Special Issue "Diagnosis and Management of Obesity, Eating and Weight-Related Disorders"

A special issue of Diagnostics (ISSN 2075-4418). This special issue belongs to the section "Pathology and Molecular Diagnostics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Marwan El Ghoch
Website
Guest Editor
Head of Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Health Sciences—Beirut Arab University, Beirut, Lebanon
Interests: clinical nutrition; obesity; sarcopenic obesity; type 2 diabetes; eating disorders; weight-related diseases; body composition; weight cycling; physical activity; energy expenditure
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Hellas Cena
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Co-Guest Editor
Dietetics and Clinical Nutrition Laboratory, Department of Public Health, Experimental and Forensic Medicine, University of Pavia; Clinical Nutrition and Dietetics Service, Unit of Internal Medicine and Endocrinology, ICS Maugeri IRCCS, Pavia, Italy.
Interests: lifestyle medicine; dietary and clinical nutrition; Non-Communicable Diseases; obesity; cardiometabolic diseases; public health
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

In the last few decades, the prevalence of obesity has increased worldwide, doubling in more than 70 countries, especially in adolescents and young adults. This has led to serious medical consequences, since the early onset of obesity is likely to translate into a high cumulative incidence of weight-related diseases (i.e., metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, etc.) during adulthood, as well as an increase in rates of mortality. In fact, the high BMI accounts for 4.0 million deaths globally, and more than two thirds of deaths related to high BMI are due to cardiovascular disease. Here stems the importance of an efficient diagnosic system followed by an early management of obesity and weight-related disorders with the primary goal to prevent deterioration and aims to improve clinical outomes. This Special Issue will provide a platform for the presentation of recent advances in knowledge of the Diagnosis and Management of Obesity, Eating, and Weight-Related Disorders, coming from diverse scientific disciplines.

Prof. Dr. Marwan El Ghoch
Prof. Dr. Hellas Cena
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Diagnostics is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Obesity
  • Eating disorders
  • Metabolic syndrome
  • Type 2 diabetes
  • Cardiovascular diseases
  • Weight management
  • Metabolic adaptation
  • Lifestyle modification programs
  • Bariatric surgery
  • Sarcopenic obesity
  • Body composition
  • Weight cycling
  • Binge-eating disorder
  • HRQoL
  • Behavioral and cognitive behavioral therapy

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Comparison of Various Obesity-Related Indices for Identification of Metabolic Syndrome: A Population-Based Study from Taiwan Biobank
Diagnostics 2020, 10(12), 1081; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics10121081 - 12 Dec 2020
Abstract
This study aimed to evaluate the performance of 11 obesity-related indices, including body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio, waist–hip ratio, a body shape index, abdominal volume index, body adiposity index, body roundness index, conicity index, visceral adiposity index (VAI), and triglyceride [...] Read more.
This study aimed to evaluate the performance of 11 obesity-related indices, including body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio, waist–hip ratio, a body shape index, abdominal volume index, body adiposity index, body roundness index, conicity index, visceral adiposity index (VAI), and triglyceride glucose (TyG) index, in identifying metabolic syndrome (MetS) in adults. The information of 5000 participants was obtained from the Taiwan Biobank. Logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the associations between MetS and obesity-related indices with odds ratio (ORs). The predictive performance of the indices to identify MetS was compared using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and areas under curves (AUCs). Multivariate-adjusted logistic regression showed that the ORs for MetS increased across the quartiles of each index. ROC curves analysis demonstrated that TyG index had the greatest AUC in men (AUC = 0.850) and women (AUC = 0.890). Furthermore, VAI had the greatest AUC in men (AUC = 0.867) and women (AUC = 0.925) aged 30−50 years, while TyG index had the greatest AUC in men (AUC = 0.849) and women (AUC = 0.854) aged 51−70 years. Among the studied obesity-related indices, TyG index and VAI exhibited the best performance for identifying MetS in adults. TyG index and VAI may be the relevant indices to assess MetS in clinical practice. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Disturbed Eating Behaviors in Youth with Type 1 Diabetes: An Exploratory Study about Challenges in Diagnosis
Diagnostics 2020, 10(12), 1044; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics10121044 - 03 Dec 2020
Abstract
Background: Disordered eating behaviors (DEBs), including diagnosable eating disorders, are quite common and can interfere with optimal type 1 diabetes (T1DM) management. We explored DEBs prevalence in youth with T1DM, proposing news diagnostic subscales, to represent the clinical dimensions associated with feeding and [...] Read more.
