Voltage Control and Protection in Power Systems

A special issue of Electronics (ISSN 2079-9292). This special issue belongs to the section "Power Electronics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2022) | Viewed by 6960

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Associated Laboratory, Bioenergy Research Institute (IPBEN), São Paulo State University, Campus of Ilha Solteira, Ilha Solteira 05508-070, Brazil
Interests: electric energy systems; voltage control; power distribution network

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Guest Editor
Electronic Systems Engineering, University of Regina, Regina, SK S4S0A2, Canada
Interests: power systems; smart grid; micro grids; smart cities; smart homes; cyber-physical security; renewable energy resources; electric railway systems
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Voltage control and protection are two of the most important aspects of power system stability. Voltage fluctuations and malfunctions can create various challenges for power system protection. Having a reliable voltage control system helps to improve power quality and the correct operation of protection relays, which will lead to the accurate detection of transmission and distribution line faults.

Additionally, due to the increasing use of renewable energy sources for electricity generation, the uncertain and variable nature of these types of energies that are completely dependent on atmospheric change will have adverse effects on the stability of power networks.

Since smart grids and microgrids are highly dependent on renewable energy sources, the challenge of voltage fluctuations in these systems is increasingly affecting the proper functioning of the power network. Therefore, controlling and reducing voltage fluctuations is critical in order to have proper and reliable protection. In addition, detection, voltage control and protection of microgrids when they operate in island mode are other major challenges. The various configurations of high-voltage direct current (HVDC) and high-voltage alternating current (HVAC) networks with different power electronic components are other challenges for controlling the stability and protection of power grids.

Therefore, in this Special Issue we aim to present theory-, simulation-, and application-oriented works discussing new advancements in the voltage control and protection of power systems, as well as topics including active and reactive power control, optimization, smart grid and microgrid voltage control, demand-side voltage control and protection, over voltage and over current, stability, fault detection methods, relays and protections, and new predictive control methods (e.g., neural networks, deep and machine learning in power systems).

Papers included in this Special Issue will help electrical engineers, electricity and energy companies, and researchers to design and use intelligent techniques for voltage control systems along with those enabling a high level of protection of power systems.

In addition, the purpose of this Special Issue is to present a platform to enhance interdisciplinary research and findings and share the most applicable methods and advances in the above-mentioned related fields.

Topics of interest include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • Voltage control and protection systems.
  • Relay protection in smart and microgrids.
  • Intelligent methods for detecting island modes in smart grids and microgrids.
  • Energy infrastructure design to enhance reliability and resilience.
  • Innovation in energy management.
  • Safety and security in renewable generation.
  • Smart cities and smart homes.
  • Machine-learning-based techniques in control of renewable generations.
  • Single- and multi-objective optimization techniques and algorithms.
  • Artificial intelligence in smart grids.
  • AC/DC microgrids.
  • High penetration of renewable energy generations.

This Special Issue aims to provide state-of-the-art works on advanced experimental analysis and methodologies, and on the application of renewable generation in the control and protection of smart power grids and smart energy systems for sustainable development.

Dr. Hassan Haes Alhelou
Dr. Meisam Mahdavi
Dr. Mohammad Ghiasi
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • voltage control
  • relay protection
  • power systems
  • smart grids
  • microgrids

