Special Issue "Nanotechnologies in Cosmetics"

A special issue of Cosmetics (ISSN 2079-9284).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2015).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Lisa A. DeLouise
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Guest Editor
School of Medicine and Dentistry , University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
Prof. Dr. Pierfrancesco Morganti
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Guest Editor
Professor of Skin Pharmacology, Department of Dermatology, II University of Naples, Naples, Italy
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nanoscale materials exhibit unique optical, physiochemical and biological properties that are being increasingly exploited in the development of advanced skin care cosmetics. The miniaturization of carriers and active ingredients “by one atom or by one molecule” offer unique opportunities for scientific and technological progress in the medical and cosmetic sciences. For example, metal oxide nanoparticles have long been exploited for their ultra-violet radiation protective properties but in recent years many more types of metal, semiconductor, natural and synthetic polymer based nanoparticle systems, have been engineered into an ever increasing number of personal care product care products including deodorants, soaps, shampoos, hair conditioners, anti-wrinkle creams, moisturizers, foundations, lipsticks, and eye shadows. The cosmetic industry looks to nanoparticles and nanobiotechnology for improving skin hydration, ameliorating the delivery of active ingredients, and increasing comfort and aesthetic value of their products. Nanotechnology can be applied at all stages of cosmetic development; from formulation to applications providing intra cellular delivery possibilities and a controlled release guided by need. The increasing availability of nano-enabled cosmetic products to consumers in retails stores and on the internet has however, contributed to a growing concern for nanoparticle environmental health and safety (EH&S). Current challenges in this field involve understanding the issues related to toxicity and the environmental impact of nanoparticles and nano-materials to be used. This necessitates engineering systems for efficacious delivery of nanoparticle-based cosmetics and understanding their mechanisms of action, transformation, and potential toxic side-effects which are active and growing research areas. The requirements of biocompatibility and biostability in biological systems and in the environment present stringent and rigorous challenges that drive state-of-the-art research in the application of nanotechnology to the cosmetic and medical fields. It is unclear at this time whether the benefits of nanoparticles outweigh the potential risks associated with environmental release and exposure. This special issue is dedicated to highlighting the benefits of nano-enabled cosmetic products and provides a balanced view of potential health concerns.

Dr. Lisa A. DeLouise
Prof. Dr. Pierfrancesco Morganti
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Cosmetics is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • nanoparticles
  • nanobiotechnology
  • nanotoxicology
  • liposomes
  • solid lipid nanoparticles
  • hair follicles
  • skin barrier
  • transdermal delivery systems

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Impact of Cosmetic Lotions on Nanoparticle Penetration through ex Vivo C57BL/6 Hairless Mouse and Human Skin: A Comparison Study
Cosmetics 2016, 3(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics3010006 - 19 Feb 2016
Cited by 6
Abstract
Understanding the interactions of nanoparticles (NPs) with skin is important from a consumer and occupational health and safety perspective, as well as for the design of effective NP-based transdermal therapeutics. Despite intense efforts to elucidate the conditions that permit NP penetration, there remains [...] Read more.
Understanding the interactions of nanoparticles (NPs) with skin is important from a consumer and occupational health and safety perspective, as well as for the design of effective NP-based transdermal therapeutics. Despite intense efforts to elucidate the conditions that permit NP penetration, there remains a lack of translatable results from animal models to human skin. The objectives of this study are to investigate the impact of common skin lotions on NP penetration and to quantify penetration differences of quantum dot (QD) NPs between freshly excised human and mouse skin. QDs were mixed in seven different vehicles, including five commercial skin lotions. These were topically applied to skin using two exposure methods; a petri dish protocol and a Franz diffusion cell protocol. QD presence in the skin was quantified using Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy. Results show that the commercial vehicles can significantly impact QD penetration in both mouse and human skin. Lotions that contain alpha hydroxyl acids (AHA) facilitated NP penetration. Lower QD signal was observed in skin studied using a Franz cell. Freshly excised human skin was also studied immediately after the sub-cutaneous fat removal process, then after 24 h rest ex vivo. Resting human skin 24 h prior to QD exposure significantly reduced epidermal presence. This study exemplifies how application vehicles, skin processing and the exposure protocol can affect QD penetration results and the conclusions that maybe drawn between skin models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotechnologies in Cosmetics)
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Open AccessArticle
A Method for Quantification of Penetration of Nanoparticles through Skin Layers Using Near-Infrared Optical Imaging
Cosmetics 2015, 2(3), 225-235; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics2030225 - 23 Jul 2015
Cited by 3
Abstract
Our study presents a new method for tracking nanoparticle penetration through different layers of the skin using near-infrared dye-loaded nanoparticles (hydrodynamic diameter = 156 nm) and optical imaging. The dye-loaded nanoparticles were mixed in a topical skin cream, applied to human cadaver skin [...] Read more.
Our study presents a new method for tracking nanoparticle penetration through different layers of the skin using near-infrared dye-loaded nanoparticles (hydrodynamic diameter = 156 nm) and optical imaging. The dye-loaded nanoparticles were mixed in a topical skin cream, applied to human cadaver skin and incubated either for three or 24 h post-application, skin tissue was clipped between glass slides prior to imaging for signal intensity across the skin thickness using an optical imaging system. The data show that nanoparticles penetrate through all the layers of the skin but there is almost an exponential decay in the signal intensity from epidermis to dermis. Depending upon the incubation time, about 55%–59% of the total signal was seen in the epidermis and the remaining through dermis and hypodermis. The advantage of the method is that it allows quantitative analysis of the extent of penetration of nanoparticles through different layers of the skin without interference of any background signal from skin tissue, and without requiring extensive tissue processing. Our method could potentially be used to study the effect of nanoparticle properties and/or the use of different formulation additives on penetration of nanoparticles through different skin layers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotechnologies in Cosmetics)
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Review

