Special Issue "Nutrition, Genetics, and Cardiovascular Disease"

A special issue of Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease (ISSN 2308-3425).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2020).

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Marwan El Ghoch
Website
Guest Editor
Head of Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Health Sciences, Beirut Arab University, Beirut, Lebanon
Interests: clinical nutrition; obesity; sarcopenic obesity; type 2 diabetes; eating disorders; weight-related diseases; body composition; weight cycling; physical activity; energy expenditure
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Said El Shamieh
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Medical Laboratory Technology, Faculty of Health Sciences—Beirut Arab University, Beirut, Lebanon
Interests: obesity treatment; genetics; sarcopenic obesity; genomics; weight-related cardio-metabolic diseases

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease (JCDD) is launching a Special Issue on “Nutrition, Genetics, and Cardiovascular Disease”. JCDD is a peer-reviewed online journal, in its fourth year of existence, which publishes review articles and original works on cardiovascular development and disease.

It is well documented that cardiovascular disease is a major cause of death worldwide, in which genetic and environmental factors seem to play a determinant role. In fact, several dietary factors and nutritional-related diseases (i.e., obesity, type 2 diabetes) are strongly associated with cardiovascular diseases. In addition, genome-wide association studies have also identified numerous genomic loci that determine susceptibility to cardiovascular events. Therefore, nutrition and genetics seem to interact in predisposing an individual to cardiovascular diseases.

This Special Issue will provide a platform for the presentation of recent advances in knowledge on nutrition, genetics, and cardiovascular disease coming from diverse scientific disciplines.

Prof. Marwan El Ghoch
Dr. Said El Shamieh
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • nutrition
  • genetics
  • cardiovascular diseases
  • obesity
  • GWAS
  • sarcopenic obesity
  • type 2 diabetes
  • epigenetics
  • metabolic syndrome

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Is There a Link Between Nutrition, Genetics, and Cardiovascular Disease?
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2020, 7(3), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd7030033 - 27 Aug 2020
Abstract
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are a group of disorders that mainly include coronary, cerebrovascular and rheumatic heart diseases [...] Full article

