Special Issue "New Frontiers in Cementitious and Lime-Based Materials and Composites"

A special issue of Crystals (ISSN 2073-4352). This special issue belongs to the section "Inorganic Crystalline Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2021).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Cesare Signorini
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Engineering “Enzo Ferrari” – Centre CRICT, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Reggio Emilia, Italy
Interests: textile-reinforced mortar (TRM); cementitious and lime-based materials; fibre-reinforced concrete (FRC); sustainable cementitious materials; recycled aggregates and functional materials; mechanical assessment; long-term performance of cementitious composites
Dr. Antonella Sola
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Melbourne, Australia
Interests: composite materials; functional materials; cementitious composites; additive manufacturing
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Sumit Chakraborty
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
The University of Sheffield, United Kingdom
Interests: materials chemistry; analytical characterisation techniques; carbon dioxide sequestration; composite for construction; cement and geopolymer; self-healing materials
Dr. Valentina Volpini
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Research Centre “En&Tech”, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy
Interests: composite materials; dielectric composites; smart materials; multiphysics; analytical homogenisation; finite element method; fibre-reinforced concrete (FRC); sustainable cementitious materials

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Cement and lime are the classes of inorganic materials used most popularly as primary binders in the construction sector since the ancient period, owing to their global abundance, low cost, and well-established physical and mechanical responses. By tuning the dose of binders with aggregates, water, and additives, a variety of conglomerates can be designed based on their targeted application. These range from fine-grained mortars for plasters to structural concretes with or without fibre reinforcement for buildings, bridges, tunnels, pavements, girders, precast members, walls, screeds, etc.

New frontiers are opening to design viable solutions, which include the development of new, smart, and sustainable concrete/mortar/additive conglomerates/composites with the inclusion of industrial by-products, alternative aggregates, and natural reinforcements. The partial or total replacement of conventional cement and mineral virgin aggregates is pivotal to reduce the environmental concerns and carbon footprint deriving from the manufacturing chain of customary conglomerates that require a substantial amount of energy and resources. Further, the on-going experiments on novel cementitious composite materials for lightweight precast elements and for strengthening laminates for historical buildings represent a ground-breaking research branch in the field. As new materials with embedded functionalities are being proposed every day, scientists gain a deeper understanding of the relationship between the composition, manufacturing, and in-service behaviour of cementitious and lime-based materials and composites.

This Special Issue aims to shed light on the latest research outcomes in this multidisciplinary field, ranging through the vast area of civil, structural, and environmental engineering, mineral and materials science, nano-technology, polymer science, fibre and textiles technology, as well as numerical and statistical design. We welcome high-quality research contributions based on both experimental activities and/or theoretical modelling (numerical/analytical), as well as review articles. The topics of interest include but are not limited to fibre-reinforced composites (e.g., textile-reinforced mortar/concrete (TRM/TRC) and fibre-reinforced concrete (FRC)) and novel sustainable cementitious conglomerates in which the ordinary Portland cement (OPC) binder is replaced with recycled by-products (silica fume, kiln ashes, bio-char, slag, biomass ashes, geopolymers, alkali-activated concrete, etc.) also evaluating the possible incorporation of recycled aggregates.

Original research papers, state-of-the-art reviews, and short communications are encouraged about:

  • Fibre-reinforced cementitious conglomerates (FRCC) and their applications;
  • Textile-reinforced concrete (TRC) and its applications;
  • Textile-reinforced mortar (TRM) and its applications;
  • Lightweight concrete mixtures;
  • Supplementary cementitious material (SCM) and sustainable binders;
  • Alkali-activated materials/geopolymer cements;
  • Carbon-dioxide sequestration-based cement materials;
  • Natural fibres in inorganic matrix composites for civil engineering applications;
  • Concrete mixtures with recycled aggregates;
  • High- and ultra-high-performance concrete;
  • Self-healing concrete;
  • Electrolysed-water-based concrete;
  • Micro- and nano-sized functional materials in inorganic-matrix composite materials for civil engineering applications;
  • Chemistry and engineering of the matrix-to-fibre interphase;
  • Interphase interactions between fibres and inorganic matrices in inorganic-matrix composite materials for civil engineering applications;
  • Surface treatments to improve interphase interactions between fibres/aggregates and inorganic matrices in inorganic-matrix composite materials for civil engineering applications;
  • Mechanical and rheological performance assessment of cementitious or lime-based composite materials;
  • Long-term performance, durability, and corrosion of cementitious or lime-based composite materials;
  • Additive manufacturing and emerging production techniques for concrete and composite materials for civil engineering applications;
  • Environmental and life-cycle assessment (LCA) of cement-based materials;
  • Structural behaviour of composite materials and numerical modelling;
  • Design and numerical modelling of composites’ performances;
  • Analytical and statistical modelling (regression, FEM, ANN, etc) and structural design and performance.

