Special Issue "Recent Technical Developments in Energy-Efficient 5G Mobile Cells"

A special issue of Electronics (ISSN 2079-9292). This special issue belongs to the section "Microwave and Wireless Communications".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2019.

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Raed Abd-Alhameed

Faculty of Engineering and Informatics, University of Bradford, BD7 1DP Bradford, UK
Website | E-Mail
Interests: radio frequency engineering, beamforming, phased array and MIMO antennas, indoor and outdoor propagation, bioelectromagnetics, electromagnetic computational techniques, EMC, reconfigurable RF front end, energy efficient power amplifiers, RF predistorter design, hybrid computational optimization

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

At present, 4G systems provide a universal platform for broadband mobile services. However, mobile traffic is still growing at an unprecedented rate, and the need for more sophisticated broadband services is pushing the limits of the current standards to provide an even tighter integration between wireless technologies and higher speeds. The change in the nature of services and devices, along with pressures on the operation and capital costs put stringent limits on the design of mobile networks. Moreover, energy efficiency is now at the forefront of the socio-economic agenda, creating market drivers towards energy compliant handsets and networking devices.

This has led to the need for a new generation of mobile communications, the so-called 5G. Although 5G systems are not expected to penetrate the market until 2020, the evolution towards 5G is widely accepted to be the logical convergence of internet services with existing mobile networking standards, leading to the commonly used term “mobile internet” over heterogeneous networks, with very high connectivity speeds.

This Special Issue aims to narrow the gap between the current networking technologies and the foreseen requirements that are targeted at the future development of the 5G mobile and wireless communications networks in terms of the following:

  • higher networking capacity
  • ability to support more users
  • lower cost per bit
  • enhanced energy efficiency
  • adaptability to new services and devices (examples, smart cities, and the Internet of things (IoT)).

Specific Topics

It is expected that the future mobile networks will be built using small cells (such as femto, pico, and relay) and heterogeneous cells, which include WiFi hotspots, among others. The dense deployment of these cells and their coexistence are all new and important research challenges for future 5G and beyond. Submissions can focus on the conceptual and applied research in topics including, but not limited to, the following:

  • Energy efficient and multi-standard RF front-end
  • Network coded cooperation for mobile cells
  • Reconfigurable or multimode RF spectrum operation
  • MIMO/mMIMO for 5G mobile networks
  • Reconfigurable antenna array for 4G/5G handsets and base stations
  • High-speed and energy-efficient connectivity on demand
  • Secure networking coding for mobile small cells
  • Enabling mobile small cells and network virtualization
  • 5G small cells technologies and applications
  • Emerging the IoT applications with the new 5G developments.

Submissions should be of high enough quality for an international journal, and should not be submitted or published elsewhere. However, the extended versions of conference papers that show significant improvement (minimal of over 30%) can be considered for review in this Special Issue.  In addition, we welcome review papers covering the subjects of this Special Issue.

Technical Program Committee Members:

  1. Professor Peter Excell  Wrexham University
  2. Professor Jonathan Rodriguez  South Wales University
  3. Professor Simon Shepherd  University of Bradford
  4. Professor Irfan Awan  University of Bradford
  5. Professor Rami Qahwaji  University of Bradford
  6. Doctor Issa Elfergani  Instituto de Telecomunicações, Averio, Portugal
  7. Doctor James M Noras  University of Bradford
  8. Doctor Chan H See  University of Bolton

Prof. Dr. Raed Abd-Alhameed
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Electronics is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • 5G
  • Antennas and Propagation
  • Energy Efficient
  • Internet of Things (IoT)
  • MIMO
  • Network Coded Cooperation
  • Network Security
  • Network Virtualization
  • Radio Frequency and Reconfigurable Spectrum
  • Small Cell Technology

