
Abstract
Aim of the research is to analyze regional gaps in terms of renewable energy generation across Poland. For this purpose, four types of regions were outlined based on two indicators: the existing renewable energy generation capacity and the current regional energy demand revealed [...] Read more.
Aim of the research is to analyze regional gaps in terms of renewable energy generation across Poland. For this purpose, four types of regions were outlined based on two indicators: the existing renewable energy generation capacity and the current regional energy demand revealed through the number of residents. This classification allowed to reveal regions in Poland that have distinct features of energy gaps and peripherality, while also more successful regions with renewable energy surpluses and distinct sustainable energy potential. For each of the region type key potential systemic problems in terms of renewable energy generation development were given. To understand how peripheral regions and regions with energy gaps could be supported in their development of renewable energy generation the regional innovation systems, social networks, knowledge and technology transfer and diffusion were substantiated. Results of the research can serve as an aid in development of national and regional energy policies, helping to understand peculiarities of local renewable energy generation and the influence of enabling environment peculiar to the specific region, including the regional innovation systems and intensity of knowledge transfer and diffusion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Sources from Agriculture and Rural Areas)
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Article
Complex Valuation of Energy from Agricultural Crops including Local Conditions
Energies 2021, 14(5), 1415; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14051415 - 04 Mar 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 599
Abstract
This paper provides values of economic, energy and environmental assessments of 20 crops and assesses the relationships of soil-climatic conditions in the example of the Czech Republic. The comparison of main soil quality indicators according to the configuration of land and climate regions [...] Read more.
This paper provides values of economic, energy and environmental assessments of 20 crops and assesses the relationships of soil-climatic conditions in the example of the Czech Republic. The comparison of main soil quality indicators according to the configuration of land and climate regions is performed on the basis of energy and economic efficiency as well as a comparison of the level of environmental impacts. The environmental impacts are identified based on the assessment of emissions from production and also in the form of soil compaction as an indicator of the relationship to soil quality. As concerns soil properties, of major importance is soil skeleton, slope of land and the depth of soil, which cause an increase in emissions from the energy produced. Substantially better emission parameters per 1 MJ through energy crops, the cultivation of perennial crops and silage maize has been supported. Among energy crops, a positive relationship with the quality of soil is seen in alfalfa, with a significant reduction in soil penetrometric resistance; energy crops are also politically justifiable in competition with other crops intended for nutrition of population. The main advantage of energy crops for the low-carbon economy is their CO2 production to MJ, which is almost half, especially in marginal areas with lower soil depths, slopes and stoniness, which can be included in the new agricultural policy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Sources from Agriculture and Rural Areas)
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Article
Determinants of Energy Cooperatives’ Development in Rural Areas—Evidence from Poland
Energies 2021, 14(2), 319; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14020319 - 08 Jan 2021
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 1182
Abstract
The strategies, plans and legislation on energy market development and decarbonization in the European Union (EU) developed in recent years, such as the directives implementing the package “Clean energy for all Europeans”, aim at promoting not only renewable energy sources, but also new [...] Read more.
The strategies, plans and legislation on energy market development and decarbonization in the European Union (EU) developed in recent years, such as the directives implementing the package “Clean energy for all Europeans”, aim at promoting not only renewable energy sources, but also new institutions that involve the development of local energy markets and a greater role for citizens in managing their own energy generation. At the same time, Poland remains the economy most dependent on coal and one of the largest air polluters in the EU. In order to minimize this problem and to meet the direction of energy development in the EU, Poland decided to establish, among other things, an energy cooperative. It is intended to fill the gap in the development of the civil dimension of energy on a local scale and at the same time improve efficiency in the use of the potential of renewable energy sources in rural areas. The authors of the paper seek to verify the extent to which this new institution, which is part of the idea of a local energy community, one of the driving forces for the implementation of the objectives and directions of development of “clean energy” set by the EU, has a chance to develop. The research took into account the characteristics of energy producers and consumers in rural areas, economic preferences provided for by law, relating to the functioning of an energy cooperative and the existing alternative solutions dedicated to prosumers. A dedicated mathematical model in the mixed integer programming technology was used to optimize the functioning of an energy cooperative, and more than 5000 simulations were carried out, with a typical optimization task performed as part of the research with about 50,000 variables. The conclusions and simulations make it possible to confirm the thesis that profitable energy cooperatives can be established in rural areas, with the objective of minimizing the sum of energy purchases from the distribution network and losses on the energy deposit (virtual network storage) (the energy deposit (or network deposit) should be understood as energy introduced to the grid during generation surpluses for its subsequent consumption, taking into account the discount factor). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Sources from Agriculture and Rural Areas)
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Article
Energy Efficiency of Maize Production Technology: Evidence from Polish Farms
Energies 2021, 14(1), 170; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14010170 - 31 Dec 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1000
Abstract
The purpose of this work is to determine the impact of selected silage maize cultivation technologies, including energy inputs in the production chain (cultivation, harvesting, heap placing), on energy efficiency. The analysis of energy inputs, energy efficiency for the silage maize production technology [...] Read more.