Dr. Cesare Signorini
Dr. Antonella Sola
Dr. Sumit Chakraborty
Dr. Valentina Volpini
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Crystals is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • TRM/TRC composites
  • Fibre-reinforced concrete
  • Mechanical performance
  • Numerical modelling
  • Durability
  • Fibre reinforcement
  • Fibre–matrix interaction
  • Natural fibres and textiles
  • Hydration
  • Hardening
  • Nano-engineering

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

Article
Mechanical Performance and Microscopic Mechanism of Coastal Cemented Soil Modified by Iron Tailings and Nano Silica
Crystals 2021, 11(11), 1331; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst11111331 - 31 Oct 2021
Viewed by 342
Abstract
In order to explore the effect of composite materials on the mechanical properties of coastal cement soil, cement soil samples with different iron tailings and nano silica contents were prepared, and unconfined compression and scanning electron microscope tests were carried out. The results [...] Read more.
In order to explore the effect of composite materials on the mechanical properties of coastal cement soil, cement soil samples with different iron tailings and nano silica contents were prepared, and unconfined compression and scanning electron microscope tests were carried out. The results show that: (1) The compressive strength of cement soil containing a small amount of iron tailings is improved, and the optimum content of iron tailings is 20%. (2) Nano silica can significantly improve the mechanical properties of iron tailings and cement soil (TCS). When the content of nano silica is 0.5%, 1.5%, and 2.5%, the unconfined compressive strength of nano silica- and iron tailings-modified cement soil (STCS) is 24%, 137%, and 323% higher than TCS, respectively. (3) Nano silica can promote the hydration reaction of cement and promote the cement hydration products to adhere to clay particles to form a relatively stable structure. At the same time, nano silica can fill the pores in TCS and improve the compactness of STCS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Frontiers in Cementitious and Lime-Based Materials and Composites)
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Article
Physical, Mechanical and Durability Properties of Ecofriendly Ternary Concrete Made with Sugar Cane Bagasse Ash and Silica Fume
Crystals 2021, 11(9), 1012; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst11091012 - 24 Aug 2021
Viewed by 624
Abstract
In the present investigation, the physical, mechanical and durability properties of six concrete mixtures were evaluated, one of conventional concrete (CC) with 100% Portland cement (PC) and five mixtures of Ecofriendly Ternary Concrete (ETC) made with partial replacement of Portland Cement by combinations [...] Read more.
In the present investigation, the physical, mechanical and durability properties of six concrete mixtures were evaluated, one of conventional concrete (CC) with 100% Portland cement (PC) and five mixtures of Ecofriendly Ternary Concrete (ETC) made with partial replacement of Portland Cement by combinations of sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) and silica fume (SF) at percentages of 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50%. The physical properties of slump, temperature, and unit weight were determined, as well as compressive strength, rebound number, and electrical resistivity as a durability parameter. All tests were carried out according to the ASTM and ONNCCE standards. The obtained results show that the physical properties of ETC concretes are very similar to those of conventional concrete, complying with the corresponding regulations. Compressive strength results of all ETC mixtures showed favorable performances, increasing with aging, presenting values similar to CC at 90 days and greater values at 180 days in the ETC-20 and ETC-30 mixtures. Electrical resistivity results indicated that the five ETC mixtures performed better than conventional concrete throughout the entire monitoring period, increasing in durability almost proportionally to the percentage of substitution of Portland cement by the SCBA–SF combination; the ETC mixture made with 40% replacement had the highest resistivity value, which represents the longest durability. The present electrical resistivity indicates that the durability of the five ETC concretes was greater than conventional concrete. The results show that it is feasible to use ETC, because it meets the standards of quality, mechanical resistance and durability, and offers a very significant and beneficial contribution to the environment due to the use of agro-industrial and industrial waste as partial substitutes up to 50% of CPC, which contributes to reduction in CO2 emissions due to the production of Portland cement, responsible for 8% of total emissions worldwide. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Frontiers in Cementitious and Lime-Based Materials and Composites)
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Article
The Influence of Water/Binder Ratio on the Mechanical Properties of Lime-Based Mortars with White Portland Cement
Crystals 2021, 11(8), 958; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst11080958 - 16 Aug 2021
Viewed by 452
Abstract
Protecting the built cultural heritage is one of the most important tasks in architectural practice. The process of repair is time-consuming, weather-dependent, and sensitive to materials applied. Introducing new materials in historic building repair in order to decrease the time needed for repair, [...] Read more.
