Special Issue "Advances and Technologies in High Voltage Power Systems Operation, Control, Protection and Security"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Energy".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Pierluigi Siano
grade Website
Guest Editor
Scientific Director of the Smart Grids and Smart Cities Laboratory (SMARTLab), Department of Management & Innovation Systems, University of Salerno, 84084 Fisciano SA, Italy
Interests: smart grids; energy management; power systems; demand response
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Hassan Haes Alhelou
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Iran;
Faculty Member at the Department of Electrical Power Engineering, Tishreen University, Lattakia, SY
Interests: Smart grids; power system control and operation; power system dynamics and stability; micro-grids; dynamic state estimation; high voltage systems
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We would like to invite submissions to a Special Issue of Applied Sciences on the subject of high and extra-high voltage systems entitled “Advances and Technologies in High-Voltage Power Systems Operation, Control, Protection and Security”. The electrical demands in several countries around the world are increasing due to the huge energy requirements of prosperous economies and the human activities of modern life. In order to economically transfer electrical powers from generation-side to demand-side, these powers need to be transferred at high-voltage levels through suitable transmission systems and power substations. To this end, high-voltage transmission systems and power substations are in demand. Actually, they are at the heart of interconnected power systems, in which any faults might lead to unsuitable consequences, abnormal operation situations, security issues, and even power cuts and blackouts. In order to cope with the ever-increasing operation and control complexity and security in interconnected high-voltage power systems, new architectures, concepts, algorithms, and procedures are essential. This Special Issue aims at encouraging researchers to address the technical issues and research gaps in high-voltage transmission systems and power substations in modern energy systems. The topics of interest of this Special Issue include but are not limited to the following:

  1. Power system protection and security;
  2. High-voltage systems dynamics and stability;
  3. High-voltage transmission/power-station systems operation and control;
  4. Issues in extra high-voltage systems;
  5. High-voltage transmission lines and tie-lines;
  6. High-voltage power station automation and control;
  7. High-voltage power system monitoring, and security;
  8. Technical issues in high-voltage transmission systems;
  9. Border links between high-voltage systems and other voltage levels;
  10. Power station/substation architecture;
  11. Artificial Intelligence applications to high-voltage power systems;
  12. Energy trading in transmission systems;
  13. Systems of systems at high-voltage levels;
  14. Methodologies and applications of modern methods for the power substations and transmission systems;
  15. System reliability, sustainability, flexibility, and resiliency;
  16. The design, modeling, and management of interconnected and bulk power systems;
  17. Lighting protection in power systems;
  18. Voltage surges in power systems;
  19. Isolation issues at high-voltage levels;
  20. Frequency monitoring, control, protection, stability, and security in power systems;
  21. Voltage control, and stability;
  22. High-voltage direct current;
  23. Installations, tower earthing including its measurement, overhead line-fittings, ice load and de-icing, and sequence-impedance computations;
  24. Power system operation and control;
  25. Smart grids and high-voltage micro-grids.

Prof. Dr. Pierluigi Siano
Dr. Hassan Haes Alhelou
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
A High Gain DC-DC Converter with Grey Wolf Optimizer Based MPPT Algorithm for PV Fed BLDC Motor Drive
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(8), 2797; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10082797 - 17 Apr 2020
Cited by 3
Abstract
Photovoltaic (PV) water pumping systems are becoming popular these days. In PV water pumping, the role of the converter is most important, especially in the renewable energy-based PV systems case. This study focuses on one such application. In this proposed work, direct current [...] Read more.
