Special Issue "Crash Safety of Lithium-Ion Batteries"

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "Advanced Energy Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2021).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Elham Sahraei
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA
Interests: lithium-ion batteries; crashworthiness; structural mechanics; occupant protection; finite element modeling
Dr. Sigit P. Santosa
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Bandung, Indonesia
Interests: electric vehicle; transportation safety; structural crashworthiness; computational structural mechanics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Usage of Lithium-ion batteries in transportation, from electric vehicles to drones, airplanes, and submarines subjects them to dynamic mechanical loading, specially under accident scenarios of an impact, a crash, or shock. Recent studies have focused on analyzing the response of lithium-ion batteries in such conditions. Still there are lots of unknows, as the batteries are multi-material, multi-layer, multi-physics, and multi-scale structures. The present issue of the Energies Journal focuses on various aspects of this issue: from mechanical response of battery cells, modules, and packs under local indentation, shock, and vibration to constitutive mechanical behavior of battery components, including anodes, cathodes and separators. Additional topics for this issue include multi-physics behavior of cells under combined mechanical, electrical, or thermal loading. Contributions are invited from both experimental studies and computational modeling. Considering the broad range of unknowns in the field, studies are sought at both fundamental and applied levels from academic institutions, research organizations and the industry. The present issue of the journal will be of interest of academic users, transportation industry, battery manufacturers, standard developers, rule making authorities, first responders and the public in dealing with crash safety of lithium-ion batteries.

Dr. Elham Sahraei
Dr. Sigit P. Santosa
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Crash
  • Safety
  • Lithium-ion battery
  • Electric vehicles
  • Experiment
  • Modeling

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

Article
Extending a Homogenized Model for Characterizing Multidirectional Jellyroll Failure in Prismatic Lithium-Ion Batteries
Energies 2021, 14(12), 3444; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14123444 - 10 Jun 2021
Viewed by 285
Abstract
Lithium-ion batteries have been widely used in electric vehicles but may cause severe internal short circuit during extreme intrusion-type accidents. A well-defined homogenized model of battery or jellyroll is necessary for safety assessment and design on large-scale structure level. In our previous study, [...] Read more.
Lithium-ion batteries have been widely used in electric vehicles but may cause severe internal short circuit during extreme intrusion-type accidents. A well-defined homogenized model of battery or jellyroll is necessary for safety assessment and design on large-scale structure level. In our previous study, the jellyroll of prismatic lithium-ion battery cell shows anisotropic mechanical behavior and failure tolerance. For homogenized characterization of jellyroll, in the present paper, the user subroutine of a constitutive model taking anisotropy into account is implanted into Abaqus finite element analysis software, which is capable of capturing the force versus displacement responses along different loading directions before jellyroll failure. To extend the capability of the homogenized model, five single-parameter failure criteria and two combined failure criteria are examined in predicting the failure onsets in jellyroll along different directions. The result proves the combined failure criteria is competent to correctly predict the multidirectional failure onsets compared with the single-parameter ones. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crash Safety of Lithium-Ion Batteries)
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Article
Evaluation of Modelling and Simulation Strategies to Investigate the Mechanical Integrity of a Battery Cell Using Finite Element Methods
Energies 2021, 14(11), 2976; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14112976 - 21 May 2021
Viewed by 547
Abstract
The mechanical integrity of a lithium ion battery cell can be evaluated using finite element (FE) simulation techniques. In this study, different FE modelling approaches including heterogeneous, homogeneous, hybrid and sandwich methods are presented and analysed. The basic capabilities of the FE-methods and [...] Read more.