Protecting the built cultural heritage is one of the most important tasks in architectural practice. The process of repair is time-consuming, weather-dependent, and sensitive to materials applied. Introducing new materials in historic building repair in order to decrease the time needed for repair, brings some risk in the preservation process. The most common material for masonry repair is lime mortar. Adding cement to lime mortar can improve the mechanical properties of mortar and speed up the repair process. The high amount of cement may increase the strength, but decrease ductility and permeability of mortar, causing damages to protected buildings. An increase in strength with the smallest amounts of cement demands optimization of water content in the mixture. Tests were performed to investigate the influence of the water/binder (w/b = water/(lime + cement) ratio on mortar strength and water permeability. An air-entraining agent (AEG) was introduced to improve permeability. Results confirmed that adding small amounts of cement to lime (20% by weight) and decreasing of w/b ratio, improves the strength, with almost negligible influence on water permeability. The addition of very small amounts of AEG did not decrease the strength, nor the permeability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Frontiers in Cementitious and Lime-Based Materials and Composites)
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Article
Residual Repeated Impact Strength of Concrete Exposed to Elevated Temperatures
Crystals 2021, 11(8), 941; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst11080941 - 12 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 570
Abstract
Portland cement concrete is known to have good fire resistance; however, its strength would be degraded after exposure to the temperatures of fire. Repeated low-velocity impacts are a type of probable accidental load in many types of structures. Although there is a rich [...] Read more.
Portland cement concrete is known to have good fire resistance; however, its strength would be degraded after exposure to the temperatures of fire. Repeated low-velocity impacts are a type of probable accidental load in many types of structures. Although there is a rich body of literature on the residual mechanical properties of concrete after high temperature exposure, the residual repeated impact performance of concrete has still not been well explored. For this purpose, an experimental study was conducted in this work to evaluate the effect of high temperatures on the repeated impact strength of normal strength concrete. Seven identical concrete patches with six disc specimens each were cast and tested using the ACI 544-2R repeated impact setup at ambient temperature and after exposure to 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 500 °C. Similarly, six cubes and six prisms from each patch were used to evaluate the residual compressive and flexural strengths at the same conditions. Additionally, the scattering of the impact strength results was examined using three methods of the Weibull distribution, and the results are presented in terms of reliability. The test results show that the cracking and failure impact numbers of specimens heated to 100 °C reduced slightly by only 2.4 and 3.5%, respectively, while heating to higher temperatures deteriorated the impact resistance much faster than the compressive and flexural strengths. The percentage reduction in impact resistance at 600 °C was generally higher than 96%. It was also found that the deduction trend of the impact strength with temperature is more related to that of the flexural strength than the compressive strength. The test results also show that, within the limits of the adopted concrete type and conducted tests, the strength reduction after high temperature exposure is related to the percentage weight loss. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Frontiers in Cementitious and Lime-Based Materials and Composites)
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Article
Statistical Damage Constitutive Model for High-Strength Concrete Based on Dissipation Energy Density
Crystals 2021, 11(7), 800; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst11070800 - 08 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 539
Abstract
To study the energy evolution law and damage constitutive behavior of high-strength concrete based on the conventional triaxial compression tests of C60 and C70 high-strength concrete subjected to five different confining pressures, the failure characteristics of high-strength concrete are analyzed at different confining [...] Read more.
To study the energy evolution law and damage constitutive behavior of high-strength concrete based on the conventional triaxial compression tests of C60 and C70 high-strength concrete subjected to five different confining pressures, the failure characteristics of high-strength concrete are analyzed at different confining pressures, and the evolution of the input energy density, elastic strain energy density, and dissipation energy density with axial strain and confining pressure are quantified. Combined with a continuous damage theory and non-equilibrium statistical method, the ratio of dissipation energy density of concrete to dissipation energy density corresponding to peak stress is used as the mechanical parameter. Assuming that the mechanical parameter obeys the Weibull distribution laws, the statistical damage variable describing the damage characteristics of concrete were derived. According to the Lemaitre strain equivalent principle, the damage variable is introduced to the generalized Hooke law to establish the statistical damage constitutive model for high-strength concrete. The results show that: (1) the input energy density and dissipation energy density increases with the increase of axial strain, while the elastic strain energy density increases first and then decreases as a function of the axial strain and reaches the maximum value at the peak stress; (2) the input, elastic strain, and dissipated energy densities corresponding to the peak stress of the two high-strength concretes all increase as a function of confining pressure, and the elastic strain energy density corresponding to the peak stress increases linearly as a function of the confining pressure; (3) the statistical damage constitutive model results of C60 and C70 high-strength concrete are in good agreement with the test results, and the average relative standard deviations are only 3.64% and 3.99%. These outcomes verify the rationality and accuracy of the model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Frontiers in Cementitious and Lime-Based Materials and Composites)