Research

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Open AccessArticle
Mitochondrial DNA Mutations and Rheumatic Heart Diseases
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2019, 6(4), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd6040036 - 11 Oct 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Acute rheumatic fever (ARF) is an autoimmune disease affecting the heart-valve endocardium in its final stage. Although rare in developing countries, ARF persists in third-world countries, particularly Senegal, where rheumatic heart diseases (RHDs) are the most common pediatric cardiovascular pathology. This study aimed [...] Read more.
Acute rheumatic fever (ARF) is an autoimmune disease affecting the heart-valve endocardium in its final stage. Although rare in developing countries, ARF persists in third-world countries, particularly Senegal, where rheumatic heart diseases (RHDs) are the most common pediatric cardiovascular pathology. This study aimed to investigate mutations in MT-CYB in ARF and RHD in Senegalese patients. MT-CYB was amplified from blood samples from ARF patients at the Clinical of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery of Fann National University Hospital Centre, Dakar, Senegal (control group, healthy individuals) and sequenced. More than half of the MT-CYB mutations (58.23%) were heteroplasmic. Transitions (61.67%) were more frequent than transversions (38.33%), and non-synonymous substitutions represented 38.33% of mutations. Unoperated RHD patients harbored frequent MT-CYB polymorphisms (7.14 ± 14.70 mutations per sample) and accounted for 72.73% of mutations. Paradoxically, subjects undergoing valvular replacement harbored infrequent polymorphisms (1.39 ± 2.97 mutations per patient) and lacked 36 mutations present in unoperated subjects. A genetic differentiation was observed between these two populations, and the mutations in operated subjects were neutral, while those in unoperated subjects were under positive selection. These results indicate a narrow link (perhaps even causal) between MT-CYB mutations and ARF and its complications (i.e., RHDs) and that these mutations are largely deleterious. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Arterial Structural and Functional Characteristics at End of Early Childhood and Beginning of Adulthood: Impact of Body Size Gain during Early, Intermediate, Late and Global Growth
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2019, 6(3), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd6030033 - 06 Sep 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
An association between nutritional characteristics in theearlylife stages and the state of the cardiovascular (CV) system in early childhood itself and/or at the beginning of adulthood has been postulated. It is still controversial whether changes in weight, height and/or body mass index (BMI) [...] Read more.
An association between nutritional characteristics in theearlylife stages and the state of the cardiovascular (CV) system in early childhood itself and/or at the beginning of adulthood has been postulated. It is still controversial whether changes in weight, height and/or body mass index (BMI) during childhood or adolescence are independently associated with hemodynamics and/or arterial properties in early childhood and adulthood. Aims: First, to evaluate and compare the strength of association between CVproperties (at 6 and 18 years (y)) and (a) anthropometric data at specific growth stages (e.g., birth, 6 y, 18 y) and (b) anthropometric changes during early (0–2 y), intermediate (0–6 y), late (6–18 y) and global (0–18 y) growth. Second, to determine whether the associations between CVproperties and growth-related body changes depend on size at birth and/or at the time of CVstudy. Third, to analyze the capacity of growth-related body size changes to explain hemodynamic and arterial properties in early childhood and adulthood before and after adjusting for exposure to CV risk factors. Anthropometric, hemodynamic (central, peripheral) and arterial parameters (structural, functional; elastic, transitional and muscular arteries) were assessed in two cohorts (children, n = 682; adolescents, n = 340). Data wereobtained and analyzed following identical protocols. Results: Body-size changes in infancy (0–2 y) and childhood (0–6 y) showed similar strength of association with CV properties at 6 y. Conversely, 0–6, 6-18 or 0–18 ychanges were not associated with CV parameters at 18 y. The association between CV properties at 6 yand body-size changes during growth showed: equal or greater strength than the observed for body-size at birth, and lower strength compared to that obtained for current z-BMI. Conversely, only z-BMI at 18 y showed associations with CV z-scores at 18 y. Body size at birth showed almost no association with CVproperties at 6 or 18 y. Conclusion: current z-BMI showed the greatest capacity to explain variations in CV properties at 6 and 18 y. Variations in some CV parameters were mainly explained by growth-related anthropometric changes and/or by their interaction with current z-BMI. Body size at birth showed almost no association with arterial properties at 6 or 18 y. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Dietary Adherence of Saudi Males to the Saudi Dietary Guidelines and Its Relation to Cardiovascular Diseases: A Preliminary Cross-Sectional Study
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2019, 6(2), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd6020017 - 04 Apr 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major public health problem in Saudi Arabia. Dietary intake plays a major role in CVD incidence; however, the dietary intake status in Saudi nationals with CVD is unknown. We aimed to investigate whether the dietary patterns of Saudi [...] Read more.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major public health problem in Saudi Arabia. Dietary intake plays a major role in CVD incidence; however, the dietary intake status in Saudi nationals with CVD is unknown. We aimed to investigate whether the dietary patterns of Saudi males, using the Saudi dietary guidelines adherence score, in parallel with the measurement of a selective number of cardiovascular disease-related biomarkers, are contributing factors to CVD risk. Demographics, dietary adherence score, and blood biomarker levels were collected for 40 CVD patients and forty non-CVD patients. Fasting blood glucose (p = 0.006) and high-density lipoprotein levels (p = 0.03) were significantly higher in CVD patients. The adherence score to the Saudi dietary guidelines was not significantly different between the CVD and non-CVD patients; however, the specific adherence scores of fruit (p = 0.02), olive oil (p = 0.01), and non-alcoholic beer (p = 0.02) were significantly higher in the non-CVD patients. The differences in CVD family history (p = 0.02) and adherence scores to specific groups/foods between the CVD and non-CVD patients may contribute to CVD risk in Saudi males. However, as the sample size of this study was small, further research is required to validate these findings. Full article