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Enabling Non-Linear Energy Harvesting in Power Domain Based Multiple Access in Relaying Networks: Outage and Ergodic Capacity Performance Analysis
Electronics 2019, 8(7), 817; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8070817
Received: 17 June 2019 / Revised: 17 July 2019 / Accepted: 19 July 2019 / Published: 22 July 2019
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Abstract
The Power Domain-based Multiple Access (PDMA) scheme is considered as one kind of Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access (NOMA) in green communications and can support energy-limited devices by employing wireless power transfer. Such a technique is known as a lifetime-expanding solution for operations in future [...] Read more.
The Power Domain-based Multiple Access (PDMA) scheme is considered as one kind of Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access (NOMA) in green communications and can support energy-limited devices by employing wireless power transfer. Such a technique is known as a lifetime-expanding solution for operations in future access policy, especially in the deployment of power-constrained relays for a three-node dual-hop system. In particular, PDMA and energy harvesting are considered as two communication concepts, which are jointly investigated in this paper. However, the dual-hop relaying network system is a popular model assuming an ideal linear energy harvesting circuit, as in recent works, while the practical system situation motivates us to concentrate on another protocol, namely non-linear energy harvesting. As important results, a closed-form formula of outage probability and ergodic capacity is studied under a practical non-linear energy harvesting model. To explore the optimal system performance in terms of outage probability and ergodic capacity, several main parameters including the energy harvesting coefficients, position allocation of each node, power allocation factors, and transmit signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) are jointly considered. To provide insights into the performance, the approximate expressions for the ergodic capacity are given. By matching analytical and Monte Carlo simulations, the correctness of this framework can be examined. With the observation of the simulation results, the figures also show that the performance of energy harvesting-aware PDMA systems under the proposed model can satisfy the requirements in real PDMA applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Technical Developments in Energy-Efficient 5G Mobile Cells)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Maximum Transmit Power for UE in an LTE Small Cell Uplink
Electronics 2019, 8(7), 796; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8070796
Received: 19 May 2019 / Revised: 11 July 2019 / Accepted: 15 July 2019 / Published: 16 July 2019
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Abstract
To furnish the network with small cells, it is vital to consider parameters like cell size, interference in the network, and deployment strategies to maximize the network’s performance gains expected from small cells. With a small cell network, it is critical to analyze [...] Read more.
To furnish the network with small cells, it is vital to consider parameters like cell size, interference in the network, and deployment strategies to maximize the network’s performance gains expected from small cells. With a small cell network, it is critical to analyze the impact of the uplink power control parameters on the network’s performance. In particular, the maximum transmit power (Pmax) for user equipment (UE) needs to be revisited for small cells, since it is a major contributor towards interference. In this work, the network performance was evaluated for different Pmax values for the small cell uplink. Various deployment scenarios for furnishing the existing macro layer in LTE networks with small cells were considered. The Pmax limit for a small cell uplink was evaluated for both homogenous small cell and heterogeneous networks (HetNet). The numerical results showed that it would be appropriate to adopt Pmax = 18 dBm in uniformly distributed small cells rather than Pmax = 23 dBm, as in macro environments. The choice of Pmax = 18 dBm was further validated for three HetNet deployment scenarios. A decrease of 0.52 dBm and an increase of 0.03 dBm and 3.29 dBm in the proposed Pmax = 18 dBm were observed for the three HetNet deployments, respectively. Furthermore, we propose that the fractional power control mode can be employed instead of the full compensation mode in small cell uplinks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Technical Developments in Energy-Efficient 5G Mobile Cells)
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Open AccessArticle
Frequency and Pattern Reconfigurable Antenna for Emerging Wireless Communication Systems
Electronics 2019, 8(4), 407; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8040407
Received: 13 March 2019 / Revised: 2 April 2019 / Accepted: 3 April 2019 / Published: 7 April 2019
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2906 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A printed and minimal size antenna having the functionality of frequency shifting as well as pattern reconfigurability is presented in this work. The antenna proposed in this work consists of three switches. Switch 1 is a lumped switch that controls the operating bands [...] Read more.