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Article
Crack Resistance of Insulated GRC-PC Integrated Composite Wall Panels under Different Environments: An Experimental Study
Crystals 2021, 11(7), 775; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst11070775 - 02 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 620
Abstract
GRC-PC wall is a new type of integrated composite exterior wall with decorative and structural functions. It is formed by superimposing GRC surface layer on the outer leaf of prefabricated PC wall. Due to the complexity of indoor and outdoor environment and the [...] Read more.
GRC-PC wall is a new type of integrated composite exterior wall with decorative and structural functions. It is formed by superimposing GRC surface layer on the outer leaf of prefabricated PC wall. Due to the complexity of indoor and outdoor environment and the difference of shrinkage performance between concrete and GRC materials, GRC surface layer in GRC-PC wall is prone to shrinkage and cracking, among which, the connection modes between GRC layer and PC layer and change of temperature and humidity have the greatest influence. Therefore, GRC material formula was adjusted, and seven experimental panels were produced. In view of the temperature and the humidity changes in different indoor and outdoor environments, the influences of different connection modes between GRC layer and PC layer on the material shrinkage performance were studied, and a one year material shrinkage performance experiment was conducted. The results show that, in indoor environment, the shrinkage of GRC layer and PC layer is relatively gentle due to the small range of temperature and humidity change. Compared with the indoor environment, the changes of outdoor temperature and humidity are more drastic. The shrinkage changes of GRC layer and PC layer show great fluctuations, but the overall strain value is still within a reasonable range, and there is no crack. At the same time, this suggests that smooth interface is more conducive to crack resistance of GRC surface layer compared with different interface types between GRC layer and PC layer. The research provides an experimental basis for the large-scale application of the wall panel, and it has great advantages in improving the efficiency of prefabricated building construction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Frontiers in Cementitious and Lime-Based Materials and Composites)
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Article
Effects of Curing Conditions and Supplementary Cementitious Materials on Autogenous Self-Healing of Early Age Cracks in Cement Mortar
Crystals 2021, 11(7), 752; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst11070752 - 27 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 484
Abstract
The autogenous healing potential of cement-based materials is affected by multiple factors, such as mix composition, crack width, pre-cracking age and external environmental conditions. In this study, the effects of curing conditions and supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) on autogenous self-healing of early age [...] Read more.
The autogenous healing potential of cement-based materials is affected by multiple factors, such as mix composition, crack width, pre-cracking age and external environmental conditions. In this study, the effects of curing conditions and supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) on autogenous self-healing of early age cracks in cement mortar were investigated. Three curing conditions, i.e., standard curing, wet–dry cycles and incubated in water, and two SCMs, i.e., fly ash (FA) and blast furnace slag (BFS) with various contents (cement replacement ratio at 0%, 20%, and 40%) were examined. A single early age crack (pre-cracking age of 3 days) with a width of 200~300 μm was generated in cylindrical mortar specimens. Autogenous crack self-healing efficiency of mortar specimens was evaluated by performing a visual observation and a water permeability test. Moreover, microstructure analysis (XRD, SEM and TG/DTG) was utilized to characterize the healing products. The results indicated that the presence of water was essential for the autogenous self-healing of early age cracks in cement mortar. The efficiency of self-healing cracks was highest in specimens incubated in water. However, no significant self-healing occurred in specimens exposed to standard curing. For wet–dry cycles, a longer healing time was needed to obtain good self-healing compared to samples incubated in water. SCMs type and content significantly affected the autogenous self-healing ability of early age cracks. The self-healing efficiency of early age cracks decreased with increases in FA and BFS content. BFS mortars exhibited greater recovery in relation to water penetration resistance compared to the reference and FA mortars. Almost the same regain of water tightness and a lower crack-healing ratio after healing of 28 days in FA mortars were observed compared to the reference. The major healing product in the surface cracks of specimens with and without SCMs was micron-sized calcite crystals with a typical rhombohedral morphology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Frontiers in Cementitious and Lime-Based Materials and Composites)
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Article
Experimental Study on Durability of Hybrid Fiber-Reinforced Concrete in Deep Alluvium Frozen Shaft Lining
Crystals 2021, 11(7), 725; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst11070725 - 23 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 482
