Special Issue "Advances and Trends in Smart Grids and Microgrids: Operation, Control, Protection, and Security"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Energy".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 March 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Pierluigi Siano
grade Website
Guest Editor
Scientific Director of the Smart Grids and Smart Cities Laboratory (SMARTLab), Department of Management and Innovation Systems, University of Salerno, 84084 Fisciano SA, Italy
Interests: smart grids; energy management; power systems; demand response
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Hassan Haes Alhelou
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Iran;
Faculty Member at the Department of Electrical Power Engineering, Tishreen University, Lattakia, SY
Interests: Smart grids; power system control and operation; power system dynamics and stability; micro-grids; dynamic state estimation; high voltage systems
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We would like to invite submissions to a Special Issue of Applied Sciences on the subject of smart grids and microgrids entitled “Advances and Trends in Smart Grids and Microgrids: Operation, Control, Protection, and Security.”

Due to environment concerns, energy security risks, and fossil fuel problems, many countries around the world decided to increase the penetration level of renewable energy resources (RERs) in their energy networks. Beside this, many countries are moving toward implementation of a smart grid concept, including microgrid and deregulation in their power systems to achieve reliable and secure operation of their power systems with high penetration level of renewable energy resources. In future smart grids, keeping the operation in stable modes will require new techniques and technologies for better control and security assessment in such systems. Likewise, stability and security, which are the main issues in smart grids, should be well studied and analyzed. Moreover, new protection schemes are in demand in order to face any unexpected operation problems and contingencies in the smart grid environment.

In order to cope with ever-increasing operation and control complexity and security in modern and future smart grids, new architectures, concepts, algorithms, and procedures are essential. This Special Issue aims to encourage researchers to address the technical issues and research gaps in smart grid and microgrid systems.

The topics of interest of this Special Issue include but are not limited to:

