III-V and III-Ns Semiconductor Heterostructures: Strain Relaxation and Interface Formation

A special issue of Crystals (ISSN 2073-4352). This special issue belongs to the section "Inorganic Crystalline Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2022) | Viewed by 10339

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Institute of Electronics, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan
Interests: solid-state lighting devices; solar cells; power device; HEMT; flexible electronics; optoelectronics; Nitride and oxide semiconductor MOCVD growths
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Łukasiewicz Research Network - Institut of Microelectronics and Photonics, al. Lotników 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw, Poland
Interests: MBE growth; strain relaxation; interface formation; type II InAs/GaSb SLs; IR detection

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Department of Chemistry, Sayyed Jamaleddin Asadabadi University, Asadabad 6541861841, Iran
Interests: coordination polymer; metal-organic framework; nanocatalyst; Lanthanide-doped semiconductor and advanced materials for wastewater remediation
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Department of Photonics & Graduate Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering, College of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan
Interests: nanostructured optoelectronic materials and devices; III-V (nitride); high-speed semiconductor laser technology; nanocrystals; quantum dots; VCSEL; quantum well; LEDs
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The LENS group, Center for Material Science and Nanotechnology, University of Oslo, Problemveien 7, 0315 Oslo, Norway
Interests: synthesis of novel semiconductors (mainly oxides and III-nitrides); characterisation of their structure, composition and properties design

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Both molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE) are the most often employed techniques for the deposition of semiconductor heterostructures. Using them, complex micro- and nanoelectronic as well as optoelectronic devices can be fabricated (e.g. high-electron-mobility transistors, quantum cascade lasers, infrared and UV detectors, etc.). The continuous development of these methods aids in revealing new scientific trends. It allows for elimination or alleviation of the material limitations leading to new perspective applications. The most compelling example may be the development of vertical (external) cavity semiconductor lasers or infrared/UV detectors. Bandgap engineering of III-V semiconductors led to the coverage of a broad range of the infrared spectrum, while the III-Ns covered the visible and UV range. The features of MBE and MOVPE have made fabrication of complex devices a reality. Presently, both the lattice strain and interface physics are the most important and fundamental areas of the heterostructure technology, namely their deposition and fabrication of the devices based on them. The generation of defects is directly related to lattice relaxation. The difficulty of the interface issue was best described by W. Pauli, who said “God created the solid-state bulk, and Devil made its surface”. Taking into account that a few hundred interfaces can be present in the heterostructure, their quality rather than that of the bulk material is more significant for device performance. It led us to the conclusion that there is still room for investigation of the unexplored and improvement of modern devices based on semiconductor heterostructures.

Prof. Dr. Ray-Hua Horng
Dr. Agata Jasik
Prof. Dr. Younes Hanifehpour
Prof. Dr. Hao-chung Kuo
Dr. Daniela Gogova
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • Molecular beam epitaxy of III-V structures (based on GaAs, InP, GaSb, GaN, AlN, InN and related alloys) and III-Ns (AlN, GaN, InN and related alloys)
  • Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-V structures (based on GaAs, InP, GaSb, GaN, AlN, InN and related alloys) and III-Ns (AlN, GaN, InN and related alloys)
  • The strain relaxation in III-V and in III-Ns heterostructures
  • The interface formation in III-V and in III-Ns heterostructures
  • Defect generation in III-V and in III-Ns heterostructures
  • The influence of strain relaxation on device performance
  • The influence of interface quality on device performance.