Abstract
This article proposes hybrid fiber-reinforced concrete (HFRC) mixed with polyvinyl alcohol fiber (PVA) and polypropylene steel fiber (FST) as a wall construction material to improve the bearing capacity and durability of frozen shaft lining structures in deep alluvium. According to the stress characteristics [...] Read more.
This article proposes hybrid fiber-reinforced concrete (HFRC) mixed with polyvinyl alcohol fiber (PVA) and polypropylene steel fiber (FST) as a wall construction material to improve the bearing capacity and durability of frozen shaft lining structures in deep alluvium. According to the stress characteristics and engineering environment of the frozen shaft lining, the strength, impermeability, freeze–thaw damage, and corrosion resistance are taken as the evaluation and control indexes. The C60 concrete commonly used in freezing shaft lining is selected as the reference group. Compared to the reference group, the test results show that the compressive strength of HFRC is similar to that of the reference concrete, but its splitting tensile strength and flexural strength are higher; according to the strength test, the optimum mixed content of 1.092 kg/m3 PVA and 5 kg/m3 FST are obtained. According to the impermeability test results, the mixing of PVA and FST can improve the impermeability resistance of concrete. For the freeze–thaw cycle test results, the mixing of PVA and FST can improve the frost resistance of concrete; based on the 120 days sulfate corrosion test, the mixing of PVA and FST will improve the corrosion resistance of concrete. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Frontiers in Cementitious and Lime-Based Materials and Composites)
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Article
Experimental Evaluation of Cement Mortars with End-of-Life Tyres Exposed to Different Surface Treatments
Crystals 2021, 11(5), 552; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst11050552 - 15 May 2021
Viewed by 712
Abstract
An end-of-Life Tyre (ELT) is a type of waste that can generate negative social and environmental impacts due to its disposal. Considering that rubber can improve concrete properties and the massive use of concrete as construction material, the addition of ELT rubber in [...] Read more.
An end-of-Life Tyre (ELT) is a type of waste that can generate negative social and environmental impacts due to its disposal. Considering that rubber can improve concrete properties and the massive use of concrete as construction material, the addition of ELT rubber in concrete mixes is attractive. However, concrete mechanical properties are negatively affected due to the rubber-cementitious matrix interaction. Although rubber treatments have been developed to minimise the negative effects, the geo-dependency of the mix makes necessary to find cost-effective and practical solutions that will allow a real use of the ELT waste. Therefore, the objective of the present study is to characterise the properties of cement mortars with the addition of ELT rubber under three surface treatments: hydration, oxidation-sulphonation, and hydrogen peroxide. The results show that hydration is the most favourable treatment from a technical, practical, and economical point of view. In fact, with this treatment, it is possible to add up to 5% ELT rubber, with respect to the aggregate weight, and still exceed the design strength without adding more cement or additives as other investigations. The use of Portland Pozzolana Cement, with local fly ash waste, contributes as well to the promissory results obtained. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Frontiers in Cementitious and Lime-Based Materials and Composites)
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Article
Experimental Research on Interfacial Bonding Strength between Vertical Cast-In-Situ Joint and Precast Concrete Walls
Crystals 2021, 11(5), 494; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst11050494 - 28 Apr 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 493
Abstract
In the monolithic precast concrete shear-wall structure, the bonding property of cast-in-situ joints to precast concrete walls is important to ensure the entire structural performance. Aiming to the vertical joint of precast concrete walls, an experimental study was carried out considering the factors [...] Read more.
In the monolithic precast concrete shear-wall structure, the bonding property of cast-in-situ joints to precast concrete walls is important to ensure the entire structural performance. Aiming to the vertical joint of precast concrete walls, an experimental study was carried out considering the factors including the strength of precast and joint concretes, as well as the interface processing and casting age of precast concrete. The micro-expansion self-compacting concrete was used for the cast-in-situ joints. The interfacial bonding strength between joint and precast concrete was measured by splitting tensile test. Results show that the interfacial bonding strength was benefited from the increasing strength of joint concrete and the spraying binder paste on the interface of precast concrete, and unbenefited from the overtime storage of precast concrete. The washed rough surface with exposed aggregates improved the interfacial bonding strength, which increased with the increasing roughness. Based on the test results, the limits of the strength grade of joint concrete and the roughness of washed rough surface are proposed to get the interfacial bonding strength equivalent to the tensile strength of precast concrete. Meanwhile, the spraying of binder paste on precast concrete is a good choice, the storage time of precast components is a better limit within 28 days. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Frontiers in Cementitious and Lime-Based Materials and Composites)
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Review