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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16 pages, 1046 KiB  
Article
Deep Neural Network with Hilbert–Huang Transform for Smart Fault Detection in Microgrid
by Amir Reza Aqamohammadi, Taher Niknam, Sattar Shojaeiyan, Pierluigi Siano and Moslem Dehghani
Electronics 2023, 12(3), 499; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics12030499 - 18 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1254
Abstract
The fault detection method (FDM) plays a crucial role in controlling and operating microgrids (MGs), because it allows for systems to rapidly isolate and restore faults. Due to the fact that MGs use inverter-interfaced distributed production, conventional FDMs are no longer appropriate because [...] Read more.
The fault detection method (FDM) plays a crucial role in controlling and operating microgrids (MGs), because it allows for systems to rapidly isolate and restore faults. Due to the fact that MGs use inverter-interfaced distributed production, conventional FDMs are no longer appropriate because they are dependent on substantial fault currents. This study presents a smart FDM for MGs based on the Hilbert–Huang transform (HHT) and deep neural networks (DNNs). The suggested layout aims to prepare the fast detection of fault kind, phase, and place data to protect MGs and restore services. The HHT pre-processes the branch current measurements obtained from the protective relays to extract the characteristics, and singular value decomposition (SVD) is used to extract some features from intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) that are obtained from HHT to use as input of DNNs. As part of the fault data development, all the information eventually enters the DNNs. Compared with prior studies, this suggested method provides considerably superior fault-type identification accuracy. It is also possible to determine new fault locations. A detailed assessment analysis of this suggested FDM was conducted on IEEE 34-bus and MG systems to demonstrate its effectiveness. The simulations indicated that the proposed method is effective for detecting precision, computing time, and robustness to measurement uncertainties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Voltage Control and Protection in Power Systems)
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14 pages, 8140 KiB  
Article
The Voltage Balance Control Strategy of Static Var Generators DC-Side Capacitors Based on Fuzzy-PI Adaptive Cascaded H-Bridge
by Renxi Gong and Yuan Feng
Electronics 2023, 12(1), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics12010039 - 22 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1186
Abstract
A voltage balance control strategy based on the fuzzy adaptive PI (Proportional Integral control) is proposed to address the problem of unbalanced capacitor voltage on the DC side of cascaded H-bridge static var generators (SVG). In the control strategy, fuzzy control is introduced [...] Read more.
A voltage balance control strategy based on the fuzzy adaptive PI (Proportional Integral control) is proposed to address the problem of unbalanced capacitor voltage on the DC side of cascaded H-bridge static var generators (SVG). In the control strategy, fuzzy control is introduced based on PI control. A duty ratio correction is added to all levels’ public active power duty ratios, thereby realizing the balance of DC-side voltages at all levels. A test was conducted by building a single-phase three-H-bridge unit cascaded SVG simulation platform. The results show that the DC-side voltage balance can be controlled by the voltage balance control strategy at all levels effectively. It has the advantages of a simple control structure, double closed-loop control with decoupling of the system’s current DQ, no coupling effect, a fast response speed, and high precision. The voltage balance control strategy can exert a good control effect when the system experiences a sudden voltage imbalance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Voltage Control and Protection in Power Systems)
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21 pages, 4790 KiB  
Article
A PSO-Based Approach for Optimal Allocation and Sizing of Resistive-Type SFCLs to Enhance the Transient Stability of Power Systems
by Masoud Khatibi, Saeid Jalilzadeh, Arif Hussain and Waseem Haider
Electronics 2022, 11(23), 3980; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11233980 - 30 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1295
Abstract
Transient stability improvement of power systems in the event of short-circuit faults has always been an important issue in power systems analysis and studies. Resistive-type superconducting fault current limiters (RSFCL), owing to their capability in restricting fault currents, have been often taken into [...] Read more.
Transient stability improvement of power systems in the event of short-circuit faults has always been an important issue in power systems analysis and studies. Resistive-type superconducting fault current limiters (RSFCL), owing to their capability in restricting fault currents, have been often taken into account as an efficient method to improve the transient stability of a power system. Regarding technical constraints as well as economic concerns, optimal allocation and sizing of RSFCLs in a power system play a crucial role in their efficient utilization. This paper aims to continue the authors’ previous work and enhance the transient stability of power systems by proposing an optimization approach for optimal sizing and the allocation of various candidate numbers of RSFCLs, as the most employed type of SFCL and the most efficient one in transient stability improvement. To solve the optimization problem, a PSO-based algorithm is solved in MATLAB through an objective function and related constraints. The efficacy of the proposed algorithm is evaluated by numerical studies on the IEEE 39-Bus New England system in various scenarios through the assessment of critical fault clearing time (CCT) as well as the generators rotor angle deviations as two crucial criteria for the transient stability of power systems. Simulating the optimization results in DIgSILENT Power Factory indicates an evident enhancement of the power system transient stability via employing optimized RSFCLs resulted from the proposed optimization algorithm. Moreover, the level of transient stability enhancement highly depends on the number of optimized RSFCLs employed in the power system. The results of this paper present a helpful guideline for power system planners to select an appropriate stability scheme based on RSFCLs besides other related technical and economic issues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Voltage Control and Protection in Power Systems)
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Review

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22 pages, 14891 KiB  
Review
Review of the Techniques of the Data Analytics and Islanding Detection of Distribution Systems Using Phasor Measurement Unit Data
by Ahmed Amirul Arefin, Maveeya Baba, Narinderjit Singh Sawaran Singh, Nursyarizal Bin Mohd Nor, Muhammad Aman Sheikh, Ramani Kannan, Ghulam E. Mustafa Abro and Nirbhay Mathur
Electronics 2022, 11(18), 2967; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11182967 - 19 Sep 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2084
Abstract
The application of the Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU) in the power system is expanding day by day since it provides a higher reliability through fast symmetrically monitoring and protection and assists in controlling power systems. For power systems, islanding is a significant event [...] Read more.
The application of the Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU) in the power system is expanding day by day since it provides a higher reliability through fast symmetrically monitoring and protection and assists in controlling power systems. For power systems, islanding is a significant event due to its hazardous consequences. To detect islanding events, several schemes have been previously proposed but inappropriate threshold setting, higher computational time, and false tripping are the main limitations. In addition, differentiating between real island events and transient faults is another limitation. However, appropriate threshold setting plays a considerable part in detecting the island event, which is also important to differentiate between real and non-island events. Phasor Measurement Unit can assist in islanding detection, but it can generate 30 samples/s, so there is always the possibility of making particular period data disappear. The principal contribution of this review article is its detailed discussion of real-time symmetrical PMU data and it further presents different PMU data analytic techniques and the proposed schemes for the islanding detection system. An appropriate methodology tried to understand how to incorporate missing PMU data techniques along with the islanding detection system to ensure the higher reliability of the network. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Voltage Control and Protection in Power Systems)
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