Special Issue "Growth and Evaluation of Crystalline Silicon (Volume II)"

A special issue of Crystals (ISSN 2073-4352). This special issue belongs to the section "Inorganic Crystalline Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 July 2020.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Kozo Fujiwara
Website
Guest Editor
Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan
Interests: growth of silicon ingot; crystal growth mechanism; defect formation; characterization of defects; evaluation of silicon ingot and wafer
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Crystalline silicon (single and multicrystalline) is widely used for substrates of solar cells. Further improvement of solar cell performance and reduction of production cost are still required, both at the present and in the future.
To realize a high-energy conversion efficiency of crystalline Si solar cells, the development of crystal growth technology is required. Furthermore, fundamental understanding of crystal growth mechanisms and defect formation, and evaluation of Si wafers are crucial.
We invite investigators to submit papers which discuss the development of high-quality crystalline Si for solar cells, including bulk ingots and thin films.

The potential topics include:

  • Crystal growth of Si ingot;
  • Crystal growth of Si thin films;
  • Crystal growth mechanisms of Si;
  • Defects formation and their property in Si;
  • Evaluation of Si wafers;
  • Property of solar cells based on crystalline Si;
  • Materials of crucible for growth of Si ingot;
  • Raw material;
  • Crystal growth of new materials based on Si.

Prof. Dr. Kozo Fujiwara
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Crystals is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

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Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Abrupt Change Effect of Bandgap Energy on Quantum System of Silicon Nanowire
Crystals 2020, 10(5), 340; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst10050340 - 26 Apr 2020
Abstract
In the quantum system of Si nanowire (NW), the energy bandgap obviously increases with decreasing radius size of NW, in which the quantum confinement (QC) effect plays a main role. Furthermore, the simulation result demonstrated that the direct bandgap can be obtained as [...] Read more.
In the quantum system of Si nanowire (NW), the energy bandgap obviously increases with decreasing radius size of NW, in which the quantum confinement (QC) effect plays a main role. Furthermore, the simulation result demonstrated that the direct bandgap can be obtained as the NW diameter is smaller than 3 nm in Si NW with (001) direction. However, it is discovered in the simulating calculation that the QC effect disappears as the NW diameter arrives at size of monoatomic line, in which its bandgap sharply deceases where the abrupt change effect in bandgap energy occurs near the idea quantum wire. In the experiment, we fabricated the Si NW structure by using annealing and pulsed laser deposition methods, in which a novel way was used to control the radius size of Si NW by confining cylinder space of NW in nanolayer. It should have a good application on optic-electronic waveguide of silicon chip. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Growth and Evaluation of Crystalline Silicon (Volume II))
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Open AccessArticle
Synthesis of Boron-Doped Silicon Film Using Hot Wire Chemical Vapor Deposition Technique
Crystals 2020, 10(4), 237; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst10040237 - 25 Mar 2020
Abstract
Boron-doped polycrystalline silicon film was synthesized using hot wire chemical vapor deposition technique for possible application in photonics devices. To investigate the effect of substrate, we considered Si/SiO2, glass/ITO/TiO2, Al2O3, and nickel tungsten alloy strip [...] Read more.
Boron-doped polycrystalline silicon film was synthesized using hot wire chemical vapor deposition technique for possible application in photonics devices. To investigate the effect of substrate, we considered Si/SiO2, glass/ITO/TiO2, Al2O3, and nickel tungsten alloy strip for the growth of polycrystalline silicon films. Scanning electron microscopy, optical reflectance, optical transmittance, X-ray diffraction, and I-V measurements were used to characterize the silicon films. The resistivity of the film was 1.3 × 10−2 Ω-cm for the polycrystalline silicon film, which was suitable for using as a window layer in a solar cell. These films have potential uses in making photodiode and photosensing devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Growth and Evaluation of Crystalline Silicon (Volume II))
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Unseeded Crystal Growth of (100)-Oriented Grain-Boundary-Free Si Thin-Film by a Single Scan of the CW-Laser Lateral Crystallization of a-Si on Insulator
Crystals 2020, 10(5), 405; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst10050405 - 17 May 2020
Abstract
Laser crystallization of a-Si film on insulating substrate is a promising technology to fabricate three-dimensional integrations (3D ICs), flat panel displays (FPDs), or flexible electronics, because the crystallization can be performed on room temperature substrate to avoid damage to the underlying devices or [...] Read more.
Laser crystallization of a-Si film on insulating substrate is a promising technology to fabricate three-dimensional integrations (3D ICs), flat panel displays (FPDs), or flexible electronics, because the crystallization can be performed on room temperature substrate to avoid damage to the underlying devices or supporting plane. Orientation-controlled grain-boundary-free films are required to improve the uniformity in electrical characteristics of field-effect-transistors (FETs)fabricated in those films. This paper describes the recently found simple method to obtain {100}-oriented grain-boundary-free Si thin-films stably, by using a single scan of continuous-wave (CW)-laser lateral crystallization of a-Si with a highly top-flat line beam with 532 nm wavelength at room temperature in air. It was difficult to control crystal orientations in the grain-boundary-free film crystallized by the artificial modulation of solid-liquid interface, and any other trial to obtain preferential surface orientation with multiple irradiations resulted in grain boundaries. The self-organized growth of the {100}-oriented grain-boundary-free films were realized by satisfying the following conditions: (1) highly uniform top-flat line beam, (2) SiO2 cap, (3) low laser power density in the vicinity of the lateral growth threshold, and (4) single scan crystallization. Higher scan velocity makes the process window wide for the {100}-oriented grain-boundary-free film. This crystallization is very simple, because it is performed by a single unseeded scan with a line beam at room temperature substrate in air. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Growth and Evaluation of Crystalline Silicon (Volume II))
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