The mechanical integrity of a lithium ion battery cell can be evaluated using finite element (FE) simulation techniques. In this study, different FE modelling approaches including heterogeneous, homogeneous, hybrid and sandwich methods are presented and analysed. The basic capabilities of the FE-methods and their suitability to simulate a real mechanical safety test procedures on battery cells are investigated by performing a simulation of a spherical indentation test on a sample pouch cell. For each modelling approach, one battery cell model was created. In order to observe the system behaviour, relevant parametric studies involving coefficient of friction and failure strain of separator were performed. This studied showed that these parameters can influence the maximum force and the point of failure of the cell. Furthermore, the influence of an anisotropic separator on the results was also investigated. The advantages and disadvantages of each modelling approach are discussed and a simplified approach with a partial cell modelling is suggested to further reduce the simulation time and complexity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crash Safety of Lithium-Ion Batteries)
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Article
Numerical Modeling and Safety Design for Lithium-Ion Vehicle Battery Modules Subject to Crush Loading
Energies 2021, 14(1), 118; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14010118 - 28 Dec 2020
Viewed by 573
Abstract
In this work, a computational study was carried out to simulate crushing tests on lithium-ion vehicle battery modules. The tests were performed on commercial battery modules subject to wedge cutting at low speeds. Based on loading and boundary conditions in the tests, finite [...] Read more.
In this work, a computational study was carried out to simulate crushing tests on lithium-ion vehicle battery modules. The tests were performed on commercial battery modules subject to wedge cutting at low speeds. Based on loading and boundary conditions in the tests, finite element (FE) models were developed using explicit FEA code LS-DYNA. The model predictions demonstrated a good agreement in terms of structural failure modes and force–displacement responses at both cell and module levels. The model was extended to study additional loading conditions such as indentation by a cylinder and a rectangular block. The effect of other module components such as the cover and cooling plates was analyzed, and the results have the potential for improving battery module safety design. Based on the detailed FE model, to reduce its computational cost, a simplified model was developed by representing the battery module with a homogeneous material law. Then, all three scenarios were simulated, and the results show that this simplified model can reasonably predict the short circuit initiation of the battery module. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crash Safety of Lithium-Ion Batteries)
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Article
Experimental and Numerical Investigation of the Behavior of Automotive Battery Busbars under Varying Mechanical Loads
Energies 2020, 13(24), 6572; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13246572 - 13 Dec 2020
Viewed by 802
Abstract
Automotive high-voltage busbars are critical electrical components in electric vehicle battery systems as they connect individual battery modules and form the connection to the vehicle’s powertrain. Therefore, a vehicle crash can pose a significant risk to safety by compromising busbar insulation, leading to [...] Read more.
Automotive high-voltage busbars are critical electrical components in electric vehicle battery systems as they connect individual battery modules and form the connection to the vehicle’s powertrain. Therefore, a vehicle crash can pose a significant risk to safety by compromising busbar insulation, leading to electrical short circuits inside the battery. In turn, these can trigger thermal chain reactions in the cell modules of the battery pack. In order to ensure a safe design in future applications of busbars, this study investigated the mechanical behavior of busbars and their insulation. Our results indicated that crashlike compressive and bending loads lead to complex stress states resulting in failure of busbar insulation. To estimate the safety of busbars in the early development process using finite element simulations, suitable material models were evaluated. Failure of the insulation was included in the simulation using an optimized generalized incremental stress state dependent model (GISSMO). It was shown that sophisticated polymer models do not significantly improve the simulation quality. Finally, on the basis of the experimental and numerical results, we outline some putative approaches for increasing the safety of high-voltage busbars in electric vehicles, such as choosing the insulating layer material according to the range of expected mechanical loads. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crash Safety of Lithium-Ion Batteries)
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Article
Dynamic High Strain Rate Characterization of Lithium-Ion Nickel–Cobalt–Aluminum (NCA) Battery Using Split Hopkinson Tensile/Pressure Bar Methodology
Energies 2020, 13(19), 5061; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13195061 - 26 Sep 2020
Viewed by 655
Abstract
The dynamic behavior of the lithium-ion battery is evaluated by simulating the full battery system and each corresponding component, including the jellyroll and thin-foil electrodes. The thin-foil electrodes were evaluated using a novel design of split Hopkinson tensile bar (SHTB), while the jellyroll [...] Read more.