A printed and minimal size antenna having the functionality of frequency shifting as well as pattern reconfigurability is presented in this work. The antenna proposed in this work consists of three switches. Switch 1 is a lumped switch that controls the operating bands of the antenna. Switch 2 and Switch 3 controls the beam switching of the antenna. When the Switch 1 is ON, the proposed antenna operates at 3.1 GHz and 6.8 GHz, covering the 2.5–4.2 GHz and 6.2–7.4 GHz bands, respectively. When Switch 1 is OFF, the antenna operates only at 3.1 GHz covering the 2.5–4.2 GHz band. The desired beam from the antenna can be obtained by adjusting the ON and OFF states of Switches 2 and 3. Unique beams can be obtained by different combination of ON and OFF states of the Switches 2 and 3. A gain greater than 3.7 dBi is obtained for all four cases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Technical Developments in Energy-Efficient 5G Mobile Cells)
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Open AccessArticle
Wireless-Powered Cooperative MIMO NOMA Networks: Design and Performance Improvement for Cell-Edge Users
Electronics 2019, 8(3), 328; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8030328
Received: 18 February 2019 / Revised: 12 March 2019 / Accepted: 12 March 2019 / Published: 16 March 2019
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Abstract
In this paper, we study two transmission scenarios for the base station (BS) in cellular networks to serve the far user, who is located at the cell-edge area in such a network. In particular, we show that wireless-powered non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) and [...] Read more.
In this paper, we study two transmission scenarios for the base station (BS) in cellular networks to serve the far user, who is located at the cell-edge area in such a network. In particular, we show that wireless-powered non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) and the cell-center user in such a model can harvest energy from the BS. To overcome disadvantages of the cell-edge user due to its weak received signal, we fabricate a far NOMA user with multiple antennas to achieve performance improvement. In addition, the first scenario only considers a relay link deployed to forward signals to a far NOMA user, while both direct links and relay links are generally enabled to serve a far user in the second scenario. These situations, together with their outage performance, are analyzed and compared to provide insights in the design of a real-multiple-antenna NOMA network, in which the BS is also required to equip multiple antennas for robust quality of transmission. Higher complexity in computations is already known in consideration of outage metrics with respect to performance analysis, since the system model employs multiple antennas. To this end, we employ a transmit antenna selection (TAS) policy to formulate closed-form expressions of outage probability that satisfies the quality-of-service (QoS) requirements in the NOMA network. Our simulation results reveal that the performance of the considered system will be improved in cases of higher quantity of transmit antennas in dedicated devices. Finally, the proposed design in such a NOMA system cannot only ensure a downlink with higher quality to serve a far NOMA user, but also provide significant system performance improvement compared to a traditional NOMA networks using a single antenna. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Technical Developments in Energy-Efficient 5G Mobile Cells)
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Open AccessArticle
Multi-Points Cooperative Relay in NOMA System with N-1 DF Relaying Nodes in HD/FD Mode for N User Equipments with Energy Harvesting
Electronics 2019, 8(2), 167; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8020167
Received: 14 December 2018 / Revised: 20 January 2019 / Accepted: 29 January 2019 / Published: 1 February 2019
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1451 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access (NOMA) is the key technology promised to be applied in next-generation networks in the near future. In this study, we propose a multi-points cooperative relay (MPCR) NOMA model instead of just using a relay as in previous studies. Based on [...] Read more.
Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access (NOMA) is the key technology promised to be applied in next-generation networks in the near future. In this study, we propose a multi-points cooperative relay (MPCR) NOMA model instead of just using a relay as in previous studies. Based on the channel state information (CSI), the base station (BS) selects a closest user equipment (UE) and sends a superposed signal to this UE as a first relay node. We have assumed that there are N UEs in the network and the N-th UE, which is farthest from BS, has the poorest quality signal transmitted from the BS compared the other UEs. The N-th UE received a forwarded signal from N 1 relaying nodes that are the UEs with better signal quality. At the i-th relaying node, it detects its own symbol by using successive interference cancellation (SIC) and will forward the superimposed signal to the next closest user, namely the ( i + 1 ) -th UE, and include an excess power which will use for energy harvesting (EH) intention at the next UE. By these, the farthest UE in network can be significantly improved. In addition, closed-form expressions of outage probability for users over both the Rayleigh and Nakagami-m fading channels are also presented. Analysis and simulation results performed by Matlab software, which are presented accurately and clearly, show that the effectiveness of our proposed model and this model will be consistent with the multi-access wireless network in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Technical Developments in Energy-Efficient 5G Mobile Cells)
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Review