Review

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Open AccessReview
Association Between Smoking Hookahs (Shishas) and Higher Risk of Obesity: A Systematic Review of Population-Based Studies
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2019, 6(2), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd6020023 - 16 Jun 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
The American Heart Association has published a scientific statement on the effect of hookah smoking on health outcomes; nevertheless, hookah smoking continues to be popular worldwide, especially among the young. Recent reports mention a potential link between hookah smoking and obesity; however, uncertainties [...] Read more.
The American Heart Association has published a scientific statement on the effect of hookah smoking on health outcomes; nevertheless, hookah smoking continues to be popular worldwide, especially among the young. Recent reports mention a potential link between hookah smoking and obesity; however, uncertainties still surround this issue. The aim of the current study was to conduct a systematic review to clarify whether hookah smoking is associated with a higher risk of obesity among the general population. This study was conducted in compliance with the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, and data were collated by means of a meta-analysis and a narrative synthesis. Of the 818 articles retrieved, five large-population and low-bias studies comprising a total of 16,779 participants met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed. All included studies reported that, regardless of gender, hookah smoking increases the risk of obesity among all ages and observed an association between the two after a correction for several confounders or reported a higher prevalence of obesity among hookah smokers. This was confirmed by the meta-analysis. Therefore, hookah smoking seems to be associated with a higher risk of obesity. Public health policymakers should be aware of this for the better management of obesity and weight-related comorbidities. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
An Update on the Tissue Renin Angiotensin System and Its Role in Physiology and Pathology
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2019, 6(2), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd6020014 - 29 Mar 2019
Cited by 28
Abstract
In its classical view, the renin angiotensin system (RAS) was defined as an endocrine system involved in blood pressure regulation and body electrolyte balance. However, the emerging concept of tissue RAS, along with the discovery of new RAS components, increased the physiological and [...] Read more.
In its classical view, the renin angiotensin system (RAS) was defined as an endocrine system involved in blood pressure regulation and body electrolyte balance. However, the emerging concept of tissue RAS, along with the discovery of new RAS components, increased the physiological and clinical relevance of the system. Indeed, RAS has been shown to be expressed in various tissues where alterations in its expression were shown to be involved in multiple diseases including atherosclerosis, cardiac hypertrophy, type 2 diabetes (T2D) and renal fibrosis. In this chapter, we describe the new components of RAS, their tissue-specific expression, and their alterations under pathological conditions, which will help achieve more tissue- and condition-specific treatments. Full article
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Other

Open AccessBrief Report
rs2569190A>G in CD14 is Independently Associated with Hypercholesterolemia: A Brief Report
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2019, 6(4), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd6040037 - 30 Oct 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Many studies have assessed the implication of cluster of differentiation 14 (CD14) molecules and its single nucleotide polymorphism rs2569190A>G with different complex diseases, such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). In this study, we investigated the association of rs2569190A>G in CD14 [...] Read more.
Many studies have assessed the implication of cluster of differentiation 14 (CD14) molecules and its single nucleotide polymorphism rs2569190A>G with different complex diseases, such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). In this study, we investigated the association of rs2569190A>G in CD14 with cardiovascular disease risk factors (hypercholesterolemia and hypertension) in 460 individuals from the general Lebanese population (Middle Eastern multiethnic population). Using a multiple logistic regression model adjusted for six covariates (under additive and recessive assumptions), we found that the G allele of rs2569190 in CD14 was associated with increased levels of total cholesterol (OR = 3.10, p = 0.009), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (OR = 3.87, p = 0.003), and decreased levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (OR = 0.38, p = 0.001). In contrast, no significant relationship was found with hypertension. Thus, we concluded that rs2569190G in CD14 is associated with a higher risk of developing hypercholesterolemia. Full article
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