Photovoltaic (PV) water pumping systems are becoming popular these days. In PV water pumping, the role of the converter is most important, especially in the renewable energy-based PV systems case. This study focuses on one such application. In this proposed work, direct current (DC) based intermediate DC-DC power converter, i.e., a modified LUO (M-LUO) converter is used to extricate the availability of power in the high range from the PV array. The M-LUO converter is controlled efficiently by utilizing the Grey Wolf Optimizer (GWO)-based maximum power point tracking algorithm, which aids the smooth starting of a brushless DC (BLDC) motor. The voltage source inverter’s (VSI) fundamental switching frequency is achieved in the BLDC motor by electronic commutation. Hence, the occurrence of VSI losses due to a high switching frequency is eliminated. The GWO optimized algorithm is compared with the perturb and observe (P&O) and fuzzy logic based maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithms. However, by sensing the position of the rotor and comparing the reference speed with the actual speed, the speed of the BLDC motor is controlled by the proportional-integral (PI) controller. The recent advancement in motor drives based on distributed sources generates more demand for highly efficient permanent magnet (PM) motor drives, and this was the beginning of interest in BLDC motors. Thus, in this paper, the design of a high-gain boost converter optimized by a GWO algorithm is proposed to drive the BLDC-based pumping motor. The proposed work is simulated in MATLAB-SIMULINK, and the experimental results are verified using the dsPIC30F2010 controller. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Optimal Design and Control of MMC STATCOM for Improving Power Quality Indicators
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(7), 2490; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10072490 - 04 Apr 2020
Abstract
In recent years, modular multilevel converters (MMC) are becoming popular in the distribution and transmission of electrical systems. The multilevel converter suffers from circulating current within the converter that increases the conduction loss of switches and increases the thermal stress on the capacitors [...] Read more.
In recent years, modular multilevel converters (MMC) are becoming popular in the distribution and transmission of electrical systems. The multilevel converter suffers from circulating current within the converter that increases the conduction loss of switches and increases the thermal stress on the capacitors and switches’ IGBTs. One of the main solutions to control the circulating current is to keep the capacitor voltage balanced in the MMC. In this paper, a new hybrid control algorithm for the cascaded modular multilevel converter is presented. The Harris hawk’s optimization (HHO) and Atom search optimization (ASO) are used to optimally design the controller of the hybrid MMC. The proposed structure of modular multilevel inverters allows effective operation, a low level of harmonic distortion in the absence of output voltage filters, a low switching frequency, and excellent flexibility to achieve the requirements of any voltage level. The effectiveness of the proposed controller and the multilevel converter has been verified through testing with the application of the MMC-static synchronous compensator (STATCOM). The stability of the voltage capacitors was monitored with balanced and unbalanced loads on the studied network. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Managing Energy Plus Performance in Data Centers and Battery-Based Devices Using an Online Non-Clairvoyant Speed-Bounded Multiprocessor Scheduling
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(7), 2459; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10072459 - 03 Apr 2020
Abstract
An efficient scheduling reduces the time required to process the jobs, and energy management decreases the service cost as well as increases the lifetime of a battery. A balanced trade-off between the energy consumed and processing time gives an ideal objective for scheduling [...] Read more.
An efficient scheduling reduces the time required to process the jobs, and energy management decreases the service cost as well as increases the lifetime of a battery. A balanced trade-off between the energy consumed and processing time gives an ideal objective for scheduling jobs in data centers and battery based devices. An online multiprocessor scheduling multiprocessor with bounded speed (MBS) is proposed in this paper. The objective of MBS is to minimize the importance-based flow time plus energy (IbFt+E), wherein the jobs arrive over time and the job’s sizes are known only at completion time. Every processor can execute at a different speed, to reduce the energy consumption. MBS is using the tradition power function and bounded speed model. The functioning of MBS is evaluated by utilizing potential function analysis against an offline adversary. For processors m ≥ 2, MBS is O(1)-competitive. The working of a set of jobs is simulated to compare MBS with the best known non-clairvoyant scheduling. The comparative analysis shows that the MBS outperforms other algorithms. The competitiveness of MBS is the least to date. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Comparison of Various Mother Wavelets for Fault Classification in Electrical Systems
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(4), 1203; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10041203 - 11 Feb 2020
Cited by 3
Abstract
This paper presents a comparative study on mother wavelets using a fault type classification algorithm in a power system. The study aims to evaluate the performance of the protection algorithm by implementing different mother wavelets for signal analysis and determines a suitable mother [...] Read more.