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

9 pages, 4076 KiB  
Article
The Variation of Schottky Barrier Height Induced by the Phase Separation of InAlAs Layers on InP HEMT Devices
by Sang-Tae Lee, Minwoo Kong, Hyunchul Jang, Chang-Hun Song, Shinkeun Kim, Do-Young Yun, Hyeon-seok Jeong, Dae-Hyun Kim, Chan-Soo Shin and Kwang-Seok Seo
Crystals 2022, 12(7), 966; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst12070966 - 11 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1791
Abstract
We investigated the effect of phase separation on the Schottky barrier height (SBH) of InAlAs layers grown by metal–organic chemical vapor deposition. The phase separation into the In-rich InAlAs column and Al-rich InAlAs column of In0.52Al0.48As layers was observed [...] Read more.
We investigated the effect of phase separation on the Schottky barrier height (SBH) of InAlAs layers grown by metal–organic chemical vapor deposition. The phase separation into the In-rich InAlAs column and Al-rich InAlAs column of In0.52Al0.48As layers was observed when we grew them at a relatively low temperature of below 600 °C. From the photoluminescence spectrum investigation, we found that the band-gap energy decreased from 1.48 eV for a homogeneous In0.52Al0.48As sample to 1.19 eV for a phase-separated InxAl1−xAs sample due to the band-gap lowering effect by In-rich InxAl1−xAs (x > 0.7) region. From the current density–voltage analysis of the InAlAs Schottky diode, it was confirmed that the phase-separated InAlAs layers showed a lower SBH value of about 240 meV than for the normal InAlAs layers. The reduction in SBH arising from the phase separation of InAlAs layers resulted in the larger leakage current in InAlAs Schottky diodes. Full article
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8 pages, 2035 KiB  
Article
High-Speed and High-Power 940 nm Flip-Chip VCSEL Array for LiDAR Application
by Kuo-Bin Hong, Wei-Ta Huang, Hsin-Chan Chung, Guan-Hao Chang, Dong Yang, Zhi-Kuang Lu, Shou-Lung Chen and Hao-Chung Kuo
Crystals 2021, 11(10), 1237; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst11101237 - 14 Oct 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 4311
Abstract
In this paper, we demonstrate the design and fabrication of a high-power, high-speed flip-chip vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) for light detection and ranging (LiDAR) systems. The optoelectronic characteristics and modulation speeds of vertical and flip-chip VCSELs were investigated numerically and experimentally. [...] Read more.
In this paper, we demonstrate the design and fabrication of a high-power, high-speed flip-chip vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) for light detection and ranging (LiDAR) systems. The optoelectronic characteristics and modulation speeds of vertical and flip-chip VCSELs were investigated numerically and experimentally. The thermal transport properties of the two samples were also numerically investigated. The measured maximum output power, slope efficiency (SE) and power conversion efficiency (PCE) of a fabricated flip-chip VCSEL array operated at room-temperature were 6.2 W, 1.11 W/A and 46.1%, respectively. The measured L-I-V curves demonstrated that the flip-chip architecture offers better thermal characteristics than the conventional vertical structure, especially for high-temperature operation. The rise time of the flip-chip VCSEL array was 218.5 ps, and the architecture of the flip-chip VCSEL with tunnel junction was chosen to accommodate the application of long-range LiDAR. The calculated PCE of such a flip-chip VCSEL was further improved from 51% to 57.8%. The device design concept and forecasting laser characteristics are suitable for LiDAR systems. Full article
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9 pages, 1049 KiB  
Article
GaInP/GaAs/poly-Si Multi-Junction Solar Cells by in Metal Balls Bonding
by Ray-Hua Horng, Yu-Cheng Kao, Apoorva Sood, Po-Liang Liu, Wei-Cheng Wang and Yen-Jui Teseng
Crystals 2021, 11(7), 726; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst11070726 - 24 Jun 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3008
Abstract
In this study, a mechanical stacking technique has been used to bond together the GaInP/GaAs and poly-silicon (Si) solar wafers. A GaInP/GaAs/poly-Si triple-junction solar cell has mechanically stacked using a low-temperature bonding process which involves micro metal In balls on a metal line [...] Read more.
In this study, a mechanical stacking technique has been used to bond together the GaInP/GaAs and poly-silicon (Si) solar wafers. A GaInP/GaAs/poly-Si triple-junction solar cell has mechanically stacked using a low-temperature bonding process which involves micro metal In balls on a metal line using a high-optical-transmission spin-coated glue material. Current–voltage measurements of the GaInP/GaAs/poly-Si triple-junction solar cells have carried out at room temperature both in the dark and under 1 sun with 100 mW/cm2 power density using a solar simulator. The GaInP/GaAs/poly-Si triple-junction solar cell has reached an efficiency of 24.5% with an open-circuit voltage of 2.68 V, a short-circuit current density of 12.39 mA/cm2, and a fill-factor of 73.8%. This study demonstrates a great potential for the low-temperature micro-metal-ball mechanical stacking technique to achieve high conversion efficiency for solar cells with three or more junctions. Full article
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