Special Issue "A 10 Years Journey: Chemical, Physical, and Biological Properties and Applications of Crystals"

A special issue of Crystals (ISSN 2073-4352).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 April 2020.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Helmut Cölfen
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Guest Editor
Physical Chemistry, Universität Konstanz, Germany
Tel. +49-7531-884063
Interests: nucleation; nanoparticle self organization; non classical crystallization; mesocrystals; biomineralization; nanoparticle analysis by fractionating methods
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Prof. Abel Moreno
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Guest Editor
Instituto de Química, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Av. Universidad 3000, Cd.Mx. 04510, Mexico
Interests: protein crystals; biocrystals; crystal growth; protein crystallography; crystal chemistry; biomineralization; biomimetics; biological macromolecules
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Prof. Dr. Charles Rosenblatt
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Guest Editor
Ohio Eminent Scholar and Professor of Physics, Department of Physics, Case Western Reserve University Cleveland, OH 44106-7079, USA
Tel. +1-216-802-8026
Interests: liquid crystals and complex fluids (electric and magnetic field effects, interfaces, phase transitions, colloidal inclusions); fluid interface instabilities; microgravity
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Prof. Dr. Sławomir J. J. Grabowski
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Guest Editor
Kimika Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea UPV/EHU, Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC), P.K. 1072, 20080, Donostia, Euskadi, Spain
Tel. +34 943 01 5339
Interests: hydrogen bond; Lewis acid–Lewis base interactions; atoms in molecules theory; ab initio calculations
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Prof. Dr. Shujun Zhang
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Guest Editor
ISEM/AIIM, University of Wollongong, NSW 2500, Wollongong, Australia
Tel. 242981479
Interests: Piezoelectricity, Ferroelectricity, Crystals, Ceramics, Transducers
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Crystals are a very important class of structured materials both from a scientific and technological viewpoint and have fascinated humankind from its beginning. This is the topic the journal Crystals has focused on for the last 10 years. To mark this anniversary, a Special Issue edited by the editor in chief and all section editors is inviting all editorial board members as well as prominent scientists in the field for contributions. The coverage of topics of this Special Issue is as broad as that of the journal, ranging from nucleation, growth, processing, and characterization of crystalline and liquid crystalline materials to the mechanical, chemical, electronic, magnetic, and optical properties of crystals as well as the diverse applications of (nano)crystalline materials. In addition, all modern methods for the characterization of crystal nucleation and growth are of interest, including high resolution characterization techniques such as synchrotron radiation or X-ray free electron laser-based techniques.

We especially invite contributions from the four major sections of crystals, namely, liquid crystals, crystalline materials, crystal engineering, and biomolecular crystals. However, we would also like to reflect the broad field of crystalline materials in this Special Issue, and contributions in the field of all abovementioned topics are welcome, as well as those from common applications.

We therefore very much look forward to your valued contributions to make this Special Issue a unique resource for future researchers from the exciting field of crystals.

Prof. Dr. Helmut Cölfen
Prof. Abel Moreno
Prof. Dr. Charles Rosenblatt
Prof. Dr. Sławomir J. Grabowski
Prof. Dr. Shujun Zhang
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Crystals is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • crystal
  • liquid crystal
  • photonic crystals
  • crystals of biological molecules
  • biominerals
  • crystal analysis
  • crystal modeling
  • cocrystals
  • mesocrystals
  • nucleation

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Nonclassical Nucleation and Crystallization
Crystals 2020, 10(2), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst10020061 - 23 Jan 2020
Abstract
Nucleation and growth are of uttermost importance for crystallization since they determine the structure, shape, and properties of a crystal. It is therefore not surprising that these processes are already studied as long as crystallization is investigated. [...] Full article