This paper presents a comparative study on mother wavelets using a fault type classification algorithm in a power system. The study aims to evaluate the performance of the protection algorithm by implementing different mother wavelets for signal analysis and determines a suitable mother wavelet for power system protection applications. The factors that influence the fault signal, such as the fault location, fault type, and inception angle, have been considered during testing. The algorithm operates by applying the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) to the three-phase current and zero-sequence signal obtained from the experimental setup. The DWT extracts high-frequency components from the signals during both the normal and fault states. The coefficients at scales 1–3 have been decomposed using different mother wavelets, such as Daubechies (db), symlets (sym), biorthogonal (bior), and Coiflets (coif). The results reveal different coefficient values for the different mother wavelets even though the behaviors are similar. The coefficient for any mother wavelet has the same behavior but does not have the same value. Therefore, this finding has shown that the mother wavelet has a significant impact on the accuracy of the fault classification algorithm. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Development of Railway Protective Relay Simulator for Real-Time Applications
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 191; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10010191 - 25 Dec 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Electric railways use a single-phase system, with the line comprising a trolley wire (TF) that supplies power to the load with a neutral wire and an autotransformer (AF) feeder to absorb the return current of the rail. Testing the performance of the protective [...] Read more.
Electric railways use a single-phase system, with the line comprising a trolley wire (TF) that supplies power to the load with a neutral wire and an autotransformer (AF) feeder to absorb the return current of the rail. Testing the performance of the protective relay that detects the fault of the traction power-supply system (TPSS) and operates the circuit breaker is very important. Until now, the performance test of protective relays for the TPSS has been conducted via a simple-steady test or using an expensive real-time simulator. However, under a fast-moving environment in which the load consumes a large amount of power, the protective relay must always detect faults and operate properly. This paper proposes a digital simulator that enables the dynamic testing of protective relays without using any steady test and expensive real-time simulators. This simulator includes both external waveform import and internal waveform generation functions. Users can test the operation of the protective relay by entering the waveform generated externally or internally into the protective relay. Additionally, it has the ability to monitor the operating protection elements and pickup time when the protective relay detects a fault and orders the circuit breaker trip. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Detecting Grounding Grid Orientation: Transient Electromagnetic Approach
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(24), 5270; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9245270 - 04 Dec 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
The configuration is essential to diagnose the status of the grounding grid, but the orientation of the unknown grounding grid is ultimately required to diagnose its configuration explicitly. This paper presents a transient electromagnetic method (TEM) to determine grounding grid orientation without excavation. [...] Read more.
The configuration is essential to diagnose the status of the grounding grid, but the orientation of the unknown grounding grid is ultimately required to diagnose its configuration explicitly. This paper presents a transient electromagnetic method (TEM) to determine grounding grid orientation without excavation. Unlike the existing pathological solutions, TEM does not enhance the surrounding electromagnetic environment. A secondary magnetic field as a consequence of induced eddy currents is subjected to inversion calculation. The orientation of the grounding grid is diagnosed from the equivalent resistivity distribution against the circle perimeter. High equivalent resistivity at a point on the circle implies the grounding grid conductor and vice versa. Furthermore, various mesh configurations including the presence of a diagonal branch and unequal mesh spacing are taken into account. Simulations are performed using COMSOL Multiphysics and MATLAB to verify the usefulness of the proposed method. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Dynamic State Estimation for Synchronous Machines Based on Adaptive Ensemble Square Root Kalman Filter
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(23), 5200; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9235200 - 29 Nov 2019
Abstract
Dynamic state estimation (DSE) for generators plays an important role in power system monitoring and control. Phasor measurement unit (PMU) has been widely utilized in DSE since it can acquire real-time synchronous data with high sampling frequency. However, random noise is unavoidable in [...] Read more.