1. Tentative Title: A new method of low-temperature vacuum cleaning of the surface of silicon single crystals
Tentative Author: A. Rysbaev
Tentative Abstract: The article describes a new method for cleaning the surface and near-surface region of silicon single crystals, which consists in low-energy implantation of alkaline or alkaline-earth ions and low-temperature thermal heating (or laser heating). It is shown that this method can significantly improve the cleanliness of the Si surface and clean it from uncontrolled impurities (such as N, S, O, etc.). The method can be used directly in the technological process of growing silicon single crystals.

2. Tentative Title: Synthesis of boron doped silicon film using hot wire chemical vapor deposition techniques
Tentative Authors: M. Abul Hossion, B. M. Arora
Tentative Abstract: Boron doped polycrystalline silicon film has been fabricated using hot wire chemical vapour deposition techniques for possible application in photonics devices. To investigate the effect of substrate, we have considered Si/SiO2, Glass/TiO2, Al2O3 and nickel for the growth of polycrystalline silicon films. Scanning electron microscope, X-Ray diffraction and I-V measurements were used to characterize the silicon films. The resistivity of the film was 1.3×10-2 W-cm for polycrystalline silicon film which is suitable for using as window layer in a solar cell. These films have potential uses in making photo diode and photo sensing devices.
Tentative Keywords: p-type Silicon, Thin film, HWCVD

3. Tentative Title: Bulk and surface point defect diffusion coupling at crystalline surfaces
Tentative Author: Sergey Kosolobov

4. Tentative Title: Unseeded crystal gowth of {100}-oriented grain-boundary free Si thin films by a single scan of the CW laser lateral crystallization of a-Si on insulating substrates
Author: Nobuo Sasaki
Tentative Abstract: CW laser crystallization has many advantages over pulse laser crystallization. The {100}-oriented grain-boundary free Si thin films with an oxide cap is obtained at a  laser power region in the vicinity of the lateral growth threshold on insulating substrate. A highly top-flat line beam is used for an unseeded single scan of 532 nm CW laser lateral crystallization in air. Effect of power, scan velocity, cap, and scan overlap on the crystallographic textures are discussed as well. The orientation-controlled grain-boundary free films are required to improve the unifrormity in the electrical characteristics of FETs fabricated in the laser crystallized films for the applications of 3D ICs or smart FPDs.