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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Lipid Self-Assemblies and Nanostructured Emulsions for Cosmetic Formulations
Cosmetics 2016, 3(4), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics3040037 - 31 Oct 2016
Cited by 8
Abstract
A majority of cosmetic products that we encounter on daily basis contain lipid constituents in solubilized or insolubilized forms. Due to their amphiphilic nature, the lipid molecules spontaneously self-assemble into a remarkable range of nanostructures when mixed with water. This review illustrates the [...] Read more.
A majority of cosmetic products that we encounter on daily basis contain lipid constituents in solubilized or insolubilized forms. Due to their amphiphilic nature, the lipid molecules spontaneously self-assemble into a remarkable range of nanostructures when mixed with water. This review illustrates the formation and finely tunable properties of self-assembled lipid nanostructures and their hierarchically organized derivatives, as well as their relevance to the development of cosmetic formulations. These lipid systems can be modulated into various physical forms suitable for topical administration including fluids, gels, creams, pastes and dehydrated films. Moreover, they are capable of encapsulating hydrophilic, hydrophobic as well as amphiphilic active ingredients owing to their special morphological characters. Nano-hybrid materials with more elegant properties can be designed by combining nanostructured lipid systems with other nanomaterials including a hydrogelator, silica nanoparticles, clays and carbon nanomaterials. The smart materials reviewed here may well be the future of innovative cosmetic applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotechnologies in Cosmetics)
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Open AccessReview
The Interest in Nanomaterials for Topical Photoprotection
Cosmetics 2015, 2(4), 394-408; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics2040394 - 08 Dec 2015
Cited by 2
Abstract
Wearing clothes and using sun protection products are effective ways of preventing non-melanocytic skin cancer. Sun protection products are classified as cosmetics in Europe. The number of filters authorized by Regulation (EC) No 1223/2009 amended by Regulation (EU) No 344/2013 stands at a [...] Read more.
Wearing clothes and using sun protection products are effective ways of preventing non-melanocytic skin cancer. Sun protection products are classified as cosmetics in Europe. The number of filters authorized by Regulation (EC) No 1223/2009 amended by Regulation (EU) No 344/2013 stands at a total of 27 (26 organic filters and one inorganic filter-titanium dioxide). After the development of methods for determining the efficacy of sun protection products (both in vivo and in vitro), a certain number of authors took an interest in the parameters involved in the efficacy of this category of products. The nature of the filter, the concentration used and the influence of certain ingredients in the formula are all criteria to be taken into account. Concerning titanium dioxide, considerable progress has been made in order to increase its efficacy and to facilitate its implementation. The reduction of the size of the particles used has allowed the products to be more transparent (the pale clown’s mask of days passed is just a bad memory) and above all, to be more effective. The study of a large number of commercial forms of titanium dioxide enables to conclude that nanoparticular titanium dioxide is far superior to pigmentary titanium dioxide. An emulsion composed of 25% pigmentary titanium dioxide only enables Sun Protection Factor (SPF) 5 to be obtained. The same emulsion but with 25% coated nanoparticular titanium dioxide (Tayca MT-100TV) enables a Sun Protection Factor of around 40 to be reached. The reduction of the size of the filtering particles thus proves to be indispensable for the development of highly protective sun protection products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotechnologies in Cosmetics)
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Open AccessReview
Nanotechnology-Based Cosmetics for Hair Care
Cosmetics 2015, 2(3), 211-224; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics2030211 - 22 Jul 2015
Cited by 6
Abstract
Hair is a significant indicator of health and can have a major impact on an individual’s cosmetic appearance. Research within the cosmetics industry has revealed that when nanomaterials are engineered into hair care, they can enhance the benefits of active ingredients in order [...] Read more.
Hair is a significant indicator of health and can have a major impact on an individual’s cosmetic appearance. Research within the cosmetics industry has revealed that when nanomaterials are engineered into hair care, they can enhance the benefits of active ingredients in order to improve hair cosmesis. Within the cosmetics arena, the unique size and intrinsic properties of nanoparticles can be tailored to target the hair follicle and shaft. This review aims to provide an overview of cosmetic nanocarriers that can be employed to improve the appearance of hair. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotechnologies in Cosmetics)
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Open AccessReview
Non-Invasive Nanoparticle Imaging Technologies for Cosmetic and Skin Care Products
Cosmetics 2015, 2(3), 196-210; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics2030196 - 20 Jul 2015
Cited by 7
Abstract
The nanotechnology field is growing at an unprecedented rate. This is resulting in significant benefits in skin care products and formulations. Likewise, imaging technology is also advancing. The convergence of these fields offers a unique opportunity to observe and quantify the interactions of [...] Read more.
The nanotechnology field is growing at an unprecedented rate. This is resulting in significant benefits in skin care products and formulations. Likewise, imaging technology is also advancing. The convergence of these fields offers a unique opportunity to observe and quantify the interactions of nanoparticles within cosmetic and skin care formulations. More importantly, imaging technology holds tremendous promise for understanding how formulated nanoparticles interact with our skin. Imaging technologies can be broken into two major groups that include those that require invasive sample collection and processing (e.g., electron microscopy, mass spectrometry, and super-resolution structured illumination microscopy) and those that can be used in non-invasive data collection settings. Fluorescence microscopy, confocal microscopy, coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscopy and optical coherence tomography fall into the latter category and are the focus of this review in the context of skin care product and cosmetics testing. Cosmetic and skin care product testing is most informative when carried out in volunteers. This makes invasive or disruptive analysis techniques unfeasible and supports the use of non-invasive imaging technologies. The combination of non-invasive imaging and minimally invasive microbiopsy sampling for combined imaging and molecular data is the future of skin care product testing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotechnologies in Cosmetics)
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Open AccessReview
Nanotechnology, Inflammation and the Skin Barrier: Innovative Approaches for Skin Health and Cosmesis
Cosmetics 2015, 2(2), 177-186; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics2020177 - 03 Jun 2015
Cited by 5
Abstract
Dermatologic physiology and aesthetics are profoundly connected. Inflammatory stimuli abound in the environment, and have the potential to impact both the physiology and aesthetics of the integument. Inflammation results in a compromised epidermal barrier, impaired moisture retention, erythema, scale and pigment alteration. The [...] Read more.
Dermatologic physiology and aesthetics are profoundly connected. Inflammatory stimuli abound in the environment, and have the potential to impact both the physiology and aesthetics of the integument. Inflammation results in a compromised epidermal barrier, impaired moisture retention, erythema, scale and pigment alteration. The advent of nanotechnology has introduced a variety of new approaches to preserving skin cosmesis in the face of inflammation. In this article, we review the architecture and physiology of the epidermal barrier, describe the pathological and aesthetic effects of inflammation, and report recent advances in the development of nanomaterials to offset the aesthetic impact of inflammation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotechnologies in Cosmetics)
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Other