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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
A Survey on RF and Microwave Doherty Power Amplifier for Mobile Handset Applications
Electronics 2019, 8(6), 717; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8060717
Received: 2 May 2019 / Revised: 17 June 2019 / Accepted: 19 June 2019 / Published: 25 June 2019
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Abstract
This survey addresses the cutting-edge load modulation microwave and radio frequency power amplifiers for next-generation wireless communication standards. The basic operational principle of the Doherty amplifier and its defective behavior that has been originated by transistor characteristics will be presented. Moreover, advance design [...] Read more.
This survey addresses the cutting-edge load modulation microwave and radio frequency power amplifiers for next-generation wireless communication standards. The basic operational principle of the Doherty amplifier and its defective behavior that has been originated by transistor characteristics will be presented. Moreover, advance design architectures for enhancing the Doherty power amplifier’s performance in terms of higher efficiency and wider bandwidth characteristics, as well as the compact design techniques of Doherty amplifier that meets the requirements of legacy 5G handset applications, will be discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Technical Developments in Energy-Efficient 5G Mobile Cells)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Recent Developments of Dual-Band Doherty Power Amplifiers for Upcoming Mobile Communications Systems
Electronics 2019, 8(6), 638; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8060638
Received: 15 April 2019 / Revised: 31 May 2019 / Accepted: 2 June 2019 / Published: 6 June 2019
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3549 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Power amplifiers in modern and future communications should be able to handle different modulation standards at different frequency bands, and in addition, to be compatible with the previous generations. This paper reviews the recent design techniques that have been used to operate dual-band [...] Read more.
Power amplifiers in modern and future communications should be able to handle different modulation standards at different frequency bands, and in addition, to be compatible with the previous generations. This paper reviews the recent design techniques that have been used to operate dual-band amplifiers and in particular the Doherty amplifiers. Special attention is focused on the design methodologies used for power splitters, phase compensation networks, impedance inverter networks and impedance transformer networks of such power amplifier. The most important materials of the dual-band Doherty amplifier are highlighted and surveyed. The main problems and challenges covering dual-band design concepts are presented and discussed. In addition, improvement techniques to enhance such operations are also exploited. The study shows that the transistor parasitic has a great impact in the design of a dual-band amplifier, and reduction of the transforming ratio of the inverter simplifies the dual-band design. The offset line can be functionally replaced by a Π-network in dual-band design rather than T-network. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Technical Developments in Energy-Efficient 5G Mobile Cells)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Recent Developments of Reconfigurable Antennas for Current and Future Wireless Communication Systems
Electronics 2019, 8(2), 128; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8020128
Received: 24 December 2018 / Revised: 14 January 2019 / Accepted: 18 January 2019 / Published: 26 January 2019
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (5539 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Reconfigurable antennas play important roles in smart and adaptive systems and are the subject of many research studies. They offer several advantages such as multifunctional capabilities, minimized volume requirements, low front-end processing efforts with no need for a filtering element, good isolation, and [...] Read more.
Reconfigurable antennas play important roles in smart and adaptive systems and are the subject of many research studies. They offer several advantages such as multifunctional capabilities, minimized volume requirements, low front-end processing efforts with no need for a filtering element, good isolation, and sufficient out-of-band rejection; these make them well suited for use in wireless applications such as fourth generation (4G) and fifth generation (5G) mobile terminals. With the use of active materials such as microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), varactor or p-i-n (PIN) diodes, an antenna’s characteristics can be changed through altering the current flow on the antenna structure. If an antenna is to be reconfigurable into many different states, it needs to have an adequate number of active elements. However, a large number of high-quality active elements increases cost, and necessitates complex biasing networks and control circuitry. We review some recently proposed reconfigurable antenna designs suitable for use in wireless communications such as cognitive-ratio (CR), multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO), ultra-wideband (UWB), and 4G/5G mobile terminals. Several examples of antennas with different reconfigurability functions are analyzed and their performances are compared. Characteristics and fundamental properties of reconfigurable antennas with single and multiple reconfigurability modes are investigated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Technical Developments in Energy-Efficient 5G Mobile Cells)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Recent Progress in the Design of 4G/5G Reconfigurable Filters
Electronics 2019, 8(1), 114; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8010114
Received: 22 December 2018 / Revised: 9 January 2019 / Accepted: 16 January 2019 / Published: 20 January 2019
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (5226 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Currently, several microwave filter designs contend for use in wireless communications. Among various microstrip filter designs, the reconfigurable planar filter presents more advantages and better prospects for communication applications, being compact in size, light-weight and cost-effective. Tuneable microwave filters can reduce the number [...] Read more.
Currently, several microwave filter designs contend for use in wireless communications. Among various microstrip filter designs, the reconfigurable planar filter presents more advantages and better prospects for communication applications, being compact in size, light-weight and cost-effective. Tuneable microwave filters can reduce the number of switches between electronic components. This paper presents a review of recent reconfigurable microwave filter designs, specifically on current advances in tuneable filters that involve high-quality factor resonator filters to control frequency, bandwidth and selectivity. The most important materials required for this field are also highlighted and surveyed. In addition, the main references for several types of tuneable microstrip filters are reported, especially related to new design technologies. Topics surveyed include microwave and millimetre wave designs for 4G and 5G applications, which use varactors and MEMSs technologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Technical Developments in Energy-Efficient 5G Mobile Cells)
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