Crystalline Fibers and Their Applications

A special issue of Crystals (ISSN 2073-4352). This special issue belongs to the section "Crystal Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 August 2021) | Viewed by 6994

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
School of Information Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Qingdao 266237, China
Interests: crystalline fibers; lasers; nonlinear optical frequency conversions; fiber optical sensing

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Guest Editor
College of Electronic Science & Engineering, Jilin University, Changchun 130021, China
Interests: specialty optical fibers; fiber lasers and amplifiers; nonlinear optical fiber devices

Special Issue Information

Crystalline fibers, referring to those fibers with crystalline core structures, represent a rapidly progressing field of specialty fiber optics and applications. This special kind of fiber includes single-crystal fibers (SCFs) fabricated from micro-pulling down (MPD) and laser-heated pedestal growth (LHPG) techniques in addition to crystal-derived fibers (CDFs) made from rod-in-tube (RIT) and melt-in-tube (MIT) methods.

Crystalline fibers are supposed to possess the merits of being both crystals and of having a long-thin type shape. Compared with glass, crystals allow higher rare-earth doped concentrations and show higher melting points, thermal conductivity, and laser-induced damage thresholds. Benefiting from their long-thin-type shape, crystalline fibers exhibit waveguiding properties. For SCFs, laser and sensing applications have been widely reported. For example, over 250 W of continuous wave laser output has been realized with Yb:YAG SCF. Fiber sensing with temperature range of over 1500 °C has been realized with sapphire SCF. With CDFs, increasingly more researchers are focusing on their applications in single-frequency fiber laser and fiber sensing. For example, 255 mW of single-frequency laser has been reported with Yb:YAG-derived silica fiber. Fiber sensing with temperatures of as high as 1000 °C has been realized with sapphire-derived silica fiber.

Although crystalline fibers have shown great potential theoretically and experimentally, there  many problems remain in both fiber fabrication and application. For example, how can we fabricate 4C (crystal core and crystal-clad) fibers, especially double-clad crystal fibers? Besides silica, is there any other glass suitable for the cladding of YAG crystal-derived fibers? The list goes on.

We invite scientists to submit papers which discuss their latest results concerning crystalline fiber fabrication and characterization (structure and quality, optical and physical properties) and their applications in lasers, optical sensors, nonlinear photonics, integrating photonics, scintillation detection, etc.

Prof. Zhaojun Liu
Prof. Zhixu Jia
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Single-crystal fibers (SCFs)
  • Crystal-derived fibers (CDFs)
  • Crystal–glass hybrid fibers
  • Semiconductor–glass hybrid fibers
  • Ceramic–glass hybrid fibers

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

10 pages, 2911 KiB  
Article
Growth and Characterization of Ce-Doped Luag Single Crystal Fibers from Transparent Ceramics by Laser-Heated Pedestal Method
by Yun Dai, Zhonghan Zhang, Xibin Wang, Zhuowei Lu, Huamin Kou, Liangbi Su and Anhua Wu
Crystals 2021, 11(9), 1149; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst11091149 - 21 Sep 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2474
Abstract
Scintillation single crystal fibers (SCFs) have great potential applications in the new generation of high-energy ray and particle detectors due to their morphological advantages. In this work; Ce:LuAG SCFs with a diameter of 1 mm were grown along the direction of [111] by [...] Read more.
Scintillation single crystal fibers (SCFs) have great potential applications in the new generation of high-energy ray and particle detectors due to their morphological advantages. In this work; Ce:LuAG SCFs with a diameter of 1 mm were grown along the direction of [111] by laser-heated pedestal growth (LHPG) method using a transparent ceramic as the source rod; and a doping concentration was 0.1 at%, 0.3 at%, 1 at%, respectively. The effects of growth rate and annealing in air on the scintillation and optical properties of SCF are discussed in detail. The results of analyzing the absorption spectra; radioluminescence (RL) spectra; pulse-height spectra and fluorescence lifetime of SCFs show that the SCF maintains excellent scintillation performance while having a fiber structure. Therefore; Ce:LuAG SCF is a potential candidate material for detector. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crystalline Fibers and Their Applications)
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9 pages, 5260 KiB  
Communication
Sapphire-Derived Fiber Bragg Gratings for High Temperature Sensing
by Qi Guo, Zhixu Jia, Xuepeng Pan, Shanren Liu, Zhennan Tian, Zhongming Zheng, Chao Chen, Guanshi Qin and Yongsen Yu
Crystals 2021, 11(8), 946; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst11080946 - 14 Aug 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2510
Abstract
In this paper, a sapphire-derived fiber (SDF) with a core diameter of 10 μm and a cladding diameter of 125 μm is fabricated by the melt-in-tube method, and fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) with reflectivity over 80% are prepared by the femtosecond laser point-by-point [...] Read more.
In this paper, a sapphire-derived fiber (SDF) with a core diameter of 10 μm and a cladding diameter of 125 μm is fabricated by the melt-in-tube method, and fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) with reflectivity over 80% are prepared by the femtosecond laser point-by-point direct writing method. By analyzing the refractive index distribution and reflection spectral characteristics of the SDF, it can be seen that the SDF is a graded refractive index few-mode fiber. In order to study the element composition of the SDF core, the end-face element distribution of the SDF is analyzed, which indicates that element diffusion occurred between the core and the cladding materials. The temperature and stress of the SDF gratings are measured and the highest temperature is tested to 1000 °C. The temperature and strain sensitivities are 15.64 pm/°C and 1.33 pm/με, respectively, which are higher than the temperature sensitivity of the quartz single-mode fiber. As a kind of special fiber, the SDF expands the application range of sapphire fiber, and has important applications in the fields of high-temperature sensing and high-power lasers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crystalline Fibers and Their Applications)
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