5. Tentative Title: Selective Crystal Orientation of Polycrystalline Silicon Thin Films over Large Areas with Multiline Beam Continuous-Wave Laser Lateral Crystallization
Author: Thi Thuy Nguyen

6. Tentative Title: Comparison of the Isotopic Composition of Silicon Crystals Highly Enriched in 28Si
Tentative Authors: Axel Pramann and Olaf Rienitz
Affiliation: Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Bundesallee 100, 38116 Braunschweig, Germany
Tentative Abstract: The isotopic composition and molar mass M of a new silicon crystal (code: Si28-33Pr11) measured by isotope ratio mass spectrometry using a multicollector-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (MC-ICP-MS) is presented yielding a relative combined measurement uncertainty of urel(M) = 5.6 × 10-9, calculated in accordance with the “Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement, GUM”. This uncertainty even includes the variations due to sample preparation and possible local variations within the crystal. The “X-ray-crystal-density (XRCD) method”, a primary method for realizing and disseminating the SI units kilogram and mole in the newly revised SI, is based on counting silicon atoms in almost “perfect” silicon spheres. One of the key quantities is the molar mass of the three stable isotopes 28Si, 29Si and 30Si in the material highly enriched in 28Si. Latest improvements of the experimental technique used for the measurement of M are reported. The results of the new crystal are discussed and compared to the previously available crystals, establishing a worldwide limited pool of a few primary reference spheres on the highest metrological level.

7. Tentative Title: IN SITU X-RAY BASED INVESTIGATION OF SILICON GROWTH MECHANISM DYNAMICS
Tentative Authors: Hadjer Ouaddah1, Maike Becker1, Thècle Riberi-Béridot1, Maria Tsoutsouva1, Gabrielle Regula1, Guillaume Reinhart1, Fabrice Guittonneau2, Laurent Barrallier2, Jean-Paul Valade3, Alexander Rack3, Elodie Boller3, José Baruchel3, Nathalie Mangelinck-Noël1
Affiliations: 1. Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS, IM2NP UMR CNRS 7334, Campus Saint Jérôme, case 142, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20, France, [email protected],
2. Arts et Métiers Paristech/Institut Carnot Arts Centre Aix-en-Provence 2, Cours des Arts et Métiers, 13617, Aix-en-Provence, Cedex 1, France
3. ESRF – The European Synchrotron, CS40220, Grenoble Cedex 9, 38043, France
Tentative Abstract: All growth processes aiming at producing silicon for photovoltaic applications either conventional or innovative share challenges which concern the control of the final crystalline grain structure, the decrease of the density of structural defects, namely dislocations, and the control of the impurities that interact with the crystalline features during crystal growth.
The post-mortem study of the solidified ingots is limited by the difficulty of accessing and understanding the mechanisms occurring during the crystallization, their symbiosis or competition and their kinetics. Within this context, our contribution consists in characterizing the fundamental growth mechanisms of crystalline silicon using in situ X-ray imaging. Two imaging characterisation techniques are combined during silicon crystal growth using the X-ray synchrotron radiation at ESRF (European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble, France): X-ray radiography and X-ray diffraction imaging (topography).
The X-ray radiography and X-ray diffraction imaging provide in situ and real-time information on the morphology and kinetics of the solid/liquid (S/L) interface and about crystal structure deformation and defect dynamics including dislocations during growth, respectively. Complementary ex situ EBSD (Electron Backscattered Diffraction) is used to investigate the fine details of the final grain structure.
Essential features of twinning, grain nucleation and competition, strain building and dislocations during silicon solidification are characterized aiming at deepening the fundamental understanding on the phenomena that occur during the Si crystal growth.

8. Tentative Title: Study on product performance improvement of black silicon photovoltaic cell and module by RIE method
Tentative Authors: Zijian Chen1,2, Haoyuan Jia3, Yunfeng Zhang3,*, Leilei Fan3, Haina Zhu2, Shiyu Wang1
Affiliations: 1. School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Xidian University, Xi’An 710071, China
2. New Energy Department, Tianjin Sino-German University of Applied Sciences, Tianjin 300350, China
3. Tianjin Yingli new energy Co., Ltd, Tianjin 301510, China
Tentative Abstract: This paper mainly studies the performance improvement of black silicon photovoltaic cells and modules when the black silicon is made by RIE method. The process is improved in three steps to improve the performance of photovoltaic cells or module. The selection of the washing solution in the previous cleaning process will change the performance of the cell. Compared with alkaline solution, using acidic solution on black silicon cell can achieve an efficiency improvement of nearly 0.154%. The addition of a thermo-oxygen process and its fine-tuning also resulted in an efficiency increase of up to 0.11%. In the module manufacturing process, the selection of component material for the module will also greatly affect its performance. The most reasonable selection of component material can increase the power of the module by 6.13w.

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