Research

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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Quasi-Transient Calculation of Czochralski Growth of Ge Crystals Using the Software Elmer
Crystals 2020, 10(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst10010018 - 31 Dec 2019
Abstract
A numerical scheme was developed to compute the thermal and stress fields of the Czochralski process in a quasi-time dependent mode. The growth velocity was computed from the geometrical changes in melt and crystal due to pulling for every stage, for which the [...] Read more.
A numerical scheme was developed to compute the thermal and stress fields of the Czochralski process in a quasi-time dependent mode. The growth velocity was computed from the geometrical changes in melt and crystal due to pulling for every stage, for which the thermal and stress fields were computed by using the open source software Elmer. The method was applied to the Czochralski growth of Ge crystals by inductive heating. From a series of growth experiments, we chose one as a reference to check the validity of the scheme with respect to this Czochralski process. A good agreement both for the shapes of the melt/crystal interface at various time steps and the change in power consumption with process time was observed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Dislocation Reaction Mechanism for Enhanced Strain Hardening in Crystal Nano-Indentations
Crystals 2020, 10(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst10010009 - 23 Dec 2019
Abstract
Stress–strain calculations are presented for nano-indentations made in: (1) an ammonium perchlorate (AP), NH4ClO4, {210} crystal surface; (2) an α-iron (111) crystal surface; (3) a simulated test on an α-iron (100) crystal surface. In each case, the calculation of [...] Read more.
Stress–strain calculations are presented for nano-indentations made in: (1) an ammonium perchlorate (AP), NH4ClO4, {210} crystal surface; (2) an α-iron (111) crystal surface; (3) a simulated test on an α-iron (100) crystal surface. In each case, the calculation of an exceptionally-enhanced plastic strain hardening, beyond that coming from the significant effect of small dislocation separations in the indentation deformation zone, is attributed to the formation of dislocation reaction obstacles hindering further dislocation movement. For the AP crystal, the exceptionally-high dislocation reaction-based strain hardening, relative to the elastic shear modulus, leads to (001) cleavage cracking in nano-, micro- and macro-indentations. For α-iron, the reaction of (a/2) <111> dislocations to form a [010] Burgers vector dislocation obstacles at designated {110} slip system intersections accounts for a higher strain hardening in both experimental and simulated nano-indentation test results. The α-iron stress–strain calculations are compared, both for the elastic deformation and plastic strain hardening of nano-indented (100) versus (111) crystal surfaces and include important observations derived from internally-tracked (a/2) <010> Burgers vector dislocation structures obtained in simulation studies. Additional comparisons are made between the α-iron calculations and other related strength properties reported either for bulk, micro-pillar, or additional simulated nano-crystal or heavily-drawn polycrystalline wire materials. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A High-Pressure Investigation of the Synthetic Analogue of Chalcomenite, CuSeO3∙2H2O
Crystals 2019, 9(12), 643; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst9120643 - 05 Dec 2019
Abstract
Synthetic chalcomenite-type cupric selenite CuSeO3∙2H2O has been studied at room temperature under compression up to pressures of 8 GPa by means of single-crystal X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and density-functional theory. According to X-ray diffraction, the orthorhombic phase undergoes an [...] Read more.
Synthetic chalcomenite-type cupric selenite CuSeO3∙2H2O has been studied at room temperature under compression up to pressures of 8 GPa by means of single-crystal X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and density-functional theory. According to X-ray diffraction, the orthorhombic phase undergoes an isostructural phase transition at 4.0(5) GPa with the thermodynamic character being first-order. This conclusion is supported by Raman spectroscopy studies that have detected the phase transition at 4.5(2) GPa and by the first-principles computing simulations. The structure solution at different pressures has provided information on the change with pressure of unit–cell parameters as well as on the bond and polyhedral compressibility. A Birch–Murnaghan equation of state has been fitted to the unit–cell volume data. We found that chalcomenite is highly compressible with a bulk modulus of 42–49 GPa. The possible mechanism driving changes in the crystal structure is discussed, being the behavior of CuSeO3∙2H2O mainly dominated by the large compressibility of the coordination polyhedron of Cu. On top of that, an assignation of Raman modes is proposed based upon density-functional theory and the pressure dependence of Raman modes discussed. Finally, the pressure dependence of phonon frequencies experimentally determined is also reported. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Recent Advancements in Crystalline Pb-Free Halide Double Perovskites
Crystals 2020, 10(2), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst10020062 - 23 Jan 2020
Abstract
Lead halide perovskites have gained more and more attention because of their ease of synthesis and excellent photoelectric properties including a large absorption coefficient, long carrier lifetime, long carrier diffusion length, and high carrier mobility. However, their toxicity, instability, and phase degradation in [...] Read more.
Lead halide perovskites have gained more and more attention because of their ease of synthesis and excellent photoelectric properties including a large absorption coefficient, long carrier lifetime, long carrier diffusion length, and high carrier mobility. However, their toxicity, instability, and phase degradation in ambient environments impede their large-scale applications. To address these concerns, it is desirable to find stable alternative halide perovskites without toxicity and with comparable optoelectronic properties to lead-based perovskites. Over the years, a considerable number of lead-free halide perovskites have been added to this family of materials, including A2B'B''X6, A2BX6, and A3B2X9 type perovskites. Among these, double perovskites with the general formula A2B'B''X6 are deemed to be a potential alternative to lead halide perovskites as they possess good stability under ambient conditions and excellent optoelectronic properties. In this review, recent progress in exploring Pb-free halide double perovskites is highlighted. The synthesis, composition-tuning, physical properties, and applications of representative 3D, 2D, and nanocrystal A2B'B''X6 double perovskites are introduced. In addition, perspectives about current challenges and solutions in this field are also provided. Full article
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