  • Smart grids and microgrids
  • The design, modeling, and management of smart grids and microgrids
  • Smart grid and microgrid reliability, sustainability, flexibility, and resiliency
  • Smart grid and microgrid dynamics, stability, protection and security
  • Methodologies and applications of modern methods for the operation and control of smart grids
  • Intelligent systems, solving methods, optimization, and advanced heuristics
  • The modeling, planning, and operating of renewable energy resources
  • Business models for different electricity market players
  • Demand side management and demand response
  • The sizing, placement, and operation of energy storage systems and electric vehicles
  • Smart homes and building energy management
  • Electricity market, electrical power, and energy systems
  • The modeling, forecasting, and management of uncertainty in smart grids
  • Microgrids and islanded networks
  • Smart cities, smart energy, and IoT
  • Modern power systems and renewable energy resources
Prof. Dr. Pierluigi Siano
Dr. Hassan Haes Alhelou
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Integrated Control and Protection Architecture for Islanded PV-Battery DC Microgrids: Design, Analysis and Experimental Verification
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(24), 8847; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10248847 - 10 Dec 2020
Abstract
Direct current (dc) microgrids have gained significant interest in research due to dc generation/storage technologies—such as photovoltaics (PV) and batteries—increasing performance and reducing in cost. However, proper protection and control systems are critical in order to make dc microgrids feasible. This paper aims [...] Read more.
Direct current (dc) microgrids have gained significant interest in research due to dc generation/storage technologies—such as photovoltaics (PV) and batteries—increasing performance and reducing in cost. However, proper protection and control systems are critical in order to make dc microgrids feasible. This paper aims to propose a novel integrated control and protection scheme by using the state-dependent Riccati equation (SDRE) method for PV-battery based islanded dc microgrids. The dc microgrid under study consists of photovoltaic (PV) generation, a battery energy storage system (BESS), a capacitor bank and a dc load. The aims of this study are fast fault detection and voltage control of the dc load bus. To do so, the SDRE observer-controller—a nonlinear mathematical model—is employed to model the operation of the dc microgrid. Simulation results show that the proposed SDRE method is effective for fault detection and robust against external disturbances, resulting in it being capable of controlling the dc load bus voltage during disturbances. Finally, the dc microgrid and its proposed protection scheme are implemented in an experimental testbed prototype to verify the fault detection algorithm feasibility. The experimental results indicate that the SDRE scheme can effectively detect faults in a few milliseconds. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Dispatchable Substation for Operation and Control of Renewable Energy Resources
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(21), 7938; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10217938 - 09 Nov 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
Renewable generation in power systems has proved to be challenging for system operators owing to the increasing levels of penetration. The operation of power systems currently requires additional flexibility and reserves due to the intermittency and unpredictability of renewable generators. However, it is [...] Read more.
Renewable generation in power systems has proved to be challenging for system operators owing to the increasing levels of penetration. The operation of power systems currently requires additional flexibility and reserves due to the intermittency and unpredictability of renewable generators. However, it is difficult to precisely predict and control the stochastic nature of renewable sources; nevertheless, its capacity continues to increase. To monitor and control renewable generators efficiently, the entire system needs to be established in a hierarchical order. This study proposed the concept of a substation that is uniquely designed for renewable interconnection. The purpose of this substation is simple: to make the renewable generators dispatchable to operators such that each group of renewable generators is sufficiently stable to be considered as conventional generators. For this purpose, methods for sizing and controlling energy storage system are proposed based on forecasts and error distributions. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Analyzing Six Indices for Online Short-Term Voltage Stability Monitoring in Power Systems
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(12), 4200; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10124200 - 18 Jun 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
In recent years, the importance of online monitoring short-term voltage stability has been considerably increased. Unstable cases due to response of fast dynamic loads such as induction motors to the serious disturbances can be avoided by online monitoring of voltage transients and activating [...] Read more.
In recent years, the importance of online monitoring short-term voltage stability has been considerably increased. Unstable cases due to response of fast dynamic loads such as induction motors to the serious disturbances can be avoided by online monitoring of voltage transients and activating fast and appropriate controls to encounter deep and prolonged voltage drop. In this paper, a set of indices based on the phasor measurement unit (PMU) measurements are introduced and compared for short-term voltage stability. To increase efficiency of the indices, a special algorithm for each index is proposed by using the investigation of the results of applying them to six disturbances’ scenarios simulated on the IEEE 39 bus system. The disturbance scenarios are representative of different cases of stable, unstable, and deep and prolonged voltage drop associated with short-term voltage transients. The performance of these indices are studied in terms of the time and accuracy required for determining the short-term voltage stability/instability cases. It is shown that the proposed method has better performance in comparison with other techniques that can be applied to power systems in reality. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Resilient Self-Triggered Control for Voltage Restoration and Reactive Power Sharing in Islanded Microgrids under Denial-of-Service Attacks
by and
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(11), 3780; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10113780 - 29 May 2020
Abstract
This paper addresses the problem of voltage restoration and reactive power sharing of inverter-based distributed generations (DGs) in an islanded microgrid subject to denial-of-service (DoS) attacks. Note that DoS attacks may block information exchange among DGs by jamming the communication network in the [...] Read more.
This paper addresses the problem of voltage restoration and reactive power sharing of inverter-based distributed generations (DGs) in an islanded microgrid subject to denial-of-service (DoS) attacks. Note that DoS attacks may block information exchange among DGs by jamming the communication network in the secondary control level of a microgrid. A two-layer distributed secondary control framework is presented, in which a state observer employing the multiagent system (MAS)-based ternary self-triggered control is implemented for discovering the average information of voltage and reactive power in a fully distributed manner while highly reducing communication burden than that the periodic communication way. The compensation for the reference signal to the primary control is acquired according to the average estimates to achieve voltage restoration while properly sharing reactive power among DGs. An improved ternary self-triggered control strategy integrating an acknowledgment (ACK)-based monitoring mechanism is established, where DoS attacks are modeled by repeated cycles of jamming and sleeping. A new triggering condition is developed to guarantee the successful information exchange between DGs when the sleep period of DoS attacks is detected. Using the Lyapunov approach, it is proved that the proposed algorithm allows agents to reach consensus regardless of the frequency of the DoS attacks, which maintains the accurate estimation of average information and the implementation of the secondary control objectives. The performance of the proposed control scheme is evaluated under simulation and experimental conditions. The results show that the proposed secondary control scheme can highly reduce the inter-agent communication as well as improve the robustness of the system to resist DoS attacks. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Protection Scheme for a Power System with Solar Energy Penetration
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(4), 1516; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10041516 - 23 Feb 2020
Cited by 11
Abstract
As renewable energy (RE) penetration has a continuously increasing trend, the protection of RE integrated power systems is a critical issue. Recently, power networks developed for grid integration of solar energy (SE) have been designed with the help of multi-tapped lines to integrate [...] Read more.
As renewable energy (RE) penetration has a continuously increasing trend, the protection of RE integrated power systems is a critical issue. Recently, power networks developed for grid integration of solar energy (SE) have been designed with the help of multi-tapped lines to integrate small- and medium-sized SE plants and simultaneously supplying power to the loads. These tapped lines create protection challenges. This paper introduces an algorithm for the recognition of faults in the grid to which a solar photovoltaic (PV) system is integrated. A fault index (FI) was introduced to identify faults. This FI was calculated by multiplying the Wigner distribution (WD) index and Alienation (ALN) index. The WD-index was based on the energy density of the current signal evaluated using Wigner distribution function. The ALN-index was evaluated using sample-based alienation coefficients of the current signal. The performance of the algorithm was validated for various scenarios with different fault types at various locations, different fault incident angles, fault impedances, sampling frequencies, hybrid line consisting of overhead (OH) line and underground (UG) cable sections, different types of transformer windings and the presence of noise. Two phase faults with and without the involvement of ground were differentiated using the ground fault index based on the zero sequence current. This study was performed on the IEEE-13 nodes test network to which a solar PV plant with a capacity of 1 MW was integrated. The performance of the algorithm was also tested on the western part of utility grid in the Rajasthan State in India where solar PV energy integration is high. The performance of the algorithm was effectively established by comparing it with the discrete Wavelet transform (DWT), Wavelet packet transform (WPT) and Stockwell transform-based methods. Full article
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