Background: Disordered eating behaviors (DEBs), including diagnosable eating disorders, are quite common and can interfere with optimal type 1 diabetes (T1DM) management. We explored DEBs prevalence in youth with T1DM, proposing news diagnostic subscales, to represent the clinical dimensions associated with feeding and eating disorders (ED); Methods: additionally to SCOFF questionnaire and Diabetes Eating Problem Survey–Revised (DEPS-R), four subscales combined from the original DEPS-R questionnaire were administered to 40 youths with T1DM (15.0 ± 2.6); Results: females showed higher scores than males in DEPS-R original factor 2 (“preoccupations with thinness/weight”, p = 0.024) and in DEPS-R proposed “restriction” factor (p = 0.009). SCOFF scores was correlated with original DEPS-R factors 1 (“maladaptive eating habits”) and 2 (p < 0.001) and with the newly proposed DEPS-R factors: restriction, disinhibition, compensatory behaviors, diabetes management (all p < 0.02). Diabetes management was the only factor related to glycated hemoglobin level (p = 0.006). Patients with high DEPS-R score (≥20) scored higher than patients with low (<20) DEPS-R score in DEPS-R original factors 1 (p < 0.001) and 2 (p = 0.002) as well as in the proposed factors including restriction, disinhibition, diabetes management (all p < 0.02); Conclusions: the complicated nature of DEBs calls for the development target specific questionnaires to be used as screening tools to detect cases of DEBs and exclude non cases. Early recognition of DEBs in adolescents with T1DM is essential for effective prevention and successful treatment. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Circulating Bile Acids Profiles in Obese Children and Adolescents: A Possible Role of Sex, Puberty and Liver Steatosis
Diagnostics 2020, 10(11), 977; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics10110977 - 20 Nov 2020
Abstract
Background. Childhood obesity is becoming a major health issue and contributes to increasing the risk of cardiovascular disease in adulthood. Since dysregulated metabolism of bile acids (BAs) plays a role in progression of obesity-related disorders, including steatosis and hypertension, this study aimed to [...] Read more.
Background. Childhood obesity is becoming a major health issue and contributes to increasing the risk of cardiovascular disease in adulthood. Since dysregulated metabolism of bile acids (BAs) plays a role in progression of obesity-related disorders, including steatosis and hypertension, this study aimed to investigate BAs profiles in obese children with and without steatosis and hypertension, as well as exploring the interplay between BAs profile and vascular function. Methods. BAs concentrations were quantified with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in 69 overweight/obese children and adolescents (mean age, 11.6 ± 2.5 years; 30 females). Liver steatosis was defined with abdomen ultrasonography, whilst hypertension was defined according to the current European guidelines. Vascular function was assessed with ultrasound technique, by measuring carotid intima media thickness (cIMT) and common carotid artery distensibility (cDC). Results. Total and individual glycine-conjugated BAs concentrations were found to be significantly higher in males compared to females, as well as in pre-pubertal compared to pubertal stage (p < 0.05 for both). No difference in BAs concentration was observed between hypertensive and normotensive subjects. Total BAs and glycine conjugated BAs were significantly higher in participants with steatosis compared to those without (p = 0.004 for both). The values of total glycine-conjugate acids were positively correlated with cDC and this association remained significant in linear regression after adjusting for sex, age, pubertal stage, body mass index and aspartate aminotransferase. Conclusion. The results suggest a possible role of BAs in the pathogenesis of liver and/or vascular damage in children and adolescent. Further studies are hence needed to validate these preliminary findings. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Development of an Easy-to-Use Prediction Equation for Body Fat Percentage Based on BMI in Overweight and Obese Lebanese Adults
Diagnostics 2020, 10(9), 728; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics10090728 - 21 Sep 2020
Abstract
An accurate estimation of body fat percentage (BF%) in patients who are overweight or obese is of clinical importance. In this study, we aimed to develop an easy-to-use BF% predictive equation based on body mass index (BMI) suitable for individuals in this population. [...] Read more.