Dynamic state estimation (DSE) for generators plays an important role in power system monitoring and control. Phasor measurement unit (PMU) has been widely utilized in DSE since it can acquire real-time synchronous data with high sampling frequency. However, random noise is unavoidable in PMU data, which cannot be directly used as the reference data for power grid dispatching and control. Therefore, the data measured by PMU need to be processed. In this paper, an adaptive ensemble square root Kalman filter (AEnSRF) is proposed, in which the ensemble square root filter (EnSRF) and Sage–Husa algorithm are utilized to estimate measurement noise online. Simulation results obtained by applying the proposed method show that the estimation accuracy of AEnSRF is better than that of ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF), and AEnSRF can track the measurement noise when the measurement noise changes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Numerical Analysis of a Spiral Tube Damping Busbar to Suppress VFTO in 1000 kV GIS
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(23), 5076; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9235076 - 25 Nov 2019
Abstract
Gas insulated substations (GISs) are broadly used for transmission and distribution in electric power networks. Very fast transient overvoltage (VFTO) caused by SF6 discharge during switching operations in a GIS may threaten the insulation of electrical equipment. In this paper, a novel [...] Read more.
Gas insulated substations (GISs) are broadly used for transmission and distribution in electric power networks. Very fast transient overvoltage (VFTO) caused by SF6 discharge during switching operations in a GIS may threaten the insulation of electrical equipment. In this paper, a novel VFTO suppression method with great prospects in engineering, called the spiral tube damping busbar, is proposed. The suppressing mechanism of the new method is analyzed. The structure and the design characteristics of the damping busbar are introduced as well. Moreover, a calculation method for the self-inductance of the damping busbar at high frequency is presented. According to the structural characteristics of the damping busbar, the inductance effect on suppressing VFTO is analyzed. A further improvement in damping VFTO is investigated by designing a spiral litz coil connected in series with the busbar, which increases the damping effect. The simulation results show that the improved damping busbar has a significant suppressing effect on the amplitude and the frequency of VFTO. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Microgrid Cyber-Security: Review and Challenges toward Resilience
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(16), 5649; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10165649 - 14 Aug 2020
Abstract
The importance of looking into microgrid security is getting more crucial due to the cyber vulnerabilities introduced by digitalization and the increasing dependency on information and communication technology (ICT) systems. Especially with a current academic unanimity on the incremental significance of the microgrid’s [...] Read more.
The importance of looking into microgrid security is getting more crucial due to the cyber vulnerabilities introduced by digitalization and the increasing dependency on information and communication technology (ICT) systems. Especially with a current academic unanimity on the incremental significance of the microgrid’s role in building the future smart grid, this article addresses the existing approaches attending to cyber-physical security in power systems from a microgrid-oriented perspective. First, we start with a brief descriptive review of the most commonly used terms in the latest relevant literature, followed by a comprehensive presentation of the recent efforts explored in a manner that helps the reader to choose the appropriate future research direction among several fields. Full article
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Other

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Open AccessCase Report
Analysis of Salt Mixture Contamination on Insulators via Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(7), 2617; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10072617 - 10 Apr 2020
Abstract
The composition of contamination deposited on transmission line insulators can affect their surface flashover voltage. Currently, there is no rapid on-line method to detect this contamination composition in power grids. In this paper, we applied laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to analyze contamination on [...] Read more.
The composition of contamination deposited on transmission line insulators can affect their surface flashover voltage. Currently, there is no rapid on-line method to detect this contamination composition in power grids. In this paper, we applied laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to analyze contamination on insulator surfaces. Usually, Na and Ca salts are found in contamination along with various sulfate, carbonate, and chloride compounds. As an element’s detection method, LIBS can only measure a certain element content, for example, Ca. The mixture of various compounds with the same cations can influence the LIBS signal. The influence of mixing ratios on the calibration curves and relative spectral intensity was studied via LIBS. Na2CO3, NaHCO3, CaSO4, and CaCO3 samples containing different proportions of Na and Ca were prepared. The linear correlation coefficients (R2) for the Na and Ca calibration curves generated using various mixing ratios were analyzed. The results showed that the mixture ratio did not dramatically affect the linear calibration curves for mixtures containing the same cations. This finding may significantly reduce the difficulty of applying LIBS analysis for complex contamination on insulators. The laser energy density had effects on the spectral characteristics of the measured elements. The partial least-square regression (PLSR) model can improve the accuracy of Na and Ca prediction. Full article
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