The dynamic behavior of the lithium-ion battery is evaluated by simulating the full battery system and each corresponding component, including the jellyroll and thin-foil electrodes. The thin-foil electrodes were evaluated using a novel design of split Hopkinson tensile bar (SHTB), while the jellyroll was evaluated using the split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB). A new stacking method was employed to strengthen the stress wave signal of the thin-foil electrodes in the SHTB simulation. The characteristic of the stress–strain curve should remain the same regardless of the amount of stacking. The jellyroll dynamic properties were characterized by using the SHPB method. The jellyroll was modeled with Fu-Chang foam and modified crushable foam and compared with experimental results at the loading speeds of 20 and 30 m/s. The dynamic behavior compared very well when it was modeled with Fu-Chang foam. These studies show that the dynamic characterization of Li-ion battery components can be evaluated using tensile loading of stacked layers of thin foil aluminum and copper with SHTB methodology as well as the compressive loading of jellyroll using SHPB methodology. Finally, the dynamic performance of the full system battery can be simulated by using the dynamic properties of each component, which were evaluated using the SHTB and SHPB methodologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crash Safety of Lithium-Ion Batteries)
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Article
An Experimental and Computational Study on the Orthotropic Failure of Separators for Lithium-Ion Batteries
Energies 2020, 13(17), 4399; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13174399 - 26 Aug 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 609
Abstract
In the present study, the mechanical properties of a dry-processed polyethylene (PE) separator are investigated in terms of deformation and failure limits. The focus is set on the anisotropic mechanical behavior of this material. A deeper understanding of the damage mechanism is important [...] Read more.
In the present study, the mechanical properties of a dry-processed polyethylene (PE) separator are investigated in terms of deformation and failure limits. The focus is set on the anisotropic mechanical behavior of this material. A deeper understanding of the damage mechanism is important for further safety and crashworthiness investigations and predictions of damage before failure. It has been found that separator integrity is one of the crucial parts in preventing internal short circuit and thermal runaway in lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries. Based on uniaxial tensile tests with local strain measurement, a novel failure criterion for finite element analysis (FEA), using the explicit FEA solver Altair Radioss, has been developed to predict the effect of high mechanical loads with respect to triaxiality, large plastic strain and orthotropy. Finally, a simulation model of a PE separator was developed combining the novel failure criterion with Hill’s yield surface and a Swift–Voce hardening rule. The model succeeded in predicting the anisotropic response of the PE separator due to deformation and failure. The proposed failure model can also be combined with other constitutive material laws. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crash Safety of Lithium-Ion Batteries)
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Article
Electrical Response of Mechanically Damaged Lithium-Ion Batteries
Energies 2020, 13(17), 4284; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13174284 - 19 Aug 2020
Viewed by 1200
Abstract
Lithium-ion batteries have found various modern applications due to their high energy density, long cycle life, and low self-discharge. However, increased use of these batteries has been accompanied by an increase in safety concerns, such as spontaneous fires or explosions due to impact [...] Read more.
Lithium-ion batteries have found various modern applications due to their high energy density, long cycle life, and low self-discharge. However, increased use of these batteries has been accompanied by an increase in safety concerns, such as spontaneous fires or explosions due to impact or indentation. Mechanical damage to a battery cell is often enough reason to discard it. However, if an Electric Vehicle is involved in a crash, there is no means to visually inspect all the cells inside a pack, sometimes consisting of thousands of cells. Furthermore, there is no documented report on how mechanical damage may change the electrical response of a cell, which in turn can be used to detect damaged cells by the battery management system (BMS). In this research, we investigated the effects of mechanical deformation on electrical responses of Lithium-ion cells to understand what parameters in electrical response can be used to detect damage where cells cannot be visually inspected. We used charge-discharge cycling data, capacity fade measurement, and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) in combination with advanced modeling techniques. Our results indicate that many cell parameters may remain unchanged under moderate indentation, which makes detection of a damaged cell a challenging task for the battery pack and BMS designers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crash Safety of Lithium-Ion Batteries)
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