The purpose of this work is to determine the impact of selected silage maize cultivation technologies, including energy inputs in the production chain (cultivation, harvesting, heap placing), on energy efficiency. The analysis of energy inputs, energy efficiency for the silage maize production technology were estimated. The research was performed for 13 farms producing silage maize. The data from the farms covered all the activities and the agrotechnical measures performed. The calculations of energy inputs made for the silage maize production for selected technologies were performed using the method developed by the Institute of Construction, Mechanization and Electrification for Agriculture (IBMER), once the method was verified and adapted to the needs and conditions of own research. Based on the accumulated energy production and the energy accumulated in the yield, energy efficiency index values for 13 silage maize cultivation technologies were calculated. The greatest impact on the results of energy efficiency calculations was shared by fertilizer and fuel inputs. In conclusion, it can be stated that, in terms of energy efficiency, maize cultivation is justified and it can generate energy benefits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Sources from Agriculture and Rural Areas)
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Article
Renewable Energy Utilization in Rural Residential Housing: Economic and Environmental Facets
Energies 2020, 13(24), 6637; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13246637 - 16 Dec 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 834
Abstract
Energy and climate policies benefit from modernized construction technology and energy supply source choices. Energy-efficiency improvement and CO2 emission reduction will result from renewable energy (RE) utilization in new and retrofit single-family houses in rural Poland. Several house construction scenarios and heating [...] Read more.
Energy and climate policies benefit from modernized construction technology and energy supply source choices. Energy-efficiency improvement and CO2 emission reduction will result from renewable energy (RE) utilization in new and retrofit single-family houses in rural Poland. Several house construction scenarios and heating energy sources comparing building costs and potential emission reduction are based on already existing structures calculated for a 100 m2 dwelling corresponding to the average rural home. With the addition of thermal insulation and RE-generating equipment, construction costs increase, but the energy costs of operating the home dramatically shrink between a conventional and energy-neutral house. The latter scenario includes thermal solar panels and a heat pump as heating energy sources as well as electricity-generating PV panels. Replacing coal with environmentally-friendly RE reduces CO2 emissions by about 90% annually. Additionally, lower dependence on coal lessens other GHG emissions leading to immediate air quality improvement. New house building regulations guide homeowner construction and heating energy choice, but even larger gains could result from retrofitting existing rural houses, expanding environmental benefits and generating energy bill savings to households. However, the varying climate throughout Poland will require the purchase of energy in winter to assure residents’ comfort. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Sources from Agriculture and Rural Areas)
Article
Crop Residue Removal: Assessment of Future Bioenergy Generation Potential and Agro-Environmental Limitations Based on a Case Study of Ukraine
Energies 2020, 13(20), 5343; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13205343 - 14 Oct 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1025
Abstract
This study assesses the bioenergy generation potential of crop residues in Ukraine for the year 2030. Projections of agricultural development are made based on the Global Biosphere Management Model (GLOBIOM) and verified against available Agricultural Member State Modeling (AGMEMOD) results in regard to [...] Read more.
This study assesses the bioenergy generation potential of crop residues in Ukraine for the year 2030. Projections of agricultural development are made based on the Global Biosphere Management Model (GLOBIOM) and verified against available Agricultural Member State Modeling (AGMEMOD) results in regard to the six main crops cultivated in Ukraine (wheat, barley, corn, sunflower, rape and soya). Two agricultural development scenarios are assessed (traditional and innovative), facilitating the projection of future crop production volumes and yields for the selected crops. To improve precision in defining agro-environmental limitations (the share of crop residues necessary to be kept on the fields to maintain soil fertility for the continuous cultivation of crops), yield-dependent residue-to-product ratios (RPRs) were applied and the levels of available soil nutrients for regions of Ukraine (in regard to nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and humus) were estimated. The results reveal the economically feasible future bioenergy generation potential of crop residues in Ukraine, equaling 3.6 Mtoe in the traditional agricultural development scenario and 10.7 Mtoe in the innovative development scenario. The projections show that, within the latter scenario, wheat, corn and barley combined are expected to provide up to 81.3% of the bioenergy generation potential of crop residues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Sources from Agriculture and Rural Areas)
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