An accurate estimation of body fat percentage (BF%) in patients who are overweight or obese is of clinical importance. In this study, we aimed to develop an easy-to-use BF% predictive equation based on body mass index (BMI) suitable for individuals in this population. A simplified prediction equation was developed and evaluated for validity using anthropometric measurements from 375 adults of both genders who were overweight or obese. Measurements were taken in the outpatient clinic of the Department of Nutrition and Dietetics at Beirut Arab University (Lebanon). A total of 238 participants were used for model building (training sample) and another 137 participants were used for evaluating validity (validation sample). The final predicted model included BMI and sex, with non-significant prediction bias in BF% of −0.017 ± 3.86% (p = 0.946, Cohen’s d = 0.004). Moreover, a Pearson’s correlation between measured and predicted BF% was strongly significant (r = 0.84, p < 0.05). We are presenting a model that accurately predicted BF% in 61% of the validation sample with an absolute percent error less than 10% and non-significant prediction bias (−0.028 ± 4.67%). We suggest the following equations: BF% females = 0.624 × BMI + 21.835 and BF% males = 1.050 × BMI − 4.001 for accurate BF% estimation in patients who are overweight or obese in a clinical setting in Lebanon. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Body Fat Parameters, Glucose and Lipid Profiles, and Thyroid Hormone Levels in Schizophrenia Patients with or without Metabolic Syndrome
Diagnostics 2020, 10(9), 683; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics10090683 - 10 Sep 2020
Abstract
In this study, we aim to investigate associations between body fat parameters, glucose and lipid profiles, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and thyroid hormones (THs) levels in Tomsk-region schizophrenia patients depending upon the presence or absence of metabolic syndrome (MetS). A total of 156 psychiatric [...] Read more.
In this study, we aim to investigate associations between body fat parameters, glucose and lipid profiles, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and thyroid hormones (THs) levels in Tomsk-region schizophrenia patients depending upon the presence or absence of metabolic syndrome (MetS). A total of 156 psychiatric inpatients with schizophrenia who had been treated with antipsychotics for at least six months before entry were studied: 56 with and 100 without MetS. Reference groups consisted of general hospital inpatients with MetS and without schizophrenia (n = 35) and healthy individuals (n = 35). Statistical analyses were performed using the Mann–Whitney U-test, chi-square test, Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient, multiple regression analyses, and descriptive statistics. Patients with schizophrenia and MetS had significantly higher levels of free triiodothyronine (FT3) and thyroxine (FT4) compared to schizophrenia patients without MetS (3.68 [3.25; 5.50] vs. 3.24 [2.81; 3.66], p = 0.0001, and 12.68 [10.73; 15.54] vs. 10.81 [9.76; 12.3], p = 0.0001, in pmol/L, respectively). FT3 maintained an association with MetS (p = 0.0001), sex (p = 0.0001), age (p = 0.022), and high-density lipoproteins (p = 0.033). FT4 maintained an association with MetS (p = 0.0001), sex (p = 0.001), age (p = 0.014), and glucose (p = 0.009). The data obtained showed body fat parameters, glucose and lipid profiles, and THs levels in Western-Siberian schizophrenia patients depending on MetS presence or absence. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Dietary Management of Obesity: A Review of the Evidence
Diagnostics 2021, 11(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11010024 - 25 Dec 2020
Abstract
Obesity is a multi-factorial disease and its prevention and management require knowledge of the complex interactions underlying it and adopting a whole system approach that addresses obesogenic environments within country specific contexts. The pathophysiology behind obesity involves a myriad of genetic, epigenetic, physiological, [...] Read more.
Obesity is a multi-factorial disease and its prevention and management require knowledge of the complex interactions underlying it and adopting a whole system approach that addresses obesogenic environments within country specific contexts. The pathophysiology behind obesity involves a myriad of genetic, epigenetic, physiological, and macroenvironmental factors that drive food intake and appetite and increase the obesity risk for susceptible individuals. Metabolically, food intake and appetite are regulated via intricate processes and feedback systems between the brain, gastrointestinal system, adipose and endocrine tissues that aim to maintain body weight and energy homeostasis but are also responsive to environmental cues that may trigger overconsumption of food beyond homeostatic needs. Under restricted caloric intake conditions such as dieting, these processes elicit compensatory metabolic mechanisms that promote energy intake and weight regain, posing great challenges to diet adherence and weight loss attempts. To mitigate these responses and enhance diet adherence and weight loss, different dietary strategies have been suggested in the literature based on their differential effects on satiety and metabolism. In this review article, we offer an overview of the literature on obesity and its underlying pathological mechanisms, and we present an evidence based comparative analysis of the effects of different popular dietary strategies on weight loss, metabolic responses and diet adherence in obesity. Full article
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