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Open AccessFeature PaperCase Report
Green Nanotechnology Serving the Bioeconomy: Natural Beauty Masks to Save the Environment
Cosmetics 2016, 3(4), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics3040041 - 05 Dec 2016
Cited by 8
Abstract
According to United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), ensuring a clean and healthy environment will provide multiple benefits to society and economy. Sustainable production, followed by appropriate management of industrial and agricultural waste, will protect and enhance biodiversity and ecosystem services. To achieve this [...] Read more.
According to United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), ensuring a clean and healthy environment will provide multiple benefits to society and economy. Sustainable production, followed by appropriate management of industrial and agricultural waste, will protect and enhance biodiversity and ecosystem services. To achieve this objective, specific policies must be put in place and specific actions performed for making a low-carbon and resource-efficient economy with reduced production of petrol-derived goods. The aim of the study has been to produce effective and safe anti-age beauty masks made of non-woven tissues based on the use of chitin nanofibril (CN) and nanolignin (LG), obtained from crustaceans and plant biomass, respectively. To this purpose, nanoparticles and electrospun fibres have been characterized by Dynamic Light Scattering and SEM, while the safeness and effectiveness of the obtained tissues was verified in vitro on a culture of keratinocytes and fibroblasts, and controlled in vivo by expert dermatologists on 30 volunteer photo-aged women, by subjective and objective bioengineered methods. The in vitro results have shown that the beauty masks have no toxic effects on the viability of keratinocytes and fibroblasts treated by the Dimethyl Tetrazole (MTT) method, and exhibit a decreased expression of cytokines, playing a central role in the regulation of immune and inflammatory responses in premature aging and environmental assaults. The reparative and antiaging effectiveness of these innovative beauty masks have been also verified on the release of Metallo Proteinase I (MMP-1) and the increased synthesis of collagen type I, reduced in skin aging. The first preliminary in vivo results, obtained by engineering methods, have confirmed the protective and rejuvenating activity shown by the in vitro study conducted on 30 voluntary women exhibiting signs of photoaging. The raw materials used are of natural origin being also respectful of the environment, according to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (EOCD) and EU programmes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotechnologies in Cosmetics)
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