Special Issue "In Honour of Marcel Tanner, Parasitologist Extraordinaire"

A special issue of Diseases (ISSN 2079-9721). This special issue belongs to the section "Infectious Disease".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 December 2022) | Viewed by 11409

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Robert Bergquist
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute. Ingerod, SE-454 94 Brastad, Sweden
2. (Formerly UNICEF/UNDP/World Bank/WHO Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR), World Health Organization), Geneva, Switzerland
Interests: geospatial epidemiology; schistosomiasis; food-borne trematodes; COVID-19
Dr. Lukas Meier
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland
2. R. Geigy-Foundation, Basel, Switzerland
Interests: history; global health; Africa; research partnership

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Marcel Tanner is an important figure in global health research and implementation. Trained as a parasitologist and public health specialist, he skilfully combines various fields of expertise: from basic to operational research, from the molecular level to health systems strengthening, from infectious to non-communicable diseases, from animal to human health (“One health”). Marcel Tanner’s work and lifetime achievements epitomise the crucial iterative process from the “bench to the field”, always striving to implement scientific findings to improve the fate of neglected populations and underperforming health systems. Marcel Tanner is a role model for how to encourage and create scientific institutions in low- and middle-income countries. He was a major driver behind the development of the Ifakara Health Institute (IHI) in Tanzania, after which other major research centres in Sub-Saharan Africa are modelled, such as the Centre Suisse de Recherches Scientifiques in Côte d’Ivoire, the Centre de Support en Santé Internationale in the Chad, and the Manhiça Health Research Centre in Mozambique. With regard to research and elimination of specific infectious diseases, Marcel Tanner has produced key papers in the fields of schistosomiasis and malaria. He was the principal investigator overseeing the first malaria vaccine trial in Sub-Saharan Africa (SPf66) and—together with IHI and other partners—led the clinical trials for the malaria vaccine candidate RTS,S/AS01E. Marcel Tanner has authored/co-authored over 800 original research papers and is one of the most productive scholars in health systems research between 1900 and 2012 (rank 6). He supervised many PhD, MD and MSc, MIH, and MPH students and has paved the way for new models of research partnership.

Dr. Robert Bergquist
Dr. Lukas Meier
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • global health
  • public health
  • epidemiology
  • institution building
  • capacity building
  • malaria
  • schistosomiasis
  • health systems
  • research partnership
  • Africa

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
Marcel Tanner, Global Health Specialist “Extraordinaire” Incl Supplementary Materials with Personal Contributions from Renowned Experts
Diseases 2022, 10(4), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/diseases10040074 - 30 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 631
Abstract
Marcel Tanner, President of the Swiss Academy of the Sciences, Director emeritus of the Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute (Swiss TPH), and Professor of Epidemiology and Medical Parasitology at the University of Basel, Switzerland, is indeed extraordinary, especially when considering the broad [...] Read more.
Marcel Tanner, President of the Swiss Academy of the Sciences, Director emeritus of the Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute (Swiss TPH), and Professor of Epidemiology and Medical Parasitology at the University of Basel, Switzerland, is indeed extraordinary, especially when considering the broad set of global health issues covered by his research [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue In Honour of Marcel Tanner, Parasitologist Extraordinaire)

Research

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Article
Improving the Response of Health Systems to Female Genital Schistosomiasis in Endemic Countries through a Gender-Sensitive Human Rights-Based Framework
Diseases 2022, 10(4), 125; https://doi.org/10.3390/diseases10040125 - 14 Dec 2022
Viewed by 728
Abstract
The right to health was enshrined in the constitution of the World Health Organization in 1946 and in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948, which also guaranteed women’s fundamental freedoms and dignity. The Declaration of Human Rights was signed by almost [...] Read more.