Jump to: Research

Review
State-of-the-Art Review of the Applicability and Challenges of Microbial-Induced Calcite Precipitation (MICP) and Enzyme-Induced Calcite Precipitation (EICP) Techniques for Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Applications
Crystals 2021, 11(4), 370; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst11040370 - 01 Apr 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1176
Abstract
The development of alternatives to soil stabilization through mechanical and chemical stabilization has paved the way for the development of biostabilization methods. Since its development, researchers have used different bacteria species for soil treatment. Soil treatment through bioremediation techniques has been used to [...] Read more.
The development of alternatives to soil stabilization through mechanical and chemical stabilization has paved the way for the development of biostabilization methods. Since its development, researchers have used different bacteria species for soil treatment. Soil treatment through bioremediation techniques has been used to understand its effect on strength parameters and contaminant remediation. Using a living organism for binding the soil grains to make the soil mass dense and durable is the basic idea of soil biotreatment. Bacteria and enzymes are commonly utilized in biostabilization, which is a common method to encourage ureolysis, leading to calcite precipitation in the soil mass. Microbial-induced calcite precipitation (MICP) and enzyme-induced calcite precipitation (EICP) techniques are emerging trends in soil stabilization. Unlike conventional methods, these techniques are environmentally friendly and sustainable. This review determines the challenges, applicability, advantages, and disadvantages of MICP and EICP in soil treatment and their role in the improvement of the geotechnical and geoenvironmental properties of soil. It further elaborates on their probable mechanism in improving the soil properties in the natural and lab environments. Moreover, it looks into the effectiveness of biostabilization as a remediation of soil contamination. This review intends to present a hands-on adoptable treatment method for in situ implementation depending on specific site conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Frontiers in Cementitious and Lime-Based Materials and Composites)
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Review
Use of Recycled Concrete Aggregates in Production of Green Cement-Based Concrete Composites: A Review
Crystals 2021, 11(3), 232; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst11030232 - 26 Feb 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 983
Abstract
Recycled concrete aggregates (RCA) are used in existing green building composites to promote the environmental preservation of natural coarse aggregates (NCA). Besides, the use of RCA leads to potential solutions to the social and economic problems caused by concrete waste. It is found [...] Read more.
Recycled concrete aggregates (RCA) are used in existing green building composites to promote the environmental preservation of natural coarse aggregates (NCA). Besides, the use of RCA leads to potential solutions to the social and economic problems caused by concrete waste. It is found that insufficient information on the longevity and sustainability of RCA production is a serious issue that requires close attention due to its impact on changing aspects of the sector. However, more attention has been paid to explaining the effect of RCA on concrete durability, as well as the properties of fresh and hardened concrete. Therefore, this study aims to provide a critical review on the RCAs for the production of high-performances concrete structures. It begins by reviewing the source, originality, types, prediction of service life, features and properties of RCA, as well as the effect of RCA on concrete performance. In addition, this literature review summarizes the research findings to produce complete insights into the potential applications of RCA as raw, renewable, and sustainable building materials for producing greener concrete composite towards industrializing ecofriendly buildings today. Further, it has also highlighted the differences in the current state of knowledge between RCAs and NCAs, and offers several future research suggestions. Through this critical and analytical study, it can be said that RCA has the possible use in the production of high-performance structural concrete depending on the source and type of recycled aggregate while the RCA can be used widely and safely to produce traditional green concrete. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Frontiers in Cementitious and Lime-Based Materials and Composites)
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