The right to health was enshrined in the constitution of the World Health Organization in 1946 and in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948, which also guaranteed women’s fundamental freedoms and dignity. The Declaration of Human Rights was signed by almost every country in the world. Nonetheless, gender inequalities in health and health systems continue to persist, especially in lower and middle income countries that are disproportionately affected by a litany of neglected diseases. In this paper, we focus on one of the most neglected human rights, development, and reproductive health issues globally, female genital schistosomiasis (FGS), which imposes enormous unacknowledged suffering on an estimated 56 million women and girls in Sub-Saharan Africa. Despite increasing calls for attention to FGS, no country has fully incorporated it into its health system. An appropriate response will require a comprehensive approach, guided by human rights mandates and the redress of FGS-related gender inequalities. In this paper, we propose the application of existing human rights and its clients, women, and girls affected by FGS as rights holders. Within the different components or building blocks of the health system, we propose elements of an appropriate health system response using the four components identified within the FGS Accelerated Scale Together (FAST) Package—awareness raising, prevention of infection, training of health personnel, and diagnosis and treatment. The framework is aspirational, its recommended elements and actions are not exhaustive, and countries will need to adapt it to their own situations and resource availability. However, it can be a useful guide to help health systems define how to begin to incorporate FGS into their programming in a way that responds to their human rights obligations in a gender- and culturally sensitive manner. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue In Honour of Marcel Tanner, Parasitologist Extraordinaire)
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Article
No Roots, No Fruits: Marcel Tanner’s Scholarly Contribution, Achievements in Capacity Building, and Impact in Global Health
Diseases 2022, 10(4), 116; https://doi.org/10.3390/diseases10040116 - 01 Dec 2022
Viewed by 655
Abstract
On 1 October 2022, Marcel Tanner celebrated his 70th birthday with his family and friends on the River Rhein in Basel. Trained in epidemiology (Ph.D.) and public health (MPH), Tanner devoted his entire working life to research, teaching, and capacity building. Indeed, he [...] Read more.
On 1 October 2022, Marcel Tanner celebrated his 70th birthday with his family and friends on the River Rhein in Basel. Trained in epidemiology (Ph.D.) and public health (MPH), Tanner devoted his entire working life to research, teaching, and capacity building. Indeed, he built up productive partnerships, fostered multinational consortia, served on numerous scientific and strategic advisory boards, and contributed measurably to improving people’s health and well-being. We systematically searched the Web of Science Core Collection to identify Tanner’s scholarly contribution and pursued an in-depth analysis of his scientific oeuvre including the main areas of research, pathogens, diseases, and health systems, and the geographical foci of his scholarly activities. Additionally, we examined Tanner’s impact on personal and institutional capacity building in the arena of global health. We also invited a handful of colleagues to describe their experiences while working with Marcel Tanner. What transpires is a considerable breadth and depth of peer-reviewed publications in tropical medicine; epidemiology, environmental, and occupational health; parasitology; and infectious diseases. More than a third of the 622 peer-reviewed articles, the first piece published in 1978, focused on various aspects of the protozoan parasite Plasmodium and the disease it causes: malaria. Tanner trained, taught, and inspired generations of students, scientists, and practitioners all over the world. His unique ability to bring people and institutions together to work in partnership is at the heart of an impactful career in global health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue In Honour of Marcel Tanner, Parasitologist Extraordinaire)
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Article
Spatial Analysis of Schistosomiasis in Hunan and Jiangxi Provinces in the People’s Republic of China
Diseases 2022, 10(4), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/diseases10040093 - 19 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 796
Abstract
Understanding the spatial distribution of schistosome infection is critical for tailoring preventive measures to control and eliminate schistosomiasis. This study used spatial analysis to determine risk factors that may impact Schistosoma japonicum infection and predict risk in Hunan and Jiangxi Provinces in the [...] Read more.
Understanding the spatial distribution of schistosome infection is critical for tailoring preventive measures to control and eliminate schistosomiasis. This study used spatial analysis to determine risk factors that may impact Schistosoma japonicum infection and predict risk in Hunan and Jiangxi Provinces in the People’s Republic of China. The study employed survey data collected in Hunan and Jiangxi in 2016. Independent variable data were obtained from publicly available sources. Bayesian-based geostatistics was used to build models with covariate fixed effects and spatial random effects to identify factors associated with the spatial distribution of infection. Prevalence of schistosomiasis was higher in Hunan (12.8%) than Jiangxi (2.6%). Spatial distribution of schistosomiasis varied at pixel level (0.1 × 0.1 km), and was significantly associated with distance to nearest waterbody (km, β = −1.158; 95% credible interval [CrI]: −2.104, −0.116) in Hunan and temperature (°C, β = −4.359; 95% CrI: −9.641, −0.055) in Jiangxi. The spatial distribution of schistosomiasis in Hunan and Jiangxi varied substantially and was significantly associated with distance to nearest waterbody. Prevalence of schistosomiasis decreased with increasing distance to nearest waterbody in Hunan, indicating that schistosomiasis control should target individuals in close proximity to open water sources as they are at highest risk of infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue In Honour of Marcel Tanner, Parasitologist Extraordinaire)
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Article
Short-, Mid-, and Long-Term Epidemiological and Economic Effects of the World Bank Loan Project on Schistosomiasis Control in the People’s Republic of China
Diseases 2022, 10(4), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/diseases10040084 - 08 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 677
Abstract
It is widely acknowledged that the 10-year World Bank Loan Project (WBLP) on schistosomiasis control in the People’s Republic of China played an important role in raising the public and political profile of schistosomiasis, particularly regarding its prevention, control, and elimination. The WBLP [...] Read more.
It is widely acknowledged that the 10-year World Bank Loan Project (WBLP) on schistosomiasis control in the People’s Republic of China played an important role in raising the public and political profile of schistosomiasis, particularly regarding its prevention, control, and elimination. The WBLP adopted large-scale administration of praziquantel as the main control measure. At the end of the 10-year project in 2001, data from high-, medium-, and low-endemic areas suggested that the infection rates of both humans and domestic animals had fallen to the expected levels. However, major floods in the Yangtze River basin, coupled with reduced funding for schistosomiasis control, resulted in a rebound of the disease in endemic areas. Since 2005, a steady decline in infection rates was observed and it was hypothesized that the experiences and technological advances accumulated during the WBLP played a role. Nonetheless, relatively little is known about the long-term effects of the WBLP on schistosomiasis, particularly management mechanisms, technological innovations, epidemiological changes, and long-term economic impact. To fill these gaps, we systematically searched the literature for articles in English and Chinese on the WBLP on schistosomiasis from 1 January 1992 to 30 July 2022. Relevant studies were analyzed for short-, mid-, and long-term epidemiological and economic effects of the WBLP on schistosomiasis prevention, control, and elimination. Overall, 81 articles met our inclusion criteria, of which 17 were related to management mechanism reform, 20 pertained to technological innovation, and 44 examined epidemiological changes and economic effects. Most papers documented the WBLP as a positive contribution to schistosomiasis prevention and control in the People’s Republic of China. Regarding the long-term effects, there was a significant contribution to the national schistosomiasis control and elimination programme in terms of renewed management mechanisms, talent development, and technological innovation. In conclusion, the WBLP contributed to enhanced control of schistosomiasis and shaped the ultimate response towards schistosomiasis elimination in the People’s Republic of China. Experiences and lessons learned might guide schistosomiasis control and elimination elsewhere. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue In Honour of Marcel Tanner, Parasitologist Extraordinaire)
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Communication
The Chronic Diseases Clinic of Ifakara (CDCI)—Establishing a Model Clinic for Chronic Care Delivery in Rural Sub-Saharan Africa
Diseases 2022, 10(4), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/diseases10040072 - 30 Sep 2022
Viewed by 823
Abstract
The rollout of antiretroviral drugs in sub-Saharan Africa to address the huge health impact of the HIV pandemic has been one of the largest projects undertaken in medical history and is an unprecedented medical success story. However, the path has been and still [...] Read more.
The rollout of antiretroviral drugs in sub-Saharan Africa to address the huge health impact of the HIV pandemic has been one of the largest projects undertaken in medical history and is an unprecedented medical success story. However, the path has been and still is characterized by many far reaching implementational challenges. Here, we report on the building and maintaining of a role model clinic in Ifakara, rural Southwestern Tanzania, within a collaborative project to support HIV services within the national program, training for staff and integrated research to better understand local needs and improve patients’ outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue In Honour of Marcel Tanner, Parasitologist Extraordinaire)
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Article
Communities’ Perception, Knowledge, and Practices Related to Human African Trypanosomiasis in the Democratic Republic of Congo
Diseases 2022, 10(4), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/diseases10040069 - 26 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1256
Abstract
Background: The number of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) cases in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) has significantly reduced, thanks to more effective drugs and screening tools and regular mass screening. However, this potentially jeopardizes HAT control activities, especially community engagement. Methods: We [...] Read more.
Background: The number of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) cases in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) has significantly reduced, thanks to more effective drugs and screening tools and regular mass screening. However, this potentially jeopardizes HAT control activities, especially community engagement. Methods: We used an ecological model framework to understand how various factors shape communities’ knowledge, perceptions, and behavior in this low endemicity context. Community members, frontline health providers, and policymakers were consulted using an ethnographic approach. Results: Communities in endemic areas are knowledgeable about causes, symptoms, and treatment of HAT, but this was more limited among young people. Few are aware of new HAT treatment or screening techniques. Participation in mass screening has declined due to many factors including fear and a lack of urgency, given the low numbers of cases. Delays in seeking medical care are due to confusion of HAT symptoms with those of other diseases and belief that HAT is caused by witchcraft. Conclusions: Community members see their role more in terms of vector control than participation in screening, referral, or accepting treatment. We propose recommendations for achieving sustainable community engagement, including development of an information and communication strategy and empowerment of communities to take greater ownership of HAT control activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue In Honour of Marcel Tanner, Parasitologist Extraordinaire)
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Article
Optimizing Implementation of Preventive Chemotherapy against Soil-Transmitted Helminthiasis and Intestinal Schistosomiasis Using High-Resolution Data: Field-Based Experiences from Côte d’Ivoire
Diseases 2022, 10(4), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/diseases10040066 - 20 Sep 2022
Viewed by 855
Abstract
Background: Despite efforts to control neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) using preventive chemotherapy (PC), soil-transmitted helminthiases and schistosomiasis remain widely prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa. The current PC regimen in endemic settings is defined based on health district-level prevalence. This work aims to highlight the [...] Read more.
Background: Despite efforts to control neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) using preventive chemotherapy (PC), soil-transmitted helminthiases and schistosomiasis remain widely prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa. The current PC regimen in endemic settings is defined based on health district-level prevalence. This work aims to highlight the need for high-resolution data when elimination, rather than morbidity control, is the targeted goal. Methodology: Cross-sectional parasitological surveys were conducted from July to August 2019 and from September to October 2019, respectively, across the entire Dabou and Jacqueville health districts in southern Côte d’Ivoire. From every village, 60 school-aged children (6–15 years) were randomly selected and invited to provide one fresh stool sample, whereof duplicate Kato–Katz thick smears were prepared and read by two independent technicians. Principal Findings: 4338 school-aged children from 77 villages were screened from the Dabou (n = 2174; 50.12%, 39 villages) and Jacqueville (n = 2164; 49.88%, 38 villages) health districts. The prevalence of any soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infection was 12.47% and 11.09% in the Dabou and Jacqueville health districts, respectively. Species-specific district-level prevalence remained below 10%, varying between 0.51% (hookworm in Jacqueville) and 9.06% (Trichuris trichiura in Dabou). However, when considering sub-districts or villages only, several STH infection hotspots (five sub-districts with ≥20% and four villages with more than 50% infected) were observed. Schistosoma mansoni infection was found in less than 1% of the examined children in each health district. Conclusions/Significance: We conclude that keeping health district-level prevalence as a reference for PC implementation leaves many high-risk sub-districts or villages requiring PC (≥20% prevalence) untreated. To avoid maintaining those high-risk villages as STH reservoirs by skipping control interventions and jeopardizing the successes already achieved in STH control through PC during the past two decades, precision mapping is required. Further investigation is needed to assess cost-efficient approaches to implement small-scale disease surveillance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue In Honour of Marcel Tanner, Parasitologist Extraordinaire)
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Article
Savings Groups for Social Health Protection: A Social Resilience Study in Rural Tanzania
Diseases 2022, 10(3), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/diseases10030063 - 09 Sep 2022
Viewed by 842
Abstract
Global health experts use a health system perspective for research on social health protection. This article argues for a complementary actor perspective, informed by the social resilience framework. It presents a Saving4Health initiative with women groups in rural Tanzania. The participatory qualitative research [...] Read more.
Global health experts use a health system perspective for research on social health protection. This article argues for a complementary actor perspective, informed by the social resilience framework. It presents a Saving4Health initiative with women groups in rural Tanzania. The participatory qualitative research design yielded new insights into the lived experience of social health protection. The study shows how participation in saving groups increased women’s collective and individual capacities to access, combine and transform five capitals. The groups offered a mechanism to save for the annual insurance premium and to obtain health loans for costs not covered by insurance (economic capital). The groups organized around aspirations of mutual support and protection, fostered social responsibility and widened women’s interaction arena to peers, government and NGO representatives (social capital). The groups expanded women’s horizon by exposing them to new ways of managing financial health risk (cultural capital). The groups strengthened women’s social recognition in their family, community and beyond and enabled them to initiate transformative change through advocacy for health insurance (symbolic capital). Savings groups shape the evolving field of social health protection in interaction with governmental and other powerful actors and have further potential for mobilization and transformative change. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue In Honour of Marcel Tanner, Parasitologist Extraordinaire)

Review

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Review
Fexinidazole for Human African Trypanosomiasis, the Fruit of a Successful Public-Private Partnership
Diseases 2022, 10(4), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/diseases10040090 - 17 Oct 2022
Viewed by 956
Abstract
After 100 years of chemotherapy with impractical and toxic drugs, an oral cure for human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is available: Fexinidazole. In this case, we review the history of drug discovery for HAT with special emphasis on the discovery, pre-clinical development, and operational [...] Read more.
After 100 years of chemotherapy with impractical and toxic drugs, an oral cure for human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is available: Fexinidazole. In this case, we review the history of drug discovery for HAT with special emphasis on the discovery, pre-clinical development, and operational challenges of the clinical trials of fexinidazole. The screening of the Drugs for Neglected Diseases initiative (DNDi) HAT-library by the Swiss TPH had singled out fexinidazole, originally developed by Hoechst (now Sanofi), as the most promising of a series of over 800 nitroimidazoles and related molecules. In cell culture, fexinidazole has an IC50 of around 1 µM against Trypanosoma brucei and is more than 100-fold less toxic to mammalian cells. In the mouse model, fexinidazole cures both the first, haemolymphatic, and the second, meningoencephalitic stage of the infection, the latter at 100 mg/kg twice daily for 5 days. In patients, the clinical trials managed by DNDi and supported by Swiss TPH mainly conducted in the Democratic Republic of the Congo demonstrated that oral fexinidazole is safe and effective for use against first- and early second-stage sleeping sickness. Based on the positive opinion issued by the European Medicines Agency in 2018, the WHO has released new interim guidelines for the treatment of HAT including fexinidazole as the new therapy for first-stage and non-severe second-stage sleeping sickness caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense (gHAT). This greatly facilitates the diagnosis and treatment algorithm for gHAT, increasing the attainable coverage and paving the way towards the envisaged goal of zero transmission by 2030. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue In Honour of Marcel Tanner, Parasitologist Extraordinaire)
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Review
Swiss-Chinese Cooperation in Tropical Medicine: The Role of Professor Marcel Tanner
Diseases 2022, 10(4), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/diseases10040083 - 08 Oct 2022
Viewed by 672
Abstract
This paper is in honour of Professor Marcel Tanner, President of the Swiss Academies of Arts and Sciences, and former Director of the Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute (Swiss TPH), in Basel, Switzerland. In the 30 plus years since his first visit [...] Read more.
This paper is in honour of Professor Marcel Tanner, President of the Swiss Academies of Arts and Sciences, and former Director of the Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute (Swiss TPH), in Basel, Switzerland. In the 30 plus years since his first visit to China in 1989, Professor Tanner has tirelessly promoted research collaboration between Switzerland and China on health and tropical diseases through international meetings, scholar exchange, and training of young scientists. As a contribution to Professor Tanner’s life’s work of collaboration with Chinese scientists, we summarize here ideas conceived, work initiated and major outcomes. His approach, embodied in his flowery expression: “Alps and Himalayas never meet, but Swiss and Chinese can”, marked the occasion in 2013 when Xinhua Co., Ltd., a pharmaceutical company in Shandong of China, agreed to produce tribendimidine, a new remedy for tropical helminth infections, that was the fruit of long-term research by scientists at the Swiss TPH in Basel, and National Institute of Parasitic Diseases (NIPD) in Shanghai. This was neither the first nor the last of Professor Tanner’s forceful, yet diplomatic influence, and we follow in his footprints when continuing in Swiss-Chinese cooperation in tropical medicine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue In Honour of Marcel Tanner, Parasitologist Extraordinaire)
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Other

Commentary
Chemoprevention for the Populations of Malaria Endemic Africa
Diseases 2022, 10(4), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/diseases10040101 - 08 Nov 2022
Viewed by 581
Abstract
Drugs have been used to prevent malaria for centuries, but only recently have they been used on a large scale to prevent malaria in the resident population of malaria endemic areas in sub-Saharan Africa. This paper discusses some of the reasons for the [...] Read more.
Drugs have been used to prevent malaria for centuries, but only recently have they been used on a large scale to prevent malaria in the resident population of malaria endemic areas in sub-Saharan Africa. This paper discusses some of the reasons for the hesitancy in adoption of chemopreventive strategies in sub-Saharan Africa, reasons why this hesitancy has been overcome in recent years and the range of target groups now identified by the World Health Organization as those who can benefit most from chemoprevention. Adoption of carefully targeted chemopreventive strategies could help reverse the recent stagnation in the decline in malaria in sub-Saharan Africa that had been taking place during the previous two decades. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue In Honour of Marcel Tanner, Parasitologist Extraordinaire)
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Essay
The Promotion and Development of One Health at Swiss TPH and Its Greater Potential
Diseases 2022, 10(3), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/diseases10030065 - 14 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1307
Abstract
One Health, an integrated health concept, is now an integral part of health research and development. One Health overlaps with other integrated approaches to health such as EcoHealth or Planetary Health, which not only consider the patient or population groups but include them [...] Read more.
One Health, an integrated health concept, is now an integral part of health research and development. One Health overlaps with other integrated approaches to health such as EcoHealth or Planetary Health, which not only consider the patient or population groups but include them in the social-ecological context. One Health has gained the widest foothold politically, institutionally, and in operational implementation. Increasingly, One Health is becoming part of reporting under the International Health Legislation (IHR 2005). The Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute (Swiss TPH) has played a part in these developments with one of the first mentions of One Health in the biomedical literature. Here, we summarise the history of ideas and processes that led to the development of One Health research and development at the Swiss TPH, clarify its theoretical and methodological foundations, and explore its larger societal potential as an integrated approach to thinking. The history of ideas and processes leading to the development of One Health research at the Swiss TPH were inspired by far-sighted and open ideas of the directors and heads of departments, without exerting too much influence. They followed the progressing work and supported it with further ideas. These in turn were taken up and further developed by a growing number of individual scientists. These ideas were related to other strands of knowledge from economics, molecular biology, anthropology, sociology, theology, and linguistics. We endeavour to relate Western biomedical forms of knowledge generation with other forms, such as Mayan medicine. One Health, in its present form, has been influenced by African mobile pastoralists’ integrated thinking that have been taken up into Western epistemologies. The intercultural nature of global and regional One Health approaches will inevitably undergo further scrutiny of successful ways fostering inter-epistemic interaction. Now theoretically well grounded, the One Health approach of seeking benefits for all through better and more equitable cooperation can clearly be applied to engagement in solving major societal problems such as social inequality, animal protection and welfare, environmental protection, climate change mitigation, biodiversity conservation, and conflict transformation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue In Honour of Marcel Tanner, Parasitologist